REGISTER INFORMATION PAGE
Vol. 31 Iss. 26 - August 24, 2015

The Virginia Register OF REGULATIONS is an official state publication issued every other week throughout the year. Indexes are published quarterly, and are cumulative for the year. The Virginia Register has several functions. The new and amended sections of regulations, both as proposed and as finally adopted, are required by law to be published in the Virginia Register. In addition, the Virginia Register is a source of other information about state government, including petitions for rulemaking, emergency regulations, executive orders issued by the Governor, and notices of public hearings on regulations.

ADOPTION, AMENDMENT, AND REPEAL OF REGULATIONS

An agency wishing to adopt, amend, or repeal regulations must first publish in the Virginia Register a notice of intended regulatory action; a basis, purpose, substance and issues statement; an economic impact analysis prepared by the Department of Planning and Budget; the agency’s response to the economic impact analysis; a summary; a notice giving the public an opportunity to comment on the proposal; and the text of the proposed regulation.

Following publication of the proposal in the Virginia Register, the promulgating agency receives public comments for a minimum of 60 days. The Governor reviews the proposed regulation to determine if it is necessary to protect the public health, safety and welfare, and if it is clearly written and easily understandable. If the Governor chooses to comment on the proposed regulation, his comments must be transmitted to the agency and the Registrar no later than 15 days following the completion of the 60-day public comment period. The Governor’s comments, if any, will be published in the Virginia Register. Not less than 15 days following the completion of the 60-day public comment period, the agency may adopt the proposed regulation.

The Joint Commission on Administrative Rules (JCAR) or the appropriate standing committee of each house of the General Assembly may meet during the promulgation or final adoption process and file an objection with the Registrar and the promulgating agency. The objection will be published in the Virginia Register. Within 21 days after receipt by the agency of a legislative objection, the agency shall file a response with the Registrar, the objecting legislative body, and the Governor.

When final action is taken, the agency again publishes the text of the regulation as adopted, highlighting all changes made to the proposed regulation and explaining any substantial changes made since publication of the proposal. A 30-day final adoption period begins upon final publication in the Virginia Register.

The Governor may review the final regulation during this time and, if he objects, forward his objection to the Registrar and the agency. In addition to or in lieu of filing a formal objection, the Governor may suspend the effective date of a portion or all of a regulation until the end of the next regular General Assembly session by issuing a directive signed by a majority of the members of the appropriate legislative body and the Governor. The Governor’s objection or suspension of the regulation, or both, will be published in the Virginia Register. If the Governor finds that changes made to the proposed regulation have substantial impact, he may require the agency to provide an additional 30-day public comment period on the changes. Notice of the additional public comment period required by the Governor will be published in the Virginia Register.

The agency shall suspend the regulatory process for 30 days when it receives requests from 25 or more individuals to solicit additional public comment, unless the agency determines that the changes have minor or inconsequential impact.

A regulation becomes effective at the conclusion of the 30-day final adoption period, or at any other later date specified by the promulgating agency, unless (i) a legislative objection has been filed, in which event the regulation, unless withdrawn, becomes effective on the date specified, which shall be after the expiration of the 21-day objection period; (ii) the Governor exercises his authority to require the agency to provide for additional public comment, in which event the regulation, unless withdrawn, becomes effective on the date specified, which shall be after the expiration of the period for which the Governor has provided for additional public comment; (iii) the Governor and the General Assembly exercise their authority to suspend the effective date of a regulation until the end of the next regular legislative session; or (iv) the agency suspends the regulatory process, in which event the regulation, unless withdrawn, becomes effective on the date specified, which shall be after the expiration of the 30-day public comment period and no earlier than 15 days from publication of the readopted action.

A regulatory action may be withdrawn by the promulgating agency at any time before the regulation becomes final.

FAST-TRACK RULEMAKING PROCESS

Section 2.2-4012.1 of the Code of Virginia provides an exemption from certain provisions of the Administrative Process Act for agency regulations deemed by the Governor to be noncontroversial.  To use this process, Governor's concurrence is required and advance notice must be provided to certain legislative committees.  Fast-track regulations will become effective on the date noted in the regulatory action if no objections to using the process are filed in accordance with § 2.2-4012.1.

EMERGENCY REGULATIONS

Pursuant to § 2.2-4011 of the Code of Virginia, an agency, upon consultation with the Attorney General, and at the discretion of the Governor, may adopt emergency regulations that are necessitated by an emergency situation. An agency may also adopt an emergency regulation when Virginia statutory law or the appropriation act or federal law or federal regulation requires that a regulation be effective in 280 days or less from its enactment. The emergency regulation becomes operative upon its adoption and filing with the Registrar of Regulations, unless a later date is specified. Emergency regulations are limited to no more than 18 months in duration; however, may be extended for six months under certain circumstances as provided for in § 2.2-4011 D. Emergency regulations are published as soon as possible in the Register.

During the time the emergency status is in effect, the agency may proceed with the adoption of permanent regulations through the usual procedures. To begin promulgating the replacement regulation, the agency must (i) file the Notice of Intended Regulatory Action with the Registrar within 60 days of the effective date of the emergency regulation and (ii) file the proposed regulation with the Registrar within 180 days of the effective date of the emergency regulation. If the agency chooses not to adopt the regulations, the emergency status ends when the prescribed time limit expires.

STATEMENT

The foregoing constitutes a generalized statement of the procedures to be followed. For specific statutory language, it is suggested that Article 2 (§ 2.2-4006 et seq.) of Chapter 40 of Title 2.2 of the Code of Virginia be examined carefully.

CITATION TO THE VIRGINIA REGISTER

The Virginia Register is cited by volume, issue, page number, and date. 29:5 VA.R. 1075-1192 November 5, 2012, refers to Volume 29, Issue 5, pages 1075 through 1192 of the Virginia Register issued on
November 5, 2012.

The Virginia Register of Regulations is published pursuant to Article 6 (§ 2.2-4031 et seq.) of Chapter 40 of Title 2.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Members of the Virginia Code Commission: John S. Edwards, Chair; James M. LeMunyon, Vice Chair, Gregory D. Habeeb; Ryan T. McDougle; Pamela S. Baskervill; Robert L. Calhoun; Carlos L. Hopkins; E.M. Miller, Jr.; Thomas M. Moncure, Jr.; Christopher R. Nolen; Timothy Oksman; Charles S. Sharp; Robert L. Tavenner.

Staff of the Virginia Register: Jane D. Chaffin, Registrar of Regulations; Karen Perrine, Assistant Registrar; Anne Bloomsburg, Regulations Analyst; Rhonda Dyer, Publications Assistant; Terri Edwards, Operations Staff Assistant.


PUBLICATION SCHEDULE AND DEADLINES
Vol. 31 Iss. 26 - August 24, 2015

August 2015 through August 2016

Volume: Issue

Material Submitted By Noon*

Will Be Published On

31:26

August 5, 2015

August 24, 2015

32:1

August 19, 2015

September 7, 2015

32:2

September 2, 2015

September 21, 2015

32:3

September 16, 2015

October 5, 2015

32:4

September 30, 2015

October 19, 2015

32:5

October 14, 2015

November 2, 2015

32:6

October 28, 2015

November 16, 2015

32:7

November 10, 2015 (Tuesday)

November 30, 2015

32:8

November 24, 2015 (Tuesday)

December 14, 2015

32:9

December 9, 2015

December 28, 2015

32:10

December 21, 2015 (Monday)

January 11, 2016

32:11

January 6, 2016

January 25, 2016

32:12

January 20, 2016

February 8, 2016

32:13

February 3, 2016

February 22, 2016

32:14

February 17, 2016

March 7, 2016

32:15

March 2, 2016

March 21, 2016

32:16

March 16, 2016

April 4, 2016

32:17

March 30, 2016

April 18, 2016

32:18

April 13, 2016

May 2, 2016

32:19

April 27, 2016

May 16, 2016

32:20

May 11, 2016

May 30, 2016

32:21

May 25, 2016

June 13, 2016

32:22

June 8, 2016

June 27, 2016

32:23

June 22, 2016

July 11, 2016

32:24

July 6, 2016

July 25, 2016

32:25

July 20, 2016

August 8, 2016

32:26

August 3, 2016

August 22, 2016

*Filing deadlines are Wednesdays unless otherwise specified.


PETITIONS FOR RULEMAKING
Vol. 31 Iss. 26 - August 24, 2015

TITLE 18. PROFESSIONAL AND OCCUPATIONAL LICENSING

BOARD OF MEDICINE

Initial Agency Notice

Title of Regulation: 18VAC85-110. Regulations Governing the Practice of Licensed Acupuncturists.

Statutory Authority: § 54.1-2400 of the Code of Virginia.

Name of Petitioner: Dr. Arthur Yin Fan.

Nature of Petitioner's Request:

1. Add word "herbs" after "food supplements."

2. Add "basic examination prescription right" to acupuncture practice scope:

"Basic examination prescription right" includes: X-ray, ultrasound, MRI, etc. image tests; Blood routine test (CBC, complete blood count), Urine routine test (Urine analysis), Stool routine test (Stool analysis), Blood Liver panel, Blood Kidney panel, etc. bio-chem tests.

3. Require only a "recommendation" for diagnostic examination.

Prior to performing acupuncture, a licensed acupuncturist shall recommend patient to obtain written documentation that the patient has received a diagnostic examination within the past six months by a licensed doctor of medicine, osteopathy, chiropractic, or podiatry acting within the scope of his practice or shall provide to the patient a written recommendation for such a diagnostic examination on a form specified by the board and signed by the patient. The original of the signed form shall be maintained in the patient's chart and a copy provided to the patient. In case patient declines, the licensed acupuncturist shall let patient sign the consent form, check the reason of decline, and perform the basic examinations, includes in basic bio-chem lab tests and image test.

Agency Plan for Disposition of Request: In accordance with Virginia law, the petition has been filed with the Register of Regulations and will be published on August 24, 2015, and posted on the Virginia Regulatory Townhall at www.townhall.virginia.gov. Comment on the petition will be requested until September 18, 2015, and may be posted on the Townhall or sent to the board. Following receipt of all comments on the petition to amend regulations, the matter will be considered by the Advisory Board on Acupuncture which will decide whether to recommend any changes to the regulatory language. This matter will be on the advisory board's agenda for its meeting on October 7, 2015, and on the full board's agenda on October 22, 2015.

Public Comment Deadline: September 18, 2015.

Agency Contact: Elaine J. Yeatts, Department of Health Professions, 9960 Mayland Drive, Richmond, VA 23233, telephone (804) 367-4688, or email elaine.yeatts@dhp.virginia.gov.

VA.R. Doc. No. R15-38; Filed July 28, 2015, 16:19 p.m.


NOTICES OF INTENDED REGULATORY ACTION
Vol. 31 Iss. 26 - August 24, 2015

REGULATIONS
Vol. 31 Iss. 26 - August 24, 2015

TITLE 4. CONSERVATION AND NATURAL RESOURCES
BOARD OF GAME AND INLAND FISHERIES
Withdrawal of Proposed Regulation

Title of Regulation: 4VAC15-90. Game: Deer (amending 4VAC15-90-85).

Statutory Authority: §§ 29.1-501 and 29.1-502 of the Code of Virginia.

The Board of Game and Inland Fisheries has WITHDRAWN the proposed amendments to 4VAC15-90-85, published in 26:2 VA.R. 131 September 28, 2009. The proposed amendments designate the term "elk" specifically as "Rocky Mountain elk" (Cervus elaphus) and prohibit the hunting of Rocky Mountain elk in Virginia. On October 22, 2009, the board considered this proposal for adoption as a final amendment and did not adopt it.

Agency Contact: Phil Smith, Regulatory Coordinator, Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, 7870 Villa Park Drive, Suite 400, Henrico, VA 23228, telephone (804) 367-8341, or email phil.smith@dgif.virginia.gov.

VA.R. Doc. No. R10-2138; Filed July 30, 2015, 7:26 a.m.
TITLE 4. CONSERVATION AND NATURAL RESOURCES
BOARD OF GAME AND INLAND FISHERIES
Withdrawal of Proposed Regulation

Title of Regulation: 4VAC15-90. Game: Deer (amending 4VAC15-90-85).

Statutory Authority: §§ 29.1-501 and 29.1-502 of the Code of Virginia.

The Board of Game and Inland Fisheries has WITHDRAWN the proposed amendments to 4VAC15-90-85, published in 27:2 VA.R. 160 September 27, 2010. The proposed amendments designate the term "elk" specifically as "Rocky Mountain elk" (Cervus elaphus) and prohibit the hunting of Rocky Mountain elk in Virginia. On October 5, 2010, the board considered this proposal for adoption as a final amendment and did not adopt it.

Agency Contact: Phil Smith, Regulatory Coordinator, Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, 7870 Villa Park Drive, Suite 400, Henrico, VA 23228, telephone (804) 367-8341, or email phil.smith@dgif.virginia.gov.

VA.R. Doc. No. R11-2596; Filed July 30, 2015, 7:26 a.m.
TITLE 4. CONSERVATION AND NATURAL RESOURCES
BOARD OF GAME AND INLAND FISHERIES
Withdrawal of Proposed Regulation

 

Withdrawal of Proposed Regulation

Title of Regulation: 4VAC15-260. Game: Waterfowl and Waterfowl Blinds (amending 4VAC15-260-10).

Statutory Authority: § 29.1-501 of the Code of Virginia.

The Board of Game and Inland Fisheries has WITHDRAWN the proposed amendments to 4VAC15-260-10, published in 31:20 VA.R. 1648-1649 June 1, 2015. The proposed amendments require stationary waterfowl blinds located in the public waters to be marked with reflective material. On June 2, 2015, the board considered this proposal for adoption as a final amendment and did not adopt it.

Agency Contact: Phil Smith, Regulatory Coordinator, Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, 7870 Villa Park Drive, Suite 400, Henrico, VA 23228, telephone (804) 367-8341, or email phil.smith@dgif.virginia.gov.

VA.R. Doc. No. R15-4405; Filed July 30, 2015, 7:26 a.m.
TITLE 6. CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND CORRECTIONS
FORENSIC SCIENCE BOARD
Final Regulation

REGISTRAR'S NOTICE: The Forensic Science Board is claiming an exemption from Article 2 of the Administrative Process Act in accordance with § 2.2-4006 A 4 a of the Code of Virginia, which excludes regulations that are necessary to conform to changes in Virginia statutory law where no agency discretion is involved. The Forensic Science Board will receive, consider, and respond to petitions from any interested person at any time with respect to reconsideration or revision.

Title of Regulation: 6VAC40-60. DNA Data Bank Regulations (amending 6VAC40-60-50).

Statutory Authority: §§ 9.1-1110 and 19.2-310.5 of the Code of Virginia.

Effective Date: September 23, 2015.

Agency Contact: Amy M. Curtis, Department Counsel, Department of Forensic Science, 700 North 5th Street, Richmond, VA 23219, telephone (804) 786-6848, FAX (804) 786-6857, or email amy.curtis@dfs.virginia.gov.

Summary:

The amendment conforms to Chapter 193 of the 2015 Acts of Assembly by adding the Department of State Police as an agency that may be provided information from the DNA data bank by secure electronic exchange of data.

6VAC40-60-50. Provision of DNA data bank information to the Virginia Department of Corrections, the Department of State Police, and the Department of Juvenile Justice.

Any information from the DNA data bank provided to a duly authorized representative of the Department of Corrections or the Department of State Police pursuant to § 19.2-310.2 of the Code of Virginia or to the Department of Juvenile Justice pursuant to § 16.1-299.1 of the Code of Virginia shall be by a secure electronic exchange of data.

VA.R. Doc. No. R15-4451; Filed August 3, 2015, 12:14 p.m.
TITLE 8. EDUCATION
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION
Fast-Track Regulation

Title of Regulation: 8VAC20-131. Regulations Establishing Standards for Accrediting Public Schools in Virginia (amending 8VAC20-131-5, 8VAC20-131-10, 8VAC20-131-30, 8VAC20-131-50, 8VAC20-131-60, 8VAC20-131-110, 8VAC20-131-260, 8VAC20-131-270, 8VAC20-131-280, 8VAC20-131-300, 8VAC20-131-310, 8VAC20-131-315, 8VAC20-131-360).

Statutory Authority: §§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-253.13:3 of the Code of Virginia.

Public Hearing Information: No public hearings are scheduled.

Public Comment Deadline: September 23, 2015.

Effective Date: October 8, 2015.

Agency Contact: Dr. Cynthia Cave, Assistant Superintendent, Policy and Communications, Department of Education, P.O. Box 2120, Richmond, VA 23218-2120, telephone (804) 225-2403, FAX (804) 225-2524, or email cynthia.cave@doe.virginia.gov.

Basis: Section 22.1-253.13:3 of the Code of Virginia authorizes the Board of Education to promulgate regulations governing standards for accrediting public schools. The Board of Education's overall regulatory authority is found in § 22.1-16 of the Code of Virginia, which provides that the board may promulgate such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the board's powers and duties and the provisions of Title 22.1 of the Code of Virginia.

Purpose: Amendments are needed to comport with legislative changes made by the following acts of assembly:

• Chapter 570 of the 1999 Acts of Assembly

• Chapters 83, 172, 787, and 833 of the 2012 Acts of Assembly

• Chapters 498, 530, 609, and 710 of the 2013 Acts of Assembly

• Chapter 84 of the 2014 Acts of Assembly

• Chapters 144, 148, 150, 324, 329, 369, 563, 564, 565, 591, 701, 702, and 705 of the 2015 Acts of Assembly.

Within the proposed changes to the regulations are provisions that have a direct impact on the safety and health of students and the community, including:

1. The development by local school boards of policies for the possession and administration of epinephrine in every school;

2. School personnel training for the administration of insulin and glucagon in school buildings;

3. Student training in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators to be awarded a Standard or an Advanced Studies Diploma;

4. The establishment of threat assessment teams within schools; and

5. Conduct of lockdown drills by schools.

Other proposed amendments to the regulations address academic expectations for students and school accountability measures, and support standards for educational preparation of students, which are measured and provided to the public.

Rationale for Using Fast-Track Process: The fast-track rulemaking process is for regulations expected to be noncontroversial. This revision is noncontroversial because its only purpose is to address legislation that was adopted during the 2012 through 2015 sessions of the General Assembly, and one bill adopted during the 1999 General Assembly session. In addition, time is of the essence in promulgating these regulations because a number of the legislative changes that are addressed impact school safety, provide additional flexibility to school divisions or specify dates by which certain provisions must be implemented or in place.

Substance: The following list describes the changes required by legislation adopted during the 1999, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015 General Assembly sessions.

• Chapter 570 of the 1999 Acts of Assembly requires school boards to ensure that at least two employees have been trained in the administration of insulin and glucagon in school buildings with an instructional and administrative staff of 10 or more, if one or more students diagnosed as having diabetes attend the school. When there are fewer than 10 such staff members, school boards shall ensure that at least one employee has been trained if one or more students with diabetes attend the school.

• Chapters 83 and 172 of the 2012 Acts of Assembly add three points to the Graduation and Completion Index for each student who earns a diploma and a Career and Technical Education credential.

• Chapters 787 and 833 of the 2012 Acts of Assembly require local school boards to adopt and implement policies for the possession and administration of epinephrine in every school.

• Chapters 498 and 530 of the 2013 Acts of Assembly require students, beginning with the ninth-grade class of 2016-2017, to be trained in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators to be awarded a Standard or an Advanced Studies Diploma.

• Chapter 710 of the 2013 Acts of Assembly requires each school to have a school threat assessment team. The threat assessment teams shall provide guidance to students, faculty, and staff regarding recognition of threatening or aberrant behavior that may represent a threat to the community.

• Chapter 609 of the 2013 Acts of Assembly requires at least two lockdown drills every year--one in September and one in January.

• Chapter 84 of the 2014 Acts of Assembly replaces references throughout the Code of Virginia to a General Educational Development program or test with "a high school equivalency examination approved by the Board of Education" or "a high school equivalency preparation program."

• Chapter 329 of the 2015 Acts of Assembly eliminates the term "Special Diploma" and replaces it with the term "Applied Studies Diploma."

• Chapter 563 of the 2015 Acts of Assembly requires the Virginia Department of Education, for the purposes of the School Performance Report Card, to include, as part of instructional costs, each school division's expenditures on the hardware necessary to support electronic textbooks.

• Chapters 564 and 565 of the 2015 Acts of Assembly direct the board to establish criteria for awarding a diploma seal of biliteracy and require the board to establish criteria for awarding it in time for any student graduating from a public high school in the Commonwealth in 2016 to be awarded such a diploma seal.

• Chapters 144 and 148 of the 2015 Acts of Assembly require the board to promulgate regulations to provide the same criteria for eligibility for an expedited retake of any Standards of Learning (SOL) test, with the exception of the writing SOL tests, to each student regardless of grade level or course.

• Chapters 701 and 702 of the 2015 Acts of Assembly permit local school divisions to waive the requirement for students to receive 140 clock hours of instruction to earn a standard unit of credit upon providing the board with satisfactory proof, based on board guidelines, that the students for whom such requirements are waived have learned the content and skills included in the relevant SOL.

• Chapters 150 and 324 of the 2015 Acts of Assembly require the board to amend the Standards of Accreditation by the 2016-2017 school year to establish additional accreditation ratings that recognize the progress of schools and student growth.

• Chapter 591 of the 2015 Acts of Assembly creates an alternative, under certain circumstances, to the current requirement that, in order to receive a standard diploma, a student must earn a Career and Technical Education credential.

• Chapter 705 of the 2015 Acts of Assembly requires the board, for the purposes of the Standards of Accreditation, to use a graduation rate that excludes any student who fails to graduate because he or she is in the custody of the Department of Corrections, the Department of Juvenile Justice, or local law enforcement. This legislation becomes effective on July 1, 2016.

Issues: The primary advantage of the amendments to the Standards of Accreditation further support accountability for all public schools, student health and safety while attending school, and public information about school performance. There are no disadvantages to the public, the agency, or the Commonwealth. These revisions are required by changes in the Code of Virginia adopted by the Virginia General Assembly.

Department of Planning and Budget's Economic Impact Analysis:

Summary of the Proposed Amendments to Regulation. The Board of Education (Board) proposes numerous amendments to reflect 1999, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015 state legislation. The proposed amendments essentially repeat Code of Virginia language from the legislation in the regulation. In three instances the statutes instruct the Board to set criteria, and the Board's proposed regulatory language state that criteria will be set by the Board, but do not propose specific criteria in the regulation.1

Result of Analysis. The benefits likely exceed the costs.

Estimated Economic Impact. Essentially none of the proposed amendments add detail to requirements and rules beyond that which is explicitly stated in statute. Adding this language to the regulation is potentially beneficial in that it may be easier for the public to find, but it has no other impact.

The legislative mandate2 that beginning with first-time ninth-grade students in the 2016-2017 school year that in order to be awarded a Standard or Advanced Studies Diploma students shall be trained in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators, including hands-on practice of the skills necessary to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation, introduces significant benefits and costs. Having all (or nearly all) people publically educated in the Commonwealth trained in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators will increase the likelihood that someone with potentially lifesaving skills will be on hand in times of emergency. To the extent that the high school students absorb and retain the knowledge they gain in this training, the long-run benefits may be quite large.

For onsite training in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators, the American Red Cross charges $250 plus $72 per student if there are at least 20 students.3 So for a high school with 100 freshmen, the annual cost in fees would be $7,450.4 For a high school with 50 freshmen the fees would total $3,850.5 The 2014/2015 statewide public school enrollment of ninth-grade students was 105,324.6 There are 312 public high schools.7 Thus, not counting the value of time, the annual statewide cost for this requirement is approximately $7.7 million.8

If done all in person, the Red Cross training would take 5.5 hours. Alternatively, the students could do 2 hours of online training ahead of time. In that case the in-person training would last 1.5 hours.9 The fees would be the same in either case, but the amount of instructional time that potentially could have been used for other subjects differs.

Businesses and Entities Affected. The proposed amendments affect the 132 local school divisions in the Commonwealth.

Localities Particularly Affected. The proposed amendments do not disproportionately affect particular localities.

Projected Impact on Employment. The proposed amendments will not affect employment.

Effects on the Use and Value of Private Property. The proposed amendments will not affect the use and value of private property.

Real Estate Development Costs. The proposed amendments will not affect real estate development costs.

Small Businesses: Definition. Pursuant to § 2.2-4007.04 of the Code of Virginia, small business is defined as "a business entity, including its affiliates, that (i) is independently owned and operated and (ii) employs fewer than 500 full-time employees or has gross annual sales of less than $6 million."

Costs and Other Effects. The proposed amendments will not affect small businesses.

Alternative Method that Minimizes Adverse Impact. The proposed amendments will not adversely affect small businesses.

Adverse Impacts:

Businesses: The proposed amendments will not adversely affect businesses.

Localities: The proposed amendments will not adversely affect localities.

Other Entities: The proposed amendments will not adversely affect other entities.

Legal Mandates.

General: The Department of Planning and Budget has analyzed the economic impact of this proposed regulation in accordance with § 2.2-4007.04 of the Code of Virginia (Code) and Executive Order Number 17 (2014). Code § 2.2-4007.04 requires that such economic impact analyses determine the public benefits and costs of the proposed amendments. Further the report should include but not be limited to: (1) the projected number of businesses or other entities to whom the proposed regulatory action would apply, (2) the identity of any localities and types of businesses or other entities particularly affected, (3) the projected number of persons and employment positions to be affected, (4) the projected costs to affected businesses or entities to implement or comply with the regulation, and (5) the impact on the use and value of private property.

Adverse impacts: Pursuant to Code § 2.2-4007.04(C): In the event this economic impact analysis reveals that the proposed regulation would have an adverse economic impact on businesses or would impose a significant adverse economic impact on a locality, business, or entity particularly affected, the Department of Planning and Budget shall advise the Joint Commission on Administrative Rules, the House Committee on Appropriations, and the Senate Committee on Finance within the 45-day period.

If the proposed regulatory action may have an adverse effect on small businesses, Code § 2.2-4007.04 requires that such economic impact analyses include: (1) an identification and estimate of the number of small businesses subject to the proposed regulation, (2) the projected reporting, recordkeeping, and other administrative costs required for small businesses to comply with the proposed regulation, including the type of professional skills necessary for preparing required reports and other documents, (3) a statement of the probable effect of the proposed regulation on affected small businesses, and (4) a description of any less intrusive or less costly alternative methods of achieving the purpose of the proposed regulation. Additionally, pursuant to Code § 2.2-4007.1, if there is a finding that a proposed regulation may have an adverse impact on small business, the Joint Commission on Administrative Rules shall be notified.

_________________________________________________

1 Chapters 144 and 148, 150 and 324, and 564 and 565 of the 2015 Virginia Acts of Assembly

2 Chapters 498 and 530 of the 2013 Virginia Acts of Assembly

3 These figures are based on an Internet search and phone conversation with the American Red Cross.

4 $250 + (100 x $72) = $7,450

5 $250 + (50 x $72) = $3,850

6 Data Source: Virginia Department of Education website: http://www.doe.virginia.gov/statistics_reports/enrollment/fall_membership/index.shtml

7 Ibid

8 (312 x $250) + (105,324 x $72) = $7,661,328

9 Source: American Red Cross

Agency's Response to Economic Impact Analysis: The agency concurs with the economic impact analysis completed by the Department of Planning and Budget. The agency will continue to examine the economic and administrative impact of the regulations as they progress through the regulatory process.

Summary:

This regulatory action addresses legislation that was enacted by the General Assembly during the 1999, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015 sessions. The amendments:

1. Require the addition of three points to the graduation and completion index for each student who earns a diploma and a career and technical education credential;

2. Require local school boards to adopt and implement policies for the possession and administration of epinephrine in every school;

3. Require school boards to ensure that at least two employees have been trained in the administration of insulin and glucagon in school buildings with an instructional and administrative staff of 10 or more or at least one employee has received such training when there are fewer than 10 such staff members, if one or more students diagnosed as having diabetes attend the school;

4. Require students, beginning with the ninth-grade class of 2016-2017, to be trained in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators to be awarded a Standard or an Advanced Studies Diploma;

5. Require each school to have a school threat assessment team;

6. Require at least two lockdown drills every year, one in September and one in January;

7. Replace references to a General Educational Development (GED) program or test with "a high school equivalency examination approved by the Board of Education" or a "high school equivalency preparation program";

8. Replace the term "Special Diploma" with "Applied Studies Diploma";

9. Establish criteria for awarding a diploma seal of biliteracy for any eligible student graduating from a public high school in the Commonwealth beginning in 2016;

10. Provide for an expedited retake of any Standards of Learning (SOL) test, with the exception of the writing SOL tests, to each student regardless of grade level or course;

11. Permit local school divisions to waive the requirement for students to receive 140 clock hours of instruction to earn a standard unit of credit upon providing the board with satisfactory proof that the students for whom such requirements are waived have learned the content and skills included in the relevant SOL;

12. Establish additional accreditation ratings that recognize the progress of schools and student growth to be effective no later than academic year 2016-2017;

13. Create an alternative, under certain circumstances, to the current requirement that in order to receive a standard diploma, a student must earn a career and technical education credential; and

14. Require the board, for the purposes of the Standards of Accreditation, to use a graduation rate that excludes any student who fails to graduate because he or she is in the custody of the Department of Corrections, the Department of Juvenile Justice, or local law enforcement.

Part I
Definitions and Purpose

8VAC20-131-5. Definitions.

The following words and terms apply only to these regulations and do not supersede those definitions used for federal reporting purposes or for the calculation of costs related to the Standards of Quality (§ 22.1-253.13:1 et seq. of the Code of Virginia). When used in these regulations, these words shall have the following meanings, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Accreditation" means a process used by the Virginia Department of Education (hereinafter "department") to evaluate the educational performance of public schools in accordance with these regulations.

"Additional test" means a test, including substitute tests approved by the Board of Education that students may use in lieu of a Standards of Learning test to obtain verified credit.

"Class period" means a segment of time in the school day that is approximately 1/6 of the instructional day.

"Combined school" means a public school that contains any combination of or all of the grade levels from kindergarten through grade 12. This definition does not include those schools defined as elementary, middle, or secondary schools.

"Credit accommodations" means adjustments to meet the standard and verified credit requirements for earning a Standard Diploma for students with disabilities.

"Elementary school" means a public school with any grades kindergarten through five.

"Eligible students" means the total number of students of school age enrolled in the school at a grade or course for which a Standards of Learning test is required unless excluded under the provisions of 8VAC20-131-30 G and 8VAC20-131-280 D relative to limited English proficient (LEP) students.

"Enrollment" means the act of complying with state and local requirements relative to the registration or admission of a child for attendance in a school within a local school division. This term also means registration for courses within the student's home school or within related schools or programs.

"First time" means the student has not been enrolled in the school at any time during the current school year (for purposes of 8VAC20-131-60 with reference to students who transfer in during the school year).

"Four core areas" or "four core academic areas" means English, mathematics, science, and history and social science for purposes of testing for the Standards of Learning.

"Graduate" means a student who has earned a Board of Education recognized diploma, which includes the Advanced Studies Diploma, the Standard Diploma, and the Special Diploma Applied Studies Diploma.

"Homebound instruction" means academic instruction provided to students who are confined at home or in a health care facility for periods that would prevent normal school attendance based upon certification of need by a licensed physician or a licensed clinical psychologist.

"Locally awarded verified credit" means a verified unit of credit awarded by a local school board in accordance with 8VAC20-131-110.

"Middle school" means a public school with any grades 6 through 8.

"Planning period" means one class period per day or the equivalent unencumbered of any teaching or supervisory duties.

"Recess" means a segment of free time exclusive of time provided for meals during the standard school day in which students are given a break from instruction.

"Reconstitution" means a process that may be used to initiate a range of accountability actions to improve pupil performance, curriculum, and instruction to address deficiencies that caused a school to be rated Accreditation Denied that may include, but not be limited to, restructuring a school's governance, instructional program, staff or student population.

"School" means a publicly funded institution where students are enrolled for all or a majority of the instructional day and:

1. Those students are reported in fall membership at the institution; and

2. At a minimum, the institution meets the preaccreditation eligibility requirements of these regulations as adopted by the Board of Education.

"Secondary school" means a public school with any grades 9 through 12.

"Standard school day" means a calendar day that averages at least five and one-half instructional hours for students in grades 1 through 12, excluding breaks for meals and recess, and a minimum of three instructional hours for students in kindergarten.

"Standard school year" means a school year of at least 180 teaching days or a total of at least 990 teaching hours per year.

"Standard unit of credit" or "standard credit" means credit awarded for a course in which the student successfully completes 140 clock hours of instruction and the requirements of the course. Local school boards may develop alternatives to the requirement for 140 clock hours of instruction as provided for in 8VAC20-131-110.

"Standards of Learning tests" or "SOL tests" means those criterion referenced assessments approved by the Board of Education for use in the Virginia assessment program that measure attainment of knowledge and skills required by the Standards of Learning.

"Student" means a person of school age as defined by § 22.1-1 of the Code of Virginia, a child with disabilities as defined in § 22.1-213 of the Code of Virginia, and a person with limited English proficiency in accordance with § 22.1-5 of the Code of Virginia.

"Student periods" means the number of students a teacher instructs per class period multiplied by the number of class periods taught.

"Verified unit of credit" or "verified credit" means credit awarded for a course in which a student earns a standard unit of credit and achieves a passing score on a corresponding end-of-course SOL test or an additional test approved by the Board of Education as part of the Virginia assessment program.

"Virginia assessment program" means a system used to evaluate student achievement that includes Standards of Learning tests and additional tests that may be approved from time to time by the Board of Education.

8VAC20-131-10. Purpose.

The foremost purpose of public education in Virginia is to provide children with a quality education giving them opportunities to meet their fullest potential in life. The standards for the accreditation of public schools in Virginia are designed to ensure that an effective educational program is established and maintained in Virginia's public schools. The mission of the public education system is to educate students in the essential academic knowledge and skills in order that they may be equipped for citizenship, work, and a private life that is informed and free. The accreditation standards:

1. Provide an essential foundation of educational programs of high quality in all schools for all students.

2. Encourage continuous appraisal and improvement improvement and appraisal of the school program for the purpose of raising student achievement.

3. Foster public confidence.

4. Assure recognition of Virginia's public schools by other institutions of learning.

5. Establish a means of determining the effectiveness of schools.

Section 22.1-253.13:3 B of the Code of Virginia requires the Virginia Board of Education (hereinafter "board") promulgate regulations establishing standards for accreditation.

The statutory authority for these regulations is delineated in § 22.1-19 of the Code of Virginia, which includes the requirement that the board shall provide for the accreditation of public elementary, middle and secondary schools in accordance with regulations prescribed by it.

These regulations govern public schools operated by local school boards providing instruction to students as defined in 8VAC20-131-5. Other schools licensed under other state statutes are exempt from these requirements.

Part III
Student Achievement

8VAC20-131-30. Student achievement expectations.

A. Each student should learn the relevant grade level/course subject matter before promotion to the next grade. The division superintendent shall certify to the Department of Education that the division's promotion/retention policy does not exclude students from membership in a grade, or participation in a course, in which SOL tests are to be administered. Each school shall have a process, as appropriate, to identify and recommend strategies to address the learning, behavior, communication, or development of individual children who are having difficulty in the educational setting.

B. In kindergarten through eighth grade, where the administration of Virginia assessment program tests are required by the Board of Education, each student shall be expected to take the tests; students who are accelerated shall take the tests of the grade level enrolled or the tests for the grade level of the content received in instruction. No student shall take more than one test in any content area in each year. Schools shall use the Virginia assessment program test results in kindergarten through eighth grade as part of a set of multiple criteria for determining the promotion or retention of students. Students promoted to high school from eighth grade should have attained basic mastery of the Standards of Learning in English, history and social science, mathematics, and science and should be prepared for high school work. Students shall not be required to retake the Virginia assessment program tests unless they are retained in grade and have not previously passed the related tests.

With such funds as may be appropriated by the General Assembly, the Board of Education shall provide the same criteria for eligibility for an expedited retake of any Standards of Learning test, with the exception of the writing Standards of Learning tests, to each student regardless of grade level or course.

C. In kindergarten through grade 12, students may participate in a remediation recovery program as established by the board in English (Reading) or mathematics or both.

D. The board recommends that students in kindergarten through grade 8 not be required to attend summer school or weekend remediation classes solely based on failing a SOL test in science or history/social science.

E. Each student in middle and secondary schools shall take all applicable end-of-course SOL tests following course instruction. Students who achieve a passing score on an end-of-course SOL test shall be awarded a verified unit of credit in that course in accordance with the provisions of 8VAC20-131-110. Students may earn verified units of credit in any courses for which end-of-course SOL tests are available. Middle and secondary schools may consider the student's end-of-course SOL test score in determining the student's final course grade. However, no student who has failed an end-of-course SOL test but passed the related course shall be prevented from taking any other course in a content area and from taking the applicable end-of-course SOL test. The board may approve additional tests to verify student achievement in accordance with guidelines adopted for verified units of credit described in 8VAC20-131-110.

F. Participation in the Virginia assessment program by students with disabilities shall be prescribed by provisions of their Individualized Education Program (IEP) or 504 Plan. All students with disabilities shall be assessed with appropriate accommodations and alternate assessments where necessary.

G. All students identified as limited English proficient (LEP) shall participate in the Virginia assessment program. A school-based committee shall convene and make determinations regarding the participation level of LEP students in the Virginia assessment program. In kindergarten through eighth grade, limited English proficient students may be granted a one-time exemption from SOL testing in the areas of writing, science, and history and social science.

H. Students identified as foreign exchange students taking courses for credit shall be required to take the relevant Virginia assessment program tests. Foreign exchange students who are auditing courses and who will not receive a standard unit of credit for such courses shall not be required to take the Standards of Learning tests for those courses.

8VAC20-131-50. Requirements for graduation.

A. The requirements for a student to earn a diploma and graduate from a Virginia high school shall be those in effect when that student enters the ninth grade for the first time. Students shall be awarded a diploma upon graduation from a Virginia high school.

The Advanced Studies Diploma shall be the recommended diploma for students pursuing baccalaureate study. Both the Standard Diploma and the Advanced Studies Diploma shall prepare students for postsecondary education and the career readiness required by the Commonwealth's economy.

When students below the ninth grade successfully complete courses offered for credit in grades 9 through 12, credit shall be counted toward meeting the standard units required for graduation provided the courses are equivalent in content and academic rigor as those courses offered at the secondary level. To earn a verified unit of credit for these courses, students must meet the requirements of 8VAC20-131-110.

The following requirements shall be the only requirements for a diploma, unless a local school board has prescribed additional requirements that have been approved by the Board of Education. All additional requirements prescribed by local school boards that have been approved by the Board of Education remain in effect until such time as the local school board submits a request to the board to amend or discontinue them.

B. Requirements for a Standard Diploma.

1. Beginning with the ninth-grade class of 2013-2014 and beyond, students shall earn the required standard and verified units of credit described in subdivision 2 of this subsection.

2. Credits required for graduation with a Standard Diploma.

Discipline Area

Standard Units of Credit Required

Verified Credits Required

English

4

2

Mathematics1

3

1

Laboratory Science2,6

3

1

History and Social Sciences3,6

3

1

Health and Physical Education

2

 

Foreign Language, Fine Arts or Career and Technical Education7

2

 

Economics and Personal Finance

1

 

Electives4

4

 

Student Selected Test5

 

1

Career and Technical Education Credential8

Total9

22

6

1Courses completed to satisfy this requirement shall include at least two different course selections from among: Algebra I, Geometry, Algebra, Functions, and Data Analysis, Algebra II, or other mathematics courses above the level of Algebra II. The board shall approve courses to satisfy this requirement.

2Courses completed to satisfy this requirement shall include course selections from at least two different science disciplines: earth sciences, biology, chemistry, or physics, or completion of the sequence of science courses required for the International Baccalaureate Diploma. The board shall approve courses to satisfy this requirement.

3Courses completed to satisfy this requirement shall include U.S. and Virginia History, U.S. and Virginia Government, and one course in either world history or geography or both. The board shall approve courses to satisfy this requirement.

4Courses to satisfy this requirement shall include at least two sequential electives as required by the Standards of Quality.

5A student may utilize additional tests for earning verified credit in computer science, technology, career and technical education, economics or other areas as prescribed by the board in 8VAC20-131-110.

6Students who complete a career and technical education program sequence and pass an examination or occupational competency assessment in a career and technical education field that confers certification or an occupational competency credential from a recognized industry, or trade or professional association, or acquires a professional license in a career and technical education field from the Commonwealth of Virginia may substitute the certification, competency credential, or license for (i) the student-selected verified credit and (ii) either a science or history and social science verified credit when the certification, license, or credential confers more than one verified credit. The examination or occupational competency assessment must be approved by the Board of Education as an additional test to verify student achievement.

7Pursuant to § 22.1-253.13:4 of the Code of Virginia, credits earned for this requirement shall include one credit in fine or performing arts or career and technical education.

8Students shall earn a career and technical education credential approved by the Board of Education that could include, but not be limited to, except when a career and technical education credential in a particular subject area is not readily available or appropriate or does not adequately measure student competency, in which case the student shall receive satisfactory competency-based instruction in the subject area to satisfy the standard diploma requirements. The career and technical education credential, when required, could include the successful completion of an industry certification, a state licensure examination, a national occupational competency assessment, or the Virginia workplace readiness assessment.

9Students shall successfully complete one virtual course, which may be a noncredit-bearing course or a required or elective credit-bearing course that is offered online.

Beginning with first-time ninth-grade students in the 2016-2017 school year, students shall be trained in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators, including hands-on practice of the skills necessary to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Students with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) or 504 Plan which documents that they cannot successfully complete this training shall be granted a waiver from this graduation requirement, as provided in 8VAC20-131-350.

3. The Board of Education shall establish, through guidelines, credit accommodations to the standard and verified credit requirements for a Standard Diploma. Such credit accommodations for students with disabilities may include:

a. Approval of alternative courses to meet the standard credit requirements;

b. Modifications to the requirements for local school divisions to award locally awarded verified credits;

c. Approval of additional tests to earn a verified credit;

d. Adjusted cut scores required to earn verified credit; and

e. Allowance of work-based learning experiences.

The student's Individualized Education Program (IEP) or 504 Plan would specify any credit accommodations that would be applicable for the student.

Students completing the requirements for the Standard Diploma may be eligible to receive an honor deemed appropriate by the local school board as described in subsection H of this section.

C. Requirements for an Advanced Studies Diploma.

1. Beginning with the ninth-grade class of 2013-2014 and beyond, students shall earn the required standard and verified units of credit described in subdivision 2 of this subsection.

2. Credits required for graduation with an Advanced Studies Diploma.

Discipline Area

Standard Units of Credit Required

Verified Credits Required

English

4

2

Mathematics1

4

2

Laboratory Science2

4

2

History and Social Sciences3

4

2

Foreign Language4

3

 

Health and Physical Education

2

 

Fine Arts or Career and Technical Education

1

 

Economics and Personal Finance

1

 

Electives

3

 

Student Selected Test5

 

1

Total6

26

9

1Courses completed to satisfy this requirement shall include at least three different course selections from among: Algebra I, Geometry, Algebra II, or other mathematics courses above the level of Algebra II. The board shall approve courses to satisfy this requirement.

2Courses completed to satisfy this requirement shall include course selections from at least three different science disciplines from among: earth sciences, biology, chemistry, or physics or completion of the sequence of science courses required for the International Baccalaureate Diploma. The board shall approve additional courses to satisfy this requirement.

3Courses completed to satisfy this requirement shall include U.S. and Virginia History, U.S. and Virginia Government, and two courses in either world history or geography or both. The board shall approve additional courses to satisfy this requirement.

4Courses completed to satisfy this requirement shall include three years of one language or two years of two languages.

5A student may utilize additional tests for earning verified credit in computer science, technology, career or technical education, economics or other areas as prescribed by the board in 8VAC20-131-110.

6Students shall successfully complete one virtual course, which may be a noncredit-bearing course, or may be a course required to earn this diploma that is offered online.

Students completing the requirements for the Advanced Studies Diploma may be eligible to receive an honor deemed appropriate by the local school board as described in subsection H of this section.

Beginning with first-time ninth-grade students in the 2016-2017 school year, students shall be trained in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators, including hands-on practice of the skills necessary to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Students with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) or 504 Plan which documents that they cannot successfully complete this training shall be granted a waiver from this graduation requirement, as provided in 8VAC20-131-350.

D. In accordance with the requirements of the Standards of Quality, students with disabilities who complete the requirements of their Individualized Education Program (IEP) and do not meet the requirements for other diplomas shall be awarded Special Applied Studies Diplomas.

E. In accordance with the requirements of the Standards of Quality, students who complete prescribed programs of studies defined by the local school board but do not qualify for a Standard Diploma, an Advanced Studies Diploma, or a Special an Applied Studies Diploma shall be awarded Certificates of Program Completion. The requirements for Certificates of Program Completion are developed by local school boards in accordance with the Standards of Quality.

F. In accordance with the provisions of the compulsory attendance law and 8VAC20-360 8VAC20-30, Regulations Governing General Educational Development Certificates Adult High School Programs, students who do not qualify for diplomas may earn a high school equivalency credential.

G. At a student's request, the local school board shall communicate or otherwise make known to institutions of higher education, potential employers, or other applicable third parties, in a manner that the local school board deems appropriate, that a student has attained the state's academic expectations by earning a Virginia diploma and that the value of such a diploma is not affected in any way by the accreditation status of the student's school.

H. Awards for exemplary student performance. Students who demonstrate academic excellence and/or outstanding achievement may be eligible for one or more of the following awards:

1. Students who complete the requirements for an Advanced Studies Diploma with an average grade of "B" or better, and successfully complete college-level coursework that will earn the student at least nine transferable college credits in Advanced Placement (AP), International Baccalaureate (IB), Cambridge, or dual enrollment courses shall receive the Governor's Seal on the diploma.

2. Students who complete the requirements for a Standard Diploma or an Advanced Studies Diploma with an average grade of "A" shall receive a Board of Education Seal on the diploma.

3. The Board of Education's Career and Technical Education Seal will be awarded to students who earn a Standard Diploma or an Advanced Studies Diploma and complete a prescribed sequence of courses in a career and technical education concentration or specialization that they choose and maintain a "B" or better average in those courses; or (i) pass an examination or an occupational competency assessment in a career and technical education concentration or specialization that confers certification or occupational competency credential from a recognized industry, trade or professional association or (ii) acquire a professional license in that career and technical education field from the Commonwealth of Virginia. The Board of Education shall approve all professional licenses and examinations used to satisfy these requirements.

4. The Board of Education's Seal of Advanced Mathematics and Technology will be awarded to students who earn either a Standard Diploma or an Advanced Studies Diploma and (i) satisfy all of the mathematics requirements for the Advanced Studies Diploma (four units of credit including Algebra II; two verified units of credit) with a "B" average or better; and (ii) either (a) pass an examination in a career and technical education field that confers certification from a recognized industry, or trade or professional association; (b) acquire a professional license in a career and technical education field from the Commonwealth of Virginia; or (c) pass an examination approved by the board that confers college-level credit in a technology or computer science area. The Board of Education shall approve all professional licenses and examinations used to satisfy these requirements.

5. The Board of Education's Seal for Excellence in Civics Education will be awarded to students who earn either a Standard Diploma or an Advanced Studies Diploma and (i) complete Virginia and United States History and Virginia and United States Government courses with a grade of "B" or higher; (ii) have good attendance and no disciplinary infractions as determined by local school board policies; and (iii) complete 50 hours of voluntary participation in community service or extracurricular activities. Activities that would satisfy the requirements of clause (iii) of this subdivision include: (a) volunteering for a charitable or religious organization that provides services to the poor, sick, or less fortunate; (b) participating in Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, or similar youth organizations; (c) participating in JROTC; (d) participating in political campaigns or government internships, or Boys State, Girls State, or Model General Assembly; or (e) participating in school-sponsored extracurricular activities that have a civics focus. Any student who enlists in the United States military prior to graduation will be deemed to have met this community service requirement.

6. The Board of Education's Seal of Biliteracy will be awarded to students who demonstrate proficiency in English and at least one other language and meet additional criteria established by the board. Such seal will be awarded to eligible students graduating from public high schools in the Commonwealth beginning in 2016.

7. Students may receive other seals or awards for exceptional academic, career and technical, citizenship, or other exemplary performance in accordance with criteria defined by the local school board.

I. Students completing graduation requirements in a summer school program shall be eligible for a diploma. The last school attended by the student during the regular session shall award the diploma unless otherwise agreed upon by the principals of the two schools.

J. Students who complete Advanced Placement courses, college-level courses, or courses required for an International Baccalaureate Diploma shall be deemed to have completed the requirements for graduation under these standards provided they have earned the standard units of credit and earned verified units of credit in accordance with the requirements for the Standard Diploma and the Advanced Studies Diploma, as specified in subsections B and C of this section.

K. Students shall be counseled annually regarding the opportunities for using additional tests for earning verified credits as provided in accordance with the provisions of 8VAC20-131-110, and the consequences of failing to fulfill the obligations to complete the requirements for verified units of credit.

8VAC20-131-60. Transfer students.

A. The provisions of this section pertain generally to students who transfer into Virginia high schools. Students transferring in grades K-8 from Virginia public schools or nonpublic schools accredited by one of the approved accrediting constituent members of the Virginia Council for Private Education shall be given recognition for all grade-level work completed. The academic record of students transferring from all other schools shall be evaluated to determine appropriate grade placement in accordance with policies adopted by the local school board. The State Testing Identifier (STI) for students who transfer into a Virginia public school from another Virginia public school shall be retained by the receiving school.

B. For the purposes of this section, the term "beginning" means within the first 20 hours of instruction per course. The term "during" means after the first 20 hours of instruction per course.

C. Standard or verified units of credit earned by a student in a Virginia public school shall be transferable without limitation regardless of the accreditation status of the Virginia public school in which the credits were earned. Virginia public schools shall accept standard and verified units of credit from other Virginia public schools, Virginia's virtual learning program, Virtual Virginia, and state-operated programs. Standard units of credit also shall be accepted for courses satisfactorily completed in accredited colleges and universities when prior written approval of the principal has been granted or the student has been given credit by the previous school attended.

D. A secondary school shall accept credits toward graduation received from Virginia nonpublic schools accredited by one of the approved accrediting constituent members of the Virginia Council for Private Education (VCPE). The Board of Education will maintain contact with the VCPE and may periodically review its accrediting procedures and policies as part of its policies under this section.

Nothing in these standards shall prohibit a public school from accepting standard units of credit toward graduation awarded to students who transfer from all other schools when the courses for which the student receives credit generally match the description of or can be substituted for courses for which the receiving school gives standard credit, and the school from which the child transfers certifies that the courses for which credit is given meet the requirements of 8VAC20-131-110 A.

Students transferring into a Virginia public school shall be required to meet the requirements prescribed in 8VAC20-131-50 to receive a Standard Diploma or an Advanced Studies Diploma, except as provided by subsection G of this section. To receive a Special an Applied Studies Diploma or Certificate of Program Completion, a student must meet the requirements prescribed by the Standards of Quality.

E. The academic record of a student transferring from other Virginia public schools shall be sent directly to the school receiving the student upon request of the receiving school in accordance with the provisions of the 8VAC20-150, Management of the Student's Scholastic Record in the Public Schools of Virginia. The State Testing Identifier (STI) for students who transfer into a Virginia public school from another Virginia public school shall be retained by the receiving school.

F. The academic record of a student transferring into Virginia public schools from other than a Virginia public school shall be evaluated to determine the number of standard units of credit that have been earned, including credit from schools outside the United States, and the number of verified units of credit needed to graduate in accordance with subsection G of this section. Standard units of credit also shall be accepted for courses satisfactorily completed in accredited colleges and universities when the student has been given credit by the previous school attended.

Students transferring above the tenth grade from schools or other education programs that do not require or give credit for health and physical education shall not be required to take these courses to meet graduation requirements.

G. Students entering a Virginia public high school for the first time after the tenth grade shall earn as many credits as possible toward the graduation requirements prescribed in 8VAC20-131-50. However, schools may substitute courses required in other states in the same content area if the student is unable to meet the specific content requirements of 8VAC20-131-50 without taking a heavier than normal course load in any semester, by taking summer school, or by taking courses after the time when he otherwise would have graduated. In any event, no such student shall earn fewer than the following number of verified units, nor shall such students be required to take SOL tests or additional tests as defined in 8VAC20-131-110 for verified units of credit in courses previously completed at another school or program of study, unless necessary to meet the requirements listed in subdivisions 1 and 2 of this subsection:

1. For a Standard Diploma:

a. Students entering a Virginia high school for the first time during the ninth grade or at the beginning of the tenth grade shall earn credit as prescribed in 8VAC20-131-50;

b. Students entering a Virginia high school for the first time during the tenth grade or at the beginning of the eleventh grade shall earn a minimum of four verified units of credit: one each in English, mathematics, history, and science. Students who complete a career and technical education program sequence may substitute a certificate, occupational competency credential or license for either a science or history and social science verified credit pursuant to 8VAC20-131-50; and

c. Students entering a Virginia high school for the first time during the eleventh grade or at the beginning of the twelfth grade shall earn a minimum of two verified units of credit: one in English and one of the student's own choosing.

2. For an Advanced Studies Diploma:

a. Students entering a Virginia high school for the first time during the ninth grade or at the beginning of the tenth grade shall earn credit as prescribed in 8VAC20-131-50;

b. Students entering a Virginia high school for the first time during the tenth grade or at the beginning of the eleventh grade shall earn a minimum of six verified units of credit: two in English and one each in mathematics, history, and science and one of the student's own choosing; and

c. Students entering a Virginia high school for the first time during the eleventh grade or at the beginning of the twelfth grade shall earn a minimum of four verified units of credit: one in English and three of the student's own choosing.

H. Students entering a Virginia high school for the first time after the first semester of their eleventh grade year must meet the requirements of subdivision G 1 c or G 2 c of this section. Students transferring after 20 instructional hours per course of their senior or twelfth grade year shall be given every opportunity to earn a Standard Diploma or an Advanced Studies Diploma. If it is not possible for the student to meet the requirements for a diploma, arrangements should be made for the student's previous school to award the diploma. If these arrangements cannot be made, a waiver of the verified unit of credit requirements may be available to the student. The Department of Education may grant such waivers upon request by the local school board in accordance with guidelines prescribed by the Board of Education.

I. Any local school division receiving approval to increase its course credit requirements for a diploma may not deny either the Standard Diploma or the Advanced Studies Diploma to any transfer student who has otherwise met the requirements contained in these standards if the transfer student can only meet the division's additional requirements by taking a heavier than normal course load in any semester, by taking summer school, or by taking courses after the time when he otherwise would have graduated.

J. The transcript of a student who graduates or transfers from a Virginia secondary school shall conform to the requirements of 8VAC20-160, Regulations Governing Secondary School Transcripts.

K. The accreditation status of a high school shall not be included on the student transcript provided to colleges, universities, or employers. The board expressly states that any student who has met the graduation requirements established in 8VAC20-131-50 and has received a Virginia diploma holds a diploma that should be recognized as equal to any other Virginia diploma of the same type, regardless of the accreditation status of the student's high school. It is the express policy of the board that no student shall be affected by the accreditation status of the student's school. The board shall take appropriate action, from time to time, to ensure that no student is affected by the accreditation status of the student's school.

8VAC20-131-110. Standard and verified units of credit.

A. The standard unit of credit for graduation shall be based on a minimum of 140 clock hours of instruction and successful completion of the requirements of the course. When credit is awarded in less than whole units, the increment awarded must be no greater than the fractional part of the 140 hours of instruction provided. If a school division elects to award credit on a basis other than the 140 clock hours of instruction required for a standard unit of credit defined in this subsection, the local school division shall provide the Board of Education with satisfactory proof, based on board guidelines, that the students for whom the 140-clock-hour requirement is waived have learned the content and skills included in the relevant Standards of Learning. In addition, the local school division shall develop a written policy approved by the superintendent and school board that ensures:

1. That the content of the course for which credit is awarded is comparable to 140 clock hours of instruction; and

2. That upon completion, the student will have met the aims and objectives of the course.

B. A verified unit of credit for graduation shall be based on a minimum of 140 clock hours of instruction, successful completion of the requirements of the course, and the achievement by the student of a passing score on the end-of-course SOL test for that course or additional tests as described in this subsection. A student may also earn a verified unit of credit by the following methods:

1. In accordance with the provisions of the Standards of Quality, students may earn a standard and verified unit of credit for any elective course in which the core academic SOL course content has been integrated and the student passes the related end-of-course SOL test. Such course and test combinations must be approved by the Board of Education.

2. Upon the recommendation of the division superintendent and demonstration of mastery of course content and objectives Upon waiver of the 140-clock-hour requirement according to Board of Education guidelines, qualified students may receive who have received a standard unit of credit and will be permitted to sit for the relevant SOL test to earn a verified credit without having to meet the 140-clock-hour requirement.

3. Students who do not pass Standards of Learning tests in science or history and social science may receive locally awarded verified credits from the local school board in accordance with criteria established in guidelines adopted by the Board of Education.

C. The Board of Education may from time to time approve additional tests for the purpose of awarding verified credit. Such additional tests, which enable students to earn verified units of credit, must, at a minimum, meet the following criteria:

1. The test must be standardized and graded independently of the school or school division in which the test is given;

2. The test must be knowledge based;

3. The test must be administered on a multistate or international basis, or administered as part of another state's accountability assessment program; and

4. To be counted in a specific academic area, the test must measure content that incorporates or exceeds the SOL content in the course for which verified credit is given.

The Board of Education will set the score that must be achieved to earn a verified unit of credit on the additional test options.

D. With such funds as are appropriated by the General Assembly, the Board of Education will provide opportunities for students who meet criteria adopted by the board to have an expedited retake of a SOL test to earn verified credit.

Part VI
School Facilities and Safety

8VAC20-131-260. School facilities and safety.

A. Each school shall be maintained in a manner ensuring compliance with the Virginia Statewide Building Code (13VAC5-63). In addition, the school administration shall:

1. Maintain a physical plant that is accessible, barrier free, safe, and clean;

2. Provide for the proper outdoor display of flags of the United States and of the Commonwealth of Virginia;

3. Provide suitable space for classrooms, administrative staff, pupil personnel services, library and media services, and for the needs and safety of physical education;

4. Provide adequate, safe, and properly-equipped laboratories to meet the needs of instruction in the sciences, technology, fine arts, and career and technical programs; and

5. Provide facilities for the adequate and safe administration and storage of student medications; and

6. Carry out the duties of the threat assessment team established by the division superintendent and implement policies established by the local school board related to threat assessment, pursuant to § 22.1-79.4 of the Code of Virginia.

B. Each school shall maintain records of regular safety, health, and fire inspections that have been conducted and certified by local health and fire departments. The frequency of such inspections shall be determined by the local school board in consultation with the local health and fire departments. In addition, the school administration shall:

1. Equip all exit doors with panic hardware as required by the Virginia Statewide Building Code (13VAC5-63); and

2. Conduct fire drills at least once a week during the first month of school and at least once each month for the remainder of the school term. Evacuation routes for students shall be posted in each room.; and

Additionally, 3. Conduct at least one two simulated lock-down drills and crisis emergency evacuation activity should be conducted early in the activities each school year, one in September and one in January.

C. Each school shall have contingency plans for emergencies that include staff certified in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the Heimlich maneuver, and emergency first aid.

Each school building with instructional or administrative staff of 10 or more shall have at least three employees with current certification or training in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of an automated external defibrillator. If one or more students diagnosed as having diabetes attend such school, at least two employees shall have been trained in the administration of insulin and glucagon.

Each school building with instructional or administrative staff fewer than 10 shall have at least two employees with current certification or training in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of an automated external defibrillator. If one or more students diagnosed as having diabetes attend such school, at least one employee shall have been trained in the administration of insulin and glucagon.

D. In addition, the school administration shall ensure that the school has:

1. Written procedures to follow in emergencies such as fire, injury, illness, allergic reactions, and violent or threatening behavior. This shall include school board policies for the possession and administration of epinephrine in every school, to be administered by any school nurse, employee of the school board, employee of a local governing body, or employee of a local health department who is authorized by a prescriber and trained in the administration of epinephrine to any student believed to be having an anaphylactic reaction. The plan shall be outlined in the student handbook and discussed with staff and students during the first week of each school year;

2. Space for the proper care of students who become ill;

3. A written procedure, in accordance with guidelines established by the local school board, for responding to violent, disruptive or illegal activities by students on school property or during a school sponsored activity; and

4. Written procedures to follow for the safe evacuation of persons with special physical, medical, or language needs who may need assistance to exit a facility.

Part VII
School and Community Communications

8VAC20-131-270. School and community communications.

A. Each school shall promote communication and foster mutual understanding with parents and the community. Each school shall:

1. Involve parents, citizens, community agencies, and representatives from business and industry in developing, disseminating, and explaining the biennial school plan; on advisory committees; in curriculum studies; and in evaluating the educational program.

2. Provide annually to the parents and the community the School Performance Report Card in a manner prescribed by the board. The information contained therein will be for the most recent three-year period. Such information shall include but not be limited to:

a. Virginia assessment program results by percentage of participation and proficiency and disaggregated by student subgroups.

b. The accreditation rating earned by the school.

c. Attendance rates for students.

d. Information related to school safety to include, but not limited to, incidents of crime and violence.

e. Information related to qualifications and educational attainment of the teaching staff.

f. In addition, secondary schools' School Performance Report Cards shall include the following:

(1) Advanced Placement (AP) information to include percentage of students who take AP courses and percentage of students who take AP tests;

(2) International Baccalaureate (IB) and Cambridge course information to include percentage of students who are enrolled in IB or Cambridge programs and percentage of students who receive IB or Cambridge Diplomas;

(3) College-level course information to include percentage of students who take college-level courses including dual enrollment courses;

(4) Number and percentage of (i) graduates by diploma type as prescribed by the Board of Education, (ii) certificates awarded to the senior class including GED credentials high school equivalency preparation program credentials approved by the board, and (iii) students who do not complete high school;

(5) As a separate category on the school report card, the number of students obtaining board-approved industry certifications, and passing state licensure examinations, national occupational competency assessments and Virginia workplace readiness skills assessments while still in high school and the number of career and technical education completers who graduated; and

(6) Number and percentage of drop-outs.

3. Cooperate with business and industry in formulating career and technical educational programs and conducting joint enterprises involving personnel, facilities, training programs, and other resources.

4. Encourage and support the establishment and/or continuation of a parent-teacher association or other organization and work cooperatively with it.

B. At the beginning of each school year, each school shall provide to its students' parents or guardians information on the availability of and source for receiving:

1. The learning objectives developed in accordance with the provisions of 8VAC20-131-70 to be achieved at their child's grade level or, in high school, a copy of the syllabus for each of their child's courses, and a copy of the school division promotion, retention, and remediation policies;

2. The Standards of Learning applicable to the child's grade or course requirements and the approximate date and potential impact of the child's next SOL testing; and

3. An annual notice to students in all grade levels of all requirements for Standard Diploma and Advanced Studies Diploma, and the board's policies on promotion and retention as outlined in 8VAC20-131-30.

The division superintendent shall report to the department compliance with this subsection through the preaccreditation eligibility procedures in 8VAC20-131-290.

Part VIII
School Accreditation

8VAC20-131-280. Expectations for school accountability.

A. Schools will be accredited annually based on compliance with preaccreditation eligibility requirements and achievement of the school accountability requirements of 8VAC20-131-300 C.

B. Each school shall be accredited based, primarily, on achievement of the criteria established in 8VAC20-131-30 and in 8VAC20-131-50 as specified below:

1. The percentage of students passing the Virginia assessment program tests in the four core academic areas administered in the school with the accreditation rating calculated on a trailing three-year average that includes the current year scores and the scores from the two most recent years in each applicable academic area, or on the current year's scores, whichever is higher.

2. The percentage of students graduating from or completing high school based on a graduation and completion index prescribed by the Board of Education. The accreditation rating of any school with a twelfth grade shall be determined based on achievement of required SOL pass rates and percentage points on the board's graduation and completion index. School accreditation shall be determined by the school's current year index points or a trailing three-year average of index points that includes the current year and the two most recent years, whichever is higher. The Board of Education's graduation and completion index shall include weighted points for diploma graduates (100 points), GED recipients of high school equivalency credentials approved by the board (75 points), students not graduating but still in school (70 points), and students earning certificates of program completion (25 points).

The graduation and completion index calculation for a school shall be increased by three points for each student who obtains both a diploma and an industry certification, industry pathway certification, a state licensure, or an occupational competency credential in a career and technical education program, when such certification, licensure, or credential is approved by the Board of Education as student-selected verified credit; however, the additional three points shall not be used to obtain a higher accreditation rating.

The Board of Education's graduation and completion index shall account for all students in the graduating class's ninth-grade cohort, plus students transferring in, minus students transferring out and, deceased students, and students who fail to graduate because they are in the custody of the Department of Corrections, the Department of Juvenile Justice, or local law enforcement. Those students who are not included in one of the preceding categories will also be included in the index.

For the purposes of the Standards of Accreditation, the Board of Education shall use a graduation rate formula that excludes any student who fails to graduate because such student is in the custody of the Department of Corrections, the Department of Juvenile Justice, or local law enforcement.

3. The number of students who successfully complete a remediation recovery program.

4. Schools, with grade configurations that do not house a grade or offer courses for which SOL tests or additional tests approved by the Board of Education as outlined in 8VAC20-131-110 are administered, will be paired with another school in the division housing one or more of the grades in which SOL tests are administered. The pairing of such schools will be made upon the recommendation of the local superintendent. The schools should have a "feeder" relationship and the grades should be contiguous.

C. Subject to the provisions of 8VAC20-131-350, the governing school board of special purpose schools such as those provided for in § 22.1-26 of the Code of Virginia, Governor's schools, special education schools, alternative schools, or career and technical schools that serve as the student's school of principal enrollment may seek approval of an alternative accreditation plan from the Board of Education. Schools offering alternative education programs and schools with a graduation cohort of 50 or fewer students as defined by the graduation rate formula adopted by the board may request that the board approve an alternative accreditation plan to meet the graduation and completion index benchmark. Special purpose schools with alternative accreditation plans shall be evaluated on standards appropriate to the programs offered in the school and approved by the board prior to August 1 of the school year for which approval is requested. Any student graduating from a special purpose school with a Standard Diploma or an Advanced Studies Diploma must meet the requirements prescribed in 8VAC20-131-50.

In addition, pursuant to § 22.1-253.13:3 of the Code of Virginia, any school board, on behalf of one or more of its schools, may request the Board of Education for approval of an Individual School Accreditation Plan for the evaluation of the performance of one or more of its schools as authorized for special purpose schools.

D. When calculating the passing rates on Virginia assessment program tests for the purpose of school accreditation, the following tolerances for limited English proficient (LEP) and transfer students will apply:

1. The scores of LEP students enrolled in Virginia public schools fewer than 11 semesters may be removed from the calculation used for the purpose of school accreditation required by 8VAC20-131-280 B and 8VAC20-131-300 C. Completion of a semester shall be based on school membership days. Membership days are defined as the days the student is officially enrolled in a Virginia public school, regardless of days absent or present. For a semester to count as a completed semester, a student must have been in membership for a majority of the membership days of the semester. These semesters need not be consecutive.

2. In accordance with the provisions of 8VAC20-131-30, all students who transfer into Virginia public schools are expected to take and pass all applicable SOL tests in the content areas in which they receive instruction.

3. All students who transfer within a school division shall have their scores counted in the calculation of the school's accreditation rating. Students who transfer into a Virginia school from home instruction, or from another Virginia school division, another state, or another country, in grades kindergarten through 8 shall be expected to take all applicable SOL tests or additional tests approved by the board as outlined in 8VAC20-131-110. If the transfer takes place after the 20th instructional day following the opening of school, the scores on these tests may be used in calculating school accreditation ratings.

4. Students who transfer into a Virginia middle or high school from home instruction, or from another state or country, and enroll in a course for which there is an end-of-course SOL test, shall be expected to take the test or additional tests for that course approved by the board as outlined in 8VAC20-131-110. If the transfer takes place after 20 instructional hours per course have elapsed following the opening of school or beginning of the semester, if applicable, the scores on those tests may be used in calculating school accreditation ratings in the year the transfer occurs.

5. Students who enroll on the first day of school and subsequently transfer to a school outside of the division for a total amount of instructional time equal to or exceeding 50% of a current school year or semester, whether the transfer was a singular or multiple occurrence, and return during the same school year shall be expected to take any applicable SOL test. The scores of those tests may be used in calculating the school accreditation rating in the year in which the transfers occur.

E. The Board of Education may adopt special provisions related to the administration and use of any Virginia assessment program test in a content area. The Board of Education may adopt special provisions related to the administration and use of the graduation and completion index, as prescribed by the board. The Board of Education may also alter the inclusions and exclusions from the accreditation calculations by providing adequate notice to local school boards. The board may add new tests or discontinue the use of existing tests in the Virginia Assessment Program by providing adequate notice to local school boards.

F. As a prerequisite to the awarding of an accreditation rating as defined in 8VAC20-131-300, each new or existing school shall document, in a manner prescribed by the board, the following: (i) the division's promotion/retention policies developed in accordance with the requirements of 8VAC20-131-30, (ii) compliance with the requirements to offer courses that will allow students to complete the graduation requirements in 8VAC20-131-50, (iii) the ability to offer the instructional program prescribed in 8VAC20-131-70 through 8VAC20-131-100, (iv) the leadership and staffing requirements of 8VAC20-131-210 through 8VAC20-131-240, and (v) the facilities and safety provisions of 8VAC20-131-260. The division superintendent shall report to the department compliance with this subsection through the preaccreditation eligibility procedures in 8VAC20-131-290.

8VAC20-131-300. Application of the standards.

A. Schools Effective no later than the academic year 2016-2017, schools that meet the preaccreditation eligibility requirements prescribed in 8VAC20-131-280 F shall be assigned one of the following ratings as described in this section:

1. Fully Accredited;

2. Accredited with Warning in (specified academic area or areas and/or in achievement of the minimum threshold for the graduation and completion index);

2. Conditionally Accredited: New School

3. Partially Accredited according to criteria in one or more of the following categories:

a. Approaching Benchmark-within specified margins

(1) Graduation and Completion Index

(2) Pass Rate

b. Improving School-meets criteria for improvement over previous year or for student growth

(1) Graduation and Completion Index

(2) Pass Rate

c. Warned School

(1) Graduation and Completion Index

(2) Pass Rate

d. Reconstituted School

3. 4. Accreditation Denied;

4. Conditionally Accredited;

5. Provisionally Accredited-Graduation Rate.

B. Compliance with the student academic achievement expectations shall be documented to the board directly through the reporting of the results of student performance on SOL tests and other alternative means of assessing student academic achievement as outlined in 8VAC20-131-110. To facilitate accurate reporting of the graduation and completion index, the State Testing Identifier (STI) for students who transfer into a Virginia public school from another Virginia public school shall be retained by the receiving school. Compliance with other provisions of these regulations will be documented in accordance with procedures prescribed by the Board of Education.

C. Accreditation ratings defined. Accreditation ratings awarded in an academic year are based upon Virginia assessment program scores from the academic year immediately prior to the year to which the accreditation rating applies and on graduation and completion indexes (for schools with twelfth grade) established for the current year. Accreditation Effective no later than the academic year 2016-2017, accreditation ratings are defined as follows:

1. Fully accredited Accredited.

a. With tests administered in the academic years 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 for the accreditation ratings awarded for academic years 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 respectively, a school will be rated Fully Accredited when its eligible students meet the pass rate of 70% in each of the four core academic areas except, the pass rates required shall be 75% in third-grade through fifth-grade English and 50% in third-grade science and history/social science.

b. For schools housing grade configurations where multiple pass rates apply, the results of the tests may be combined in each of the four core academic areas for the purpose of calculating the school's accreditation rating provided the school chooses to meet the higher pass rate.

c. With tests administered beginning in the academic year 2012-2013 for the accreditation ratings awarded for school year 2013-2014 and beyond, a a. A school will be rated Fully Accredited when its eligible students meet the pass rate of 75% in English and the pass rate of 70% in mathematics, science, and history and social science. Additionally, each school with a graduating class shall achieve a minimum of 85 percentage points on the Board of Education's graduation and completion index, as described in 8VAC20-131-280 B 2, to be rated Fully Accredited.

d. b. For accreditation purposes, the pass rate will be calculated as single rates for each of the four core academic areas by combining all scores of all tests administered in each subject area.

2. Accredited with Warning (in specific academic areas and/or in achievement of the minimum threshold for the graduation and completion index). A school will be Accredited with Warning (in specific academic areas and/or in achievement of the minimum threshold for the graduation and completion index) if it has failed to achieve Fully Accredited status. Such a school may remain in the Accredited with Warning status for no more than three consecutive years.

2. Conditionally Accredited: New School. New schools that are comprised of students from one or more existing schools in the division will be awarded a Conditionally Accredited: New School status for one year pending an evaluation of the school's eligible students' performance on SOL tests or additional tests approved by the Board of Education to be rated Fully Accredited.

3. Partially Accredited. A school which meets criteria as prescribed by the Board of Education will be designated as Partially Accredited according to the specific categories shown below.

a. Approaching Benchmark (within specified margins):

(1) Graduation and Completion Index. Based on components of the graduation and completion index as described in 8VAC20-131-280 B 2, a school will be rated as Partially Accredited: Approaching Benchmark-Graduation and Completion Index when its eligible students meet pass rates required for full accreditation and its graduation and completion index is within a narrow margin of the minimum threshold as prescribed by the board. A school may remain in the Partially Accredited: Approaching Benchmark-Graduation and Completion Index status for no more than three consecutive years, unless an extension is granted based on criteria established by the board.

(2) Pass Rate. Based on tests administered in the previous academic year, a school will be rated as Partially Accredited: Approaching Benchmark-Pass Rate if the school does not meet the requirements for full accreditation in all of the four core academic subject areas but the pass rate in each subject area either (i) meets the pass rate required for full accreditation or (ii) is within a narrow margin of the pass rate required for full accreditation, as defined by the board. A school may remain in the Partially Accredited: Approaching Benchmark-Pass Rate status for no more than three consecutive years, unless an extension is granted based on criteria established by the board.

b. Improving School (meets criteria for improvement or student growth, or both, over previous year):

(1) Graduation and Completion Index. Based on components of the graduation and completion index as described in 8VAC20-131-280 B 2, a school will be rated as Partially Accredited: Improving School-Graduation and Completion Index when its eligible students meet pass rates required for full accreditation, but its graduation and completion index is not within the established narrow margin of the minimum threshold prescribed by the board; however it has achieved sufficient improvement in its graduation and completion index from the previous year, as prescribed by the board. A school may remain in the Partially Accredited: Improving School-Graduation and Completion Index status for no more than three consecutive years, unless an extension is granted based on criteria established by the board.

(2) Pass Rate. Based on tests administered in the previous academic year, a school will be rated as Partially Accredited: Improving School-Pass Rate if the school does not meet the requirements for full accreditation or for Partially Accredited: Approaching Benchmark-Pass Rate, but in each of the four core academic subject areas, one of the following criteria is met: (i) the pass rate meets the benchmark required for full accreditation; (ii) the pass rate is within a narrow margin of the benchmark required for full accreditation, as defined by the board; (iii) the school has demonstrated sufficient improvement in its pass rate from the previous year as defined by the board; or (iv) the school has demonstrated sufficient student growth, as defined by the board. A school may remain in the Partially Accredited: Improving School-Pass Rate status for no more than three consecutive years, unless an extension is granted based on criteria established by the board.

c. Warned School:

(1) Graduation and Completion Index. A school will be designated as Partially Accredited: Warned School-Graduation and Completion Index if it has failed to achieve Fully Accredited, Partially Accredited: Approaching Benchmark-Graduation and Completion Index, or Partially Accredited: Improving School-Graduation and Completion Index status. Such a school may remain in the Partially Accredited: Warned School-Graduation and Completion Index status for no more than three consecutive years.

(2) Pass Rate. A school will be designated as Partially Accredited: Warned School-Pass Rate if it has failed to achieve Fully Accredited, Partially Accredited: Approaching Benchmark-Pass Rate, or Partially Accredited: Improving School-Pass Rate status. Such a school may remain in the Partially Accredited: Warned School-Pass Rate status for no more than three consecutive years.

d. Reconstituted School. A Partially Accredited: Reconstituted School rating may be awarded to a school that is being reconstituted in accordance with the provisions of 8VAC20-131-340 upon approval by the Board of Education. A school awarded this rating under those circumstances will revert to a status of Accreditation Denied if it fails to meet the requirements to be rated Fully Accredited by the end of the agreed upon term or if it fails to have its annual application for such rating renewed.

3. 4. Accreditation Denied. Based on a school's academic performance and/or achievement of the minimum threshold or performance for the graduation and completion index, or both, a school shall be rated Accreditation Denied if it fails to meet the requirements to be rated Fully Accredited or Provisionally Accredited-Graduation Rate, Partially Accredited for the preceding three consecutive years or for three consecutive years anytime thereafter.

In any school division in which one-third or more of the schools have been rated Accreditation Denied, the superintendent shall be evaluated by the local school board with a copy of such evaluation submitted to the Board of Education no later than December 1 of each year in which such condition exists. In addition, the Board of Education may take action against the local school board as permitted by the Standards of Quality due to the failure of the local board to maintain accredited schools.

4. Conditionally Accredited. New schools that are comprised of students from one or more existing schools in the division will be awarded a Conditionally Accredited-New status for one year pending an evaluation of the school's eligible students' performance on SOL tests or additional tests approved by the Board of Education to be rated Fully Accredited. A Conditionally Accredited-Reconstituted rating may be awarded to a school that is being reconstituted in accordance with the provisions of 8VAC20-131-340 upon approval by the Board of Education. A school awarded this rating under those circumstances will revert to a status of Accreditation Denied if it fails to meet the requirements to be rated Fully Accredited by the end of the agreed upon term or if it fails to have its annual application for such rating renewed.

5. Provisionally Accredited-Graduation Rate. With tests administered in the academic years 2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2012-2013, 2013-2014, 2014-2015 for the accreditation ratings awarded for academic years 2011-2012, 2012-2013, 2013-2014, 2014-2015, and 2015-2016 respectively, a school will be rated Provisionally Accredited -Graduation Rate when its eligible students meet SOL pass rates to be rated Fully Accredited but fails to achieve a minimum of 85 percentage index points on the Board of Education's graduation and completion index, but achieve the following minimum benchmarks for each year:

Graduation and Completion Index Benchmarks for Provisionally Accredited Ratings

Academic Year

Accreditation Year

Index Percentage Points

2010-2011

2011-2012

80

2011-2012

2012-2013

81

2012-2013

2013-2014

82

2013-2014

2014-2015

83

2014-2015

2015-2016

84

The last year in which this rating shall be awarded is the 2015-2016 accreditation year, based on tests administered in the 2014-2015 academic year.

8VAC20-131-310. Action requirements for schools that are Accredited with Warning or Provisionally Accredited-Graduation Rate designated Partially Accredited in the following categories: (i) Improving School-Pass Rate; (ii) Improving School-Graduation and Completion Index; and (iii) Warned School.

A. With such funds as are appropriated by the General Assembly, the Department of Education shall develop a school academic review process and monitoring plan designed to assist schools rated as Accredited with Warning Partially Accredited in the following categories: (i) Improving School-Pass Rate; (ii) Improving School-Graduation and Completion Index; and (iii) Warned School. All procedures and operations for the academic review process shall be approved and adopted by the board.

Schools rated Accredited with Warning or Provisionally Accredited-Graduation Rate Partially Accredited in the following categories: (i) Improving School-Pass Rate; (ii) Improving School-Graduation and Completion Index; and (iii) Warned School must undergo an academic review in accordance with guidelines adopted by the board and prepare a school improvement plan as required by subsection F of this section.

B. Any school that is rated Accredited with Warning Partially Accredited: Warned School-Pass Rate because of pass rates in English or mathematics shall adopt a research-based instructional intervention that has a proven track record of success at raising student achievement in those areas as appropriate.

C. The superintendent and principal shall certify in writing to the Board of Education that such an intervention has been adopted and implemented.

D. The board shall publish a list of recommended instructional interventions, which may be amended from time to time.

E. Adoption of instructional interventions referenced in subsections B and D of this section shall be funded by eligible local, state, and federal funds.

F. A three-year School Improvement Plan must be developed and implemented, based on the results of an academic review of each school that is rated Accredited with Warning or Provisionally Accredited-Graduation Rate Partially Accredited in the following categories: (i) Improving School-Pass Rate; (ii) Improving School-Graduation and Completion Index; and (iii) Warned School, upon receipt of notification of the awarding of this rating and receipt of the results of the academic review. The plan:

1. Shall be developed with the assistance of parents and teachers and made available to the public;

2. Must include the components outlined in subsection G of this section; and

3. Must be approved by the division superintendent and the local school board and be designed to assist the school in meeting the student achievement standard to be Fully Accredited as outlined in 8VAC20-131-300.

G. The improvement plan shall include the following:

1. A description of how the school will meet the requirements to be Fully Accredited, for each of the years covered by the plan;

2. Specific measures for achieving and documenting student academic improvement;

3. A description of the amount of time in the school day devoted to instruction in the core academic areas;

4. Instructional practices designed to remediate students who have not been successful on SOL tests;

5. Intervention strategies designed to prevent further declines in student performance and graduation rates;

6. Staff development needed;

7. Strategies to involve and assist parents in raising their child's academic performance;

8. The need for flexibility or waivers to state or local regulations to meet the objectives of the plan; and

9. A description of the manner in which local, state, and federal funds are used to support the implementation of the components of this plan.

As part of its approval of the school improvement plan, the board may grant a local school board a waiver from the requirements of any regulations promulgated by the board when such a waiver is available.

H. The school improvement plan and related annual reports submitted to the board shall provide documentation of the continuous efforts of the school to achieve the requirements to become rated Fully Accredited. The board shall adopt and approve all policies and formats for the submission of annual reports under this section. The reports shall be due no later than October 1 of the school year.

8VAC20-131-315. Action requirements for schools that are denied accreditation.

A. Any school rated Accreditation Denied in accordance with 8VAC20-131-300 shall be subject to actions prescribed by the Board of Education and shall provide parents of enrolled students and other interested parties with the following:

1. Written notice of the school's accreditation rating within 30 calendar days of the notification of the rating from the Department of Education;

2. A copy of the school division's proposed corrective action plan, including a timeline for implementation, to improve the school's accreditation rating; and

3. An opportunity to comment on the division's proposed corrective action plan. Such public comment shall be received and considered by the school division prior to finalizing the school's corrective action plan and a Board of Education memorandum of understanding with the local school board.

B. Any school rated Accreditation Denied in accordance with 8VAC20-131-300 shall be subject to actions prescribed by the Board of Education and affirmed through a memorandum of understanding between the Board of Education and the local school board. The local school board shall submit a corrective action plan to the Board of Education for its consideration in prescribing actions in the memorandum of understanding within 45 days of the notification of the rating. The memorandum of understanding shall be entered into no later than November 1 of the academic year in which the rating is awarded.

The local board shall submit status reports detailing implementation of actions prescribed by the memorandum of understanding to the Board of Education. The status reports shall be signed by the school principal, division superintendent, and the chair of the local school board. The school principal, division superintendent, and the chair of the local school board may be required to appear before the Board of Education to present status reports.

The memorandum of understanding may also include but not be limited to:

1. Undergoing an educational service delivery and management review. The Board of Education shall prescribe the content of such review and approve the reviewing authority retained by the school division.

2. Employing a turnaround specialist credentialed by the state to address those conditions at the school that may impede educational progress and effectiveness and academic success.

C. As an alternative to the memorandum of understanding outlined in subsection B of this section, a local school board may choose to reconstitute a school rated Accreditation Denied and apply to the Board of Education for a rating of Conditionally Accredited Partially Accredited: Reconstituted School. The application shall outline specific responses that address all areas of deficiency that resulted in the Accreditation Denied rating and may include any of the provisions of subsection B of this section.

If a local school board chooses to reconstitute a school, it may annually apply for an accreditation rating of Conditionally Accredited Partially Accredited: Reconstituted School as provided for in 8VAC20-131-300 C 5 3 d. The Conditionally Accredited Partially Accredited: Reconstituted School rating may be granted for a period not to exceed three years if the school is making progress toward a rating of Fully Accredited in accordance with the terms of the Board of Education's approval of the reconstitution application. The school will revert to a status of Accreditation Denied if it fails to meet the requirements to be rated Fully Accredited by the end of the three-year term or if it fails to have its annual application for such rating renewed.

D. The local school board may choose to close a school rated Accreditation Denied or to combine such school with a higher performing school in the division.

E. A local school board that has any school with the status of Accreditation Denied shall annually report each school's progress toward meeting the requirements to be rated Fully Accredited to the Board of Education. The local board shall submit such report in a manner prescribed by the Board of Education no later than October 1 of each year. Such reports on each school's progress shall be included in the Board of Education's annual report on the condition and needs of public education to the Governor and the General Assembly submitted on November 15 of each year.

8VAC20-131-360. Effective date.

A. The provisions in 8VAC20-131-30 B relating to double testing and the provisions in 8VAC20-131-60 C relating to Virtual Virginia shall become effective July 31, 2009.

B. Graduation requirements prescribed in 8VAC20-131-50 B and C for the Standard Diploma and the Advanced Studies Diploma shall become effective with the ninth-grade class of 2013-2014.

C. Schools with a graduating class shall meet prescribed thresholds on a graduation and completion rate index as prescribed in 8VAC20-131-280 and 8VAC20-131-300 for accreditation ratings earned in 2010-2011 and awarded in 2011-2012.

D. Accreditation ratings prescribed in 8VAC20-131-300 C 1 a shall become effective with tests administered in 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 for ratings awarded in 2011-2012 and 2012-2013.

E. Accreditation ratings prescribed in 8VAC20-121-300 C 1 c shall become effective with tests administered in 2012-2013 for ratings awarded in 2013-2014 and beyond.

F. The Academic and Career Plan prescribed in 8VAC20-131-140 shall become effective in 2013-2014.

G. Unless otherwise specified, the remainder of these regulations shall be effective beginning with the 2011-2012 academic year.

H. The revision of the graduation rate formula, for purposes of the Standards of Accreditation, as described in 8VAC20-131-280 is effective as of July 1, 2016.

VA.R. Doc. No. R15-4464; Filed August 3, 2015, 12:10 p.m.
TITLE 8. EDUCATION
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION
Proposed Regulation

Titles of Regulations: 8VAC20-542. Regulations Governing the Review and Approval of Education Programs in Virginia (repealing 8VAC20-542-10 through 8VAC20-542-600).

8VAC20-543. Regulations Governing the Review and Approval of Education Programs in Virginia (adding 8VAC20-543-10 through 8VAC20-543-640).

Statutory Authority: §§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Public Hearing Information:

October 22, 2015 - 11 a.m. - James Monroe Building, 101 North 14th Street, 22nd Floor, Conference Room, Richmond, VA 23219. The public hearing will begin immediately following adjournment of the Board of Education business meeting.

Public Comment Deadline: October 31, 2015.

Agency Contact: Patty S. Pitts, Assistant Superintendent for Teacher Education and Licensure, Department of Education, P.O. Box 2120, Richmond, VA 23218, telephone (804) 371-2522, or email patty.pitts@doe.virginia.gov.

Basis: The bases for the regulation are the following:

Section 4 of Article VIII of the Constitution of Virginia, which provides that the general supervision of the public school system shall be vested in a Board of Education.

Section 22.1-16 of the Code of Virginia, which authorizes the board to promulgate such regulations as may be necessary to carry out its powers and duties.

Section 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia, which states that education preparation programs shall meet the requirements for accreditation and program approval as prescribed by the Board of Education in its regulations.

Section 22.1-305.2 of the Code of Virginia regarding the Advisory Board on Teacher Education and Licensure.

Purpose: The proposed regulatory action is essential to protect the health, safety, or welfare of citizens as the regulations set forth the requirements for college and university programs that prepare instructional personnel to be accredited and approved. The completion of an approved program prepares an individual to be licensed by the Virginia Board of Education.

Section 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia, states, in part, the following: "Education preparation programs shall meet the requirements for accreditation and program approval as prescribed by the Board of Education in its regulations."

On September 21, 2007, Regulations Governing the Review and Approval of Education Programs in Virginia, promulgated by the Board of Education, became effective. One additional amendment became effective on January 19, 2011, in response to a requirement of the 2010 Virginia General Assembly to include local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia in certain preparation programs.

A comprehensive review of the Regulations Governing the Review and Approval of Education Programs in Virginia was conducted, and the regulations in their entirety were examined. The proposed action is to repeal the existing chapter and promulgate a new chapter.

Substance: The proposed new regulations are outlined in detail under the Detail of Changes section in the Proposed Regulation Agency Background Document on the Virginia Regulatory Town Hall. Substantive elements of the proposed new regulations focus on revision of selected definitions to conform with changes in the proposed new regulations; modifications in administration of the proposed new regulations, including national accreditation for all approved Virginia professional education programs and increased rigor in biennial measures of accountability; addition of new education program endorsement areas in mathematics, engineering, and special education and increased rigor in professional studies requirements for selected education program endorsement areas.

Issues: The primary advantage to the public and the Commonwealth is to ensure that programs preparing instructional personnel are reviewed according to Board of Education standards. Institutions of higher education are accountable to meet statutory and regulatory requirements to continue to offer approved preparation programs. In addition, an amendment will require all professional education programs in Virginia to be accredited by the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP), thereby, requiring national accreditation and Board of Education approval. An issue for institutions of higher education is the cost associated with obtaining and maintaining national accreditation.

Department of Planning and Budget's Econonic Impact Analysis:

Summary of the Proposed Amendments to Regulation. The Board of Education (Board) proposes to repeal the current regulation (8VAC20-542) and replace it with a new regulation (8VAC20-543). In doing so, the Board proposes numerous amendments to the rules including:

• Revising definitions for accredited program, biennial accountability measures, biennial report, field experiences, professional education program, and regional accrediting agency.

• Adding definitions for Annual Report Card, education endorsement program, program completers, and program non-completers.

• Eliminating definitions for candidates completing a program, candidates exiting a program, distance learning, education program, exceptionalities, full-time faculty, general education, governance, part-time faculty, pedagogical studies, professional education faculty, scholarly activities, and school faculty.1

• Removing the professional studies coursework cap.

• Allowing professional studies coursework and methodology to include field experiences to be designated for completion within a baccalaureate degree program.2

• Requiring education programs to ensure that candidates complete training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators.3

• Eliminating the option for the Board to approve the professional education process and require all professional education programs to be accredited by a national organization.4

• Revising the biennial standards for candidate progress and performance on Board licensure assessments.

• Modifying the student teaching requirements to stipulate continuous, systematic supervised clinical experiences comprised of early field experiences with a minimum of ten weeks of full-time student teaching under the supervision of a cooperating teacher with demonstrated effectiveness in the classroom, as indicated by a proficient or exemplary evaluation rating.

•·Expanding indicators for evidence of employer job satisfaction with candidates completing the program to require documentation to address teacher performance, including student academic progress.

• Mandating that ratings for education endorsement programs include national accreditation of professional education programs as a prerequisite to education endorsement program approval and a description of education endorsement program candidates biennial passing rates, reported by percentages.

• Expanding the approved with stipulations rating to more clearly define consequences for education endorsement programs that fall below the 80 percent biennial passing rate for program completers and non-completers.

• Amending the approval denied rating to more clearly define how this standard is applied.

• Requiring accredited professional education programs to submit a new Annual Report Card that includes yearly data on the preparation of professional school personnel.

• Amending the competencies language for all educational endorsement programs to include general and specific competencies and requirements for education endorsement programs.

• Deleting language describing education program endorsements in career and technical education-industrial cooperative training (ICT) and special education-speech-language disorders preK-12.5

• Adding education program endorsements in engineering; special education-general curriculum K-6, middle grades 6-8, and secondary education grades 6-12; and mathematics specialist for middle education.

Result of Analysis. The benefits likely exceed the costs for some changes. For other amendments, whether the benefits exceed the costs depend on the policy views of the observer.

Estimated Economic Impact.

1. First Aid, CPR, and AED Training: The legislatively mandated proposal to specify that education programs ensure that candidates complete training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators will introduce significant benefits and costs. Having all (or nearly all) teachers educated in the Commonwealth trained in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators will increase the likelihood that someone with potentially lifesaving skills will be on hand during medical emergencies in the classroom. To the extent that the future teachers absorb and retain the knowledge they gain in this training, the long-run benefits may be quite significant.

For onsite training in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators, the American Red Cross charges $250 plus $72 per student if there are at least 20 students. So for example, an education program with 50 students the fees would total $3,850.6 If done all in person, the Red Cross training would take 5.5 hours. Alternatively, the students could do 2 hours of online training ahead of time. In that case the in-person training would last 1.5 hours. The fees would be the same in either case, but the amount of time that potentially could have been used for other subjects differs.

2. Education Program Accreditation: Under the current regulations, Professional education programs in Virginia shall obtain and maintain national accreditation from the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and the Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC), or a process approved by the Board of Education. Of the 37 Virginia colleges with professional education programs, 28 have national accreditation and 9 have accreditation via the Board-approved process. The proposal to eliminate the option for the Board to approve the professional education process and require all professional education programs to be accredited by a national organization will increase costs for the 9 colleges whose professional education programs are not yet nationally accredited.

On July 1, 2013, the NCATE and TEAC merged, creating the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP), the new sole national accreditor for educator preparation.7 The CAEP accreditation visit fee ranges from $5,250 to $14,000, depending on the size of the required visit team. The annual CAEP fee is based upon the number of program completers in the professional education program. The following table displays the CAEP annual fee range:

2014-2015 CAEP EPP Fees
(July 1, 2014 - June 30, 2015)

Completers

Annual Fees

1 - 50

$2,320

51 - 150

$2,575

151 - 300

$2,935

301 - 500

$3,400

501 - 1000

$4,480

1000+

$5,200

Since 28 out of the 37 Virginia colleges with professional education programs have already opted to have national accreditation, it appears that there is significant benefit associated with having national accreditation. Thus taking into account this benefit, the net cost to the 9 colleges whose professional education programs are not yet nationally accredited will likely be significantly less than just considering their additional financial cost. The proposal to eliminate the option for the Board to approve the professional education process and require all professional education programs to be accredited by a national organization also enables the Virginia Department of Education to reallocate staff resources to be used in other productive ways. This produces an additional benefit.

Businesses and Entities Affected. The proposed amendments affect the 37 colleges and universities in Virginia that have education programs, the 132 public school divisions in the Commonwealth, current and future teachers, and businesses or organizations that provide training in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators.

Localities Particularly Affected. The proposed amendments do not disproportionately affect particular localities.

Projected Impact on Employment. The requirement that education programs ensure that candidates complete training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators will increase demand for these services from businesses and organizations that provide such training. The increase in demand may be enough to create additional jobs.

Effects on the Use and Value of Private Property. The requirement that education programs ensure that candidates complete training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators will likely increase business for firms that provide such training.

Small Businesses: Costs and Other Effects. The proposed amendments are unlikely to significantly affect costs for small businesses. The requirement that education programs ensure that candidates complete training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators will increase demand for small firms that provide such training.

Small Businesses: Alternative Method that Minimizes Adverse Impact. The proposed amendments will not adversely affect small businesses.

Real Estate Development Costs. The proposed amendments are unlikely to significantly affect real estate development costs.

Legal Mandate. General: The Department of Planning and Budget (DPB) has analyzed the economic impact of this proposed regulation in accordance with § 2.2-4007.04 of the Code of Virginia and Executive Order Number 14 (2010). Section 2.2-4007.04 requires that such economic impact analyses determine the public benefits and costs of the proposed amendments. Further the report should include but not be limited to:

• the projected number of businesses or other entities to whom the proposed regulatory action would apply,

• the identity of any localities and types of businesses or other entities particularly affected,

• the projected number of persons and employment positions to be affected,

• the projected costs to affected businesses or entities to implement or comply with the regulation, and

• the impact on the use and value of private property.

Small Businesses: If the proposed regulatory action will have an adverse effect on small businesses, § 2.2-4007.04 requires that such economic impact analyses include:

• an identification and estimate of the number of small businesses subject to the proposed regulation,

• the projected reporting, recordkeeping, and other administrative costs required for small businesses to comply with the proposed regulation, including the type of professional skills necessary for preparing required reports and other documents,

• a statement of the probable effect of the proposed regulation on affected small businesses, and

• a description of any less intrusive or less costly alternative methods of achieving the purpose of the proposed regulation.

Additionally, pursuant to § 2.2-4007.1, if there is a finding that a proposed regulation may have an adverse impact on small business, the Joint Commission on Administrative Rules is notified at the time the proposed regulation is submitted to the Virginia Register of Regulations for publication. This analysis shall represent DPB's best estimate for the purposes of public review and comment on the proposed regulation.

________________________________________________

1DOE indicated that presently, these definitions primarily refer to terms used in the Board-approved accreditation process. Since that option for accreditation is being eliminated, these terms would become obsolete and are therefore being repealed.

2Field experiences are currently excluded.

3This change was mandated by Chapter 498 of the 2013 Acts of Assembly.

4According to DOE, this change is expected to affect nine institutions of higher education.

5According to DOE, the ICT program was never used so it was eliminated from the regulatory text. The change to the special education program resulted from a joint effort with the Department of Health Professions (DHP) to eliminate confusion as to whether these individuals should be licensed by DHP or DOE. Chapter 781 of the 2014 Acts of Assembly clarified that DHP would issue the licenses; therefore DOE is eliminating references to the program from its regulations.

6$250 + (50 x $72) = $3,850

7Source: Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation website (http://caepnet.org/about/history/)

Agency Response to Economic Impact Analysis: The agency concurs with the economic impact analysis completed by the Department of Planning and Budget. The agency will continue to examine the economic and administrative impact of the regulations as they progress through the regulatory process.

Summary:

The proposed action repeals existing regulations (8VAC20-542) and adopts new regulations (8VAC20-543) regarding educational programs that prepare instructional personnel to be accredited and approved for licensure by the Board of Education. Substantive elements of the proposed new regulations focus on (i) revision of selected definitions to conform with changes in the proposed new regulations; (ii) modifications in administration of the proposed new regulations, including national accreditation for all approved Virginia professional education programs and increased rigor in biennial measures of accountability; (iii) addition of new educational program endorsement areas in mathematics, engineering, and special education; and (iv) increased rigor in professional studies requirements for selected education program endorsement areas.

CHAPTER 543
REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN VIRGINIA

Part I
Definitions

8VAC20-543-10. Definitions.

The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the meanings indicated unless the context implies otherwise:

"Accreditation" means a process for assessing and improving academic and educational quality through voluntary peer review. This process informs the public that an institution has a professional education program that has met national standards of educational quality.

"Accredited institution" means an institution of higher education accredited by a regional accrediting agency recognized by the United States Department of Education.

"Accredited program" means a Virginia professional education program accredited by the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP), including CAEP/National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and CAEP/Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC).

"Annual report card" means the Virginia Department of Education yearly data report card required of all professional education programs in Virginia that offer approved programs for the preparation of school personnel.

"Biennial accountability measures" means those specific benchmarks set forth in 8VAC20-543-40 to meet the standards required to obtain or maintain education endorsement program approval status.

"Biennial accountability measurement report" means the compliance report submitted to the Virginia Department of Education every two years by an accredited professional education program.

"Candidates" means individuals enrolled in education programs.

"Department" means the Virginia Department of Education.

"Diversity" means the wide range of differences among groups of people and individuals based on ethnicity, race, socioeconomic status, gender, exceptionalities, language, religion, and geographical area.

"Education endorsement program" means a state-approved course of study, the completion of which signifies that an enrollee has met all the state's educational and training requirements for initial licensure in a specified endorsement area.

"Field experiences" means program components that are (i) conducted in off-campus settings or on-campus settings dedicated to the instruction of children who would or could otherwise be served by school divisions in Virginia or accredited nonpublic schools and (ii) accredited for this purpose by external entities such as regional accrediting agencies. Field experiences include classroom observations, tutoring, assisting teachers and school administrators, and supervised clinical experiences (i.e., practica, student teaching, and internships).

"Indicators" means operational definitions that suggest the kinds of evidence that professional education programs shall provide to demonstrate that a standard is met.

"Instructional technology" means the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning and the use of computers and other technologies.

"Licensing" means the official recognition by a state governmental agency that an individual has met state requirements and is, therefore, approved to practice as a licensed professional.

"Professional education program" means the Virginia institution, college, school, department or other administrative body within a Virginia institution of higher education, or another Virginia entity, for a defined education program that is primarily responsible for the preparation of teachers and other professional school personnel.

"Professional studies" means courses and other learning experiences designed to prepare candidates to demonstrate competence in the areas of human development and learning, curriculum and instruction, assessment of and for learning, classroom and behavior management, the teaching profession, reading, and supervised clinical experiences.

"Program approval" means the process by which a state governmental agency reviews an education program to determine if it meets the state's standards for the preparation of school personnel.

"Program completers" means individuals who have successfully completed all coursework, required licensure assessments, including those prescribed by the Board of Education, and supervised student teaching or required internship.

"Program noncompleters" means individuals who have been officially admitted into an education program and who have taken, regardless of whether the individuals passed or failed, required licensure assessments and who exit the program prior to completion. Program noncompleters shall have been officially released in writing from an education endorsement program by an authorized administrator of the program. Program noncompleters who did not take required assessments are not included in biennial reporting pass rates.

"Regional accrediting agency" means one of the six accrediting associations recognized by the United States Department of Education as follows: New England Association of Schools and Colleges, Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities, Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, and Western Association of Schools and Colleges.

"Standards of Learning for Virginia public schools" means the Commonwealth's expectations for student learning and achievement in grades K-12 in English, mathematics, science, history/social science, technology, fine arts, foreign language, health and physical education, and driver education.

Part II
Accreditation and Administering this Chapter

8VAC20-543-20. Accreditation and administering this chapter.

A. Institutions of higher education seeking approval of an education endorsement program shall be accredited by a regional accrediting agency.

B. Professional education programs in Virginia shall obtain and maintain national accreditation from the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP), including CAEP/National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and CAEP/Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC). Professional education programs in Virginia seeking accreditation through CAEP shall adhere to procedures and timelines established by CAEP and the CAEP/Virginia Partnership Agreement. Professional education programs shall ensure and document that programs are aligned with standards set forth in 8VAC20-543-40 through 8VAC20-543-50 and meet competencies outlined in 8VAC20-543-60 through 8VAC20-543-640.

C. If a professional education program fails to maintain accreditation, enrolled candidates shall be permitted to complete their programs of study. Professional education programs that fail to maintain accreditation shall not admit new candidates. Candidates shall be notified of the education endorsement program's approval status.

D. Teacher candidates shall complete academic degrees in the arts and sciences, or equivalent, except in health, physical, and career and technical education. Candidates in early/primary education preK-3, elementary education (preK-6), middle education (6-8), and special education programs may complete a major in interdisciplinary studies or its equivalent. Candidates seeking a secondary endorsement area must have earned a major, or the equivalent, in the area sought.

E. Professional studies coursework and methodology, including field experiences, required in this chapter shall be designed for completion within a baccalaureate degree program.

F. Professional education programs shall ensure that candidates demonstrate proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction; complete study in child abuse recognition and intervention; and complete training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators.

G. Standards and procedures for the review and approval of each education endorsement program shall adhere to procedures for administering the chapter as defined in this section and in 8VAC20-543-40, 8VAC20-543-50, and 8VAC20-543-60. These procedures shall result in biennial recommendations to the Board of Education for one of the following three ratings: "approved," "approved with stipulations," or "approval denied."

H. Education endorsement programs shall be approved under this chapter biennially based on compliance with the criteria described in 8VAC20-543-40, 8VAC20-543-50, and 8VAC20-543-60.

I. The Department of Education will determine the timeline and procedures for applying for education endorsement program approval.

J. Education endorsement programs in Virginia shall address the competencies set forth in this chapter, and the curriculum for each program must be documented and submitted to the Department of Education for approval.

K. Professional education programs shall submit to the Department of Education on behalf of each education endorsement program under consideration a biennial accountability measurement report and an annual report card to include data prescribed by the Board of Education on education endorsement programs in accordance with department procedures and timelines.

L. The professional education program authorized administrator shall maintain copies of approved education endorsement programs and required reports.

M. The Department of Education may conduct onsite visits to review education endorsement programs and verify data.

N. The Advisory Board on Teacher Education and Licensure (ABTEL) is authorized to review and make recommendations to the Board of Education on approval of Virginia education endorsement programs for school personnel. The Board of Education has final authority on education endorsement program approval.

O. Modifications may be made by the Superintendent of Public Instruction in the administration of this chapter. Proposed modifications shall be made in writing to the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Commonwealth of Virginia.

Part III
Application for New Education Endorsement Programs

8VAC20-543-30. Application for new education endorsement programs.

A. Requests for new education endorsement programs shall be approved by the Virginia Board of Education.

B. The professional education program shall submit a request for the new program in a format provided by the Department of Education that shall address the following requirements:

1. Rationale for the new education endorsement program, to include local division or service area demand data and statements of support from the institution's dean, provost, president, or designee and Virginia school divisions. A summary of the stakeholders' involvement in the development of the education endorsement program must be included.

2. Capacity of the institution to offer the education endorsement program.

3. List of the requirements for the education endorsement program, to include the degree, major, and the curriculum.

4. Matrices demonstrating that the competencies set forth in this chapter have been incorporated in the education endorsement program.

5. Description of structured and integrated field experiences to include early clinical experiences and a summative supervised student teaching experience.

6. Description of the partnerships and collaborations based on preK-12 school needs.

Part IV
Standards for Biennial Approval of Education Endorsement Programs

8VAC20-543-40. Standards for biennial approval of education endorsement programs.

Education endorsement programs in Virginia shall be approved by the Board of Education and demonstrate achievement biennially of the accountability measures in this section. The institution of higher education must report evidence of the standards for Board of Education review biennially.

1. Candidate progress and performance on prescribed Board of Education licensure assessments. Candidate passing rates, reported by percentages, shall not fall below 80% biennially for program completers and program noncompleters. Program completers are individuals who have successfully completed all coursework, required licensure assessments, and supervised student teaching or required internship. Program noncompleters are those individuals who have been officially admitted into the education program and who have taken, regardless of whether the individual passed or failed, required licensure assessments, and who exit the program prior to completion. Program noncompleters shall have been officially released (in writing) from an education endorsement program by an authorized administrator of the program.

2. Candidate progress and performance on an assessment of basic skills as prescribed by the Board of Education for individuals seeking entry into an approved education endorsement program.

Indicators of the achievement of this standard shall include the following:

a. Results on Board of Education prescribed entry-level assessments;

b. Documentation that candidates enrolled in the program who fail to achieve a minimum score established by the Board of Education have the opportunity to address deficiencies; and

c. Documentation of the number of candidates admitted into the program who did not meet the prescribed admission assessment and the opportunities provided to the candidates to address deficiencies.

3. Structured and integrated field experiences to include early clinical experiences and a summative supervised student teaching experience.

Indicators of the achievement of this standard shall include the following:

a. Evidence that candidates receive quality clinically-based structured and integrated field experiences that prepare them to work in diverse educational environments; and

b. Evidence that supervised clinical experiences are continuous and systematic and comprised of early field experiences with a minimum of 10 weeks of full-time student teaching under the supervision of a cooperating teacher with demonstrated effectiveness in the classroom, as indicated by a proficient or exemplary evaluation rating. The supervised student teaching experience shall include at least 150 clock hours spent in direct teaching at the level of endorsement.

4. Evidence of opportunities for candidates to participate in diverse school settings that provide experiences with populations that include racial, economic, linguistic, and ethnic diversity throughout the program experiences.

The indicator of the achievement of this standard shall include evidence that the professional education program provides opportunities for candidates to have program experiences in diverse school settings that provide experiences with populations that include racial, economic, linguistic, and ethnic diversity within each biennial period.

5. Evidence of contributions to preK-12 student achievement by candidates completing the program.

Indicators of the achievement of this standard shall include the following:

a. Evidence to show that candidates know about, create, and use appropriate and effective data-driven assessments in teaching that shall provide dependable information about student achievement;

b. Evidence to document that faculty have made provisions for evaluating the effects that candidates have on preK-12 student learning in the context of teaching as they design unit assessment systems and assessments for each program; and

c. Evidence that the education program assesses candidates' mastery of exit criteria and performance proficiencies, including the ability to affect student learning, through the use of multiple sources of data such as a culminating experience, portfolios, interviews, videotaped and observed performance in schools, standardized tests, and course grades.

6. Evidence of employer job satisfaction with candidates completing the program.

Indicators of the achievement of this standard shall include:

a. Documentation that the professional education program has two years of evidence regarding candidate performance based on employer surveys.

b. Documented evidence of teacher effectiveness, including student academic progress.

7. Partnerships and collaborations based on preK-12 school needs.

Indicators of the achievement of this standard shall include the following:

a. Documented evidence that the education endorsement program has established partnerships reflecting collaboratively designed program descriptions based on identified needs of the preK-12 community.

b. Documented evidence that the administration and supervision program collaborates with partnering schools to identify and select candidates for school leadership programs who meet local needs, demonstrate both potential for and interest in school leadership, and meet the qualifications for admission to advanced programs.

Part V
Application of Standards for Biennial Approval of Education Endorsement Programs

8VAC20-543-50. Application of the standards.

A. As a prerequisite to education endorsement program approval, professional education programs in Virginia shall have national accreditation. Failure to do so will result in the education endorsement program being designated as "approval denied."

B. The education endorsement program's candidate passing rates, reported by percentages, shall not fall below 80% biennially for program completers and program noncompleters. Program completers are individuals who have successfully completed all coursework, required licensure assessments, and supervised student teaching or required internship. Program noncompleters are those individuals who have been officially admitted into the education program and who have taken, regardless of whether the individual passed or failed, required licensure assessments, and who exit the program prior to completion. Program noncompleters shall have been officially released (in writing) from an education endorsement program by an authorized administrator of the program.

C. The professional education program's authorized administrator is responsible to certify documented evidence that the following standards as set forth in 8VAC20-543-40 have been met by the education endorsement program:

1. The professional education program shall demonstrate candidate progress and performance on an assessment of basic skills as prescribed by the Board of Education for individuals seeking entry into an approved education endorsement program.

2. The professional education program shall provide structured and integrated field experiences.

3. The professional education program shall provide evidence of opportunities for candidates to participate in diverse school settings that provide experiences with populations that include racial, economic, linguistic, and ethnic diversity throughout the program experiences.

4. The professional education program shall provide evidence of contributions to preK-12 student achievement by candidates completing the program.

5. The professional education program shall provide evidence of employer job satisfaction with candidates completing the program.

6. The professional education program shall develop and provide evidence of biennial accountability measures for partnerships and collaborations based on preK-12 school needs.

D. After submitting to the Department of Education the information contained in 8VAC20-543-40, education endorsement programs in Virginia shall receive one of the following three ratings:

1. Approved. The education endorsement program has met all standards set forth in 8VAC20-543-40.

2. Approved with stipulations. The education endorsement program has met standards in subsections A and B of this section and is making documented progress toward meeting standards in subsection C of this section. Biennial passing rates that fall below the 80% requirement for program completers and noncompleters shall result in the education endorsement program receiving a rating of "approved with stipulations." The passing rate for program completers and noncompleters must meet the 80% passing rate requirement by the end of the next biennial period for the program to be approved; if the 80% pass rate is not achieved, the program will be denied.

3. Approval denied. Approval may be denied if:

a. The education endorsement program has not met standards in subsection A of this section;

b. The education endorsement program has met standards in subsection A of this section but has not met requirements in subsection B of this section for two consecutive biennial reporting periods. The program shall be denied and the public notified. The program may resubmit a request for approval at the end of the next biennial period.

Part VI
Professional Education Program Accountability

8VAC20-543-60. Biennial accountability measurement report.

The accredited professional education program shall report, every two years, in accordance with Virginia Department of Education procedures, those specific criteria set forth in 8VAC20-543-40 to meet the standards required to obtain or maintain education endorsement program approval status.

8VAC20-543-70. Annual report card.

The accredited professional education program shall submit to the Virginia Department of Education a yearly data report card on the preparation of professional school personnel. The report card shall be published on the department's website. The information required on the report card shall be approved by the Board of Education and will include the following:

1. Institution's accreditation status;

2. Education endorsement program status;

3. Number of candidates admitted in education endorsement programs;

4. Number of candidates admitted in education endorsement programs who are in the top quartile of the college or university population.

5. Number of program completers, including number of program completers in critical shortage teaching areas;

6. Number of program noncompleters;

7. Biennial accountability data results;

8. Number of candidates admitted into the program for the reporting year who did not meet the prescribed admission assessment requirement;

9. Number of program completers for the reporting year who were admitted without meeting the prescribed admission assessment requirement;

10. Number of program noncompleters for the reporting year who were admitted to the program without meeting the prescribed admission assessment requirement;

11. Satisfaction ratings by school administrators and clinical experience supervisors on student teachers;

12. Satisfaction ratings by employers of program completers;

13. Satisfaction ratings of program completers within two years of employment; and

14. Other data as required by the Board of Education.

Part VII
Competencies for Endorsement Areas
Article 1
General Competencies

8VAC20-543-80. Competencies and requirements for endorsement areas.

A. The professional education program develops, maintains, and continuously evaluates high quality education endorsement programs that are collaboratively designed and based on identified needs of the preK-12 community. Candidates in education endorsement programs shall demonstrate competence in the areas in which they plan to practice and complete professional studies requirements and applicable assessments, in addition to meeting requirements for specific licenses, pursuant to the Licensure Regulations for School Personnel (8VAC20-22). The Licensure Regulations for School Personnel set forth the required degrees from regionally accredited colleges or universities for licenses, endorsements, and prerequisite licenses or endorsements for add-on endorsements.

B. All education endorsement programs in early/primary education preK-3, elementary education preK-6, middle education 6-8, and history and social sciences must include local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia.

C. Candidates in education endorsement programs demonstrate an understanding of competencies, including the core concepts and facts of the disciplines and the Virginia Standards of Learning, for the content areas in which they plan to teach where required.

D. Candidates in early/primary education preK-3, elementary education preK-6, and special education complete a minimum of six semester hours of reading coursework as outlined in the reading competencies.

E. Candidates seeking an early/primary education preK-3 or an elementary education preK-6 endorsement must complete 12-15 semester hours each in English, history and social sciences, mathematics, and science addressing competencies set forth in this chapter or complete the following:

1. English: complete six semester hours in English and pass a rigorous assessment in elementary English prescribed by the Board of Education.

2. History and social sciences: complete six semester hours in history and social sciences and pass a rigorous assessment in elementary history and social sciences prescribed by the Board of Education.

3. Mathematics: complete six semester hours in mathematics, complete a methods of teaching elementary mathematics course, and pass a rigorous assessment in elementary mathematics prescribed by the Board of Education.

4. Science: complete six semester hours in laboratory sciences in two science disciplines, complete a methods of teaching elementary science course, and pass a rigorous assessment in elementary science prescribed by the Board of Education.

F. Candidates seeking an endorsement in special education-general curriculum K-12 must have one area of specialization in English, history and social sciences, mathematics, or science with 12-15 semester hours in the specialization area.

G. Candidates seeking a middle education endorsement must have an area of concentration in English, history and social sciences, mathematics, or science with 21-24 semester hours in the concentration area.

Article 2
Early/Primary Education, Elementary Education, and Middle Education Endorsements

8VAC20-543-90. Professional studies requirements for early/primary education, elementary education, and middle education.

Professional studies requirements for early/primary education, elementary education, and middle education:

1. Human development and learning (birth through adolescence).

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the physical, social, emotional, speech and language, and intellectual development of children and the ability to use this understanding in guiding learning experiences and relating meaningfully to students.

b. The interaction of children with individual differences - economic, social, racial, ethnic, religious, physical, and mental - should be incorporated to include skills contributing to an understanding of developmental disabilities and developmental issues related but not limited to low socioeconomic status, attention deficit disorders, developmental disorders, gifted education, including the use of multiple criteria to identify gifted students, substance abuse, child abuse, and family disruptions.

2. Curriculum and instruction.

a. Early/primary education preK-3 or elementary education preK-6 curriculum and instruction.

(1) Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology; effective communication with and among students; selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies; selection, development, and use of appropriate curricula, methodologies, and materials that support and enhance student learning and reflect the research on unique, age-appropriate, and culturally relevant curriculum and pedagogy.

(2) Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instruction must be included.

(3) Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners, including limited English proficient students, gifted and talented students, and students with disabilities, and appropriate for the level of endorsement (preK-3 or preK-6) sought shall be included.

(4) Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student engagement and student academic progress and effective preparation for the Standards of Learning assessments.

(5) Study in (i) methods of improving communication between schools and families, (ii) communicating with families regarding social and instructional needs of children, (iii) ways of increasing family involvement in student learning at home and in school, (iv) the Virginia Standards of Learning, and (v) Virginia Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds prepared by the department's Office of Humanities and Early Childhood shall be included.

(6) Early childhood educators must understand the role of families in child development and in relation to teaching educational skills.

(7) Early childhood educators must understand the role of the informal and play-mediated settings for promoting students' skills and development and must demonstrate knowledge and skill in interacting in such situations to promote specific learning outcomes as reflected in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning.

(8) Demonstrated proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction shall be included. Persons seeking initial licensure as teachers and persons seeking licensure renewal as teachers for the first time shall complete study in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Services that are relevant to the specific teacher licensure routes. Pre-student teaching experiences (field experiences) should be evident within these skills.

b. Middle education 6-8 curriculum and instruction.

(1) Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology; effective communication with and among students, selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies; evaluation of pupil performance; and the relationships among assessment, instruction, and monitoring student progress to include student performance measures in grading practices, the ability to construct and interpret valid assessments using a variety of formats in order to measure student attainment of essential skills in a standards-based environment, and the ability to analyze assessment data to make decisions about how to improve instruction and student performance.

(2) Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instruction must be included.

(3) Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners including limited English proficient students, gifted and talented students, and students with disabilities, and must be appropriate for the middle education endorsement shall be included.

(4) Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student engagement and student academic progress and effective preparation for the Standards of Learning assessments.

(5) Study in methods of improving communication between schools and families, ways of increasing family involvement in student learning at home and in school, and the Standards of Learning shall be included.

(6) Demonstrated proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction shall be included.

(7) Persons seeking initial licensure as teachers and persons seeking licensure renewal as teachers for the first time shall complete study in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Services that are relevant to the specific teacher licensure routes. Pre-student teaching experiences (field experiences) should be evident within these skills.

3. Classroom and behavior management. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding and application of research-based classroom and behavior management techniques, classroom community building, positive behavior supports, and individual interventions, including techniques that promote emotional well-being and teach and maintain behavioral conduct and skills consistent with norms, standards, and rules of the educational environment. This area shall address diverse approaches based upon behavioral, cognitive, affective, social, and ecological theory and practice. Approaches should support professionally appropriate practices that promote positive redirection of behavior, development of social skills, and self discipline. Knowledge and an understanding of various school crisis management and safety plans and the demonstrated ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environment must be included. The link between classroom management and students' ages must be understood and demonstrated in techniques used in the classroom.

4. Assessment of and for learning.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding and application of creating, selecting, and implementing valid and reliable classroom-based assessments of student learning, including formative and summative assessments. Assessments designed and adapted to meet the needs of diverse learners must be addressed.

b. Analytical skills necessary to inform ongoing planning and instruction, as well as to understand, and help students understand their own progress and growth must be included.

c. Skills also include the ability to understand the relationships among assessment, instruction, and monitoring student progress to include student performance measures in grading practices; the ability to interpret valid assessments using a variety of formats in order to measure student attainment of essential skills in a standards-based environment; and the ability to analyze assessment data to make decisions about how to improve instruction and student performance.

d. Understanding of state assessment programs and accountability systems, including assessments used for student achievement goal setting as related to teacher evaluation and determining student academic progress, including knowledge of legal and ethical aspects of assessment.

e. Skills include developing familiarity with assessments used in preK-12 education (e.g., diagnostic, college admission exams, industry certifications, placement assessments).

5. The teaching profession.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding of the historical, philosophical, and sociological foundations underlying the role, development, and organization of public education in the United States.

b. Attention must be given to the legal status of teachers and students, including federal and state laws and regulations; school as an organization and culture; and contemporary issues and current trends in education, including the impact of technology on education. Local, state, and federal governance of schools, including the roles of teachers and schools in communities, must be included.

c. Professionalism and ethical standards as well as personal integrity must be addressed.

d. Knowledge and understanding of Virginia's Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachers must be included.

6. Reading.

a. Early/primary education preK-3 and elementary education preK-6 - language acquisition and reading and writing. Skills listed for these endorsement areas represent the minimum competencies that a beginning teacher must be able to demonstrate. These skills are not intended to limit the scope of a beginning teacher's program. Additional knowledge and skills that add to a beginning teacher's competencies to deliver instruction and improve student achievement should be included as part of a quality learning experience.

(1) Language acquisition: Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning as well as the complex nature of language acquisition as a precursor to literacy. Language acquisition shall follow the typical development of linguistic competence in the areas of phonetics, semantics, syntax, morphology, phonology, and pragmatics.

(2) Reading and writing: Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning as well as the reciprocal nature of reading and writing. Reading shall include phonemic awareness, concept of print, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension strategies. Writing shall include writing strategies and conventions as supporting the composing and writing expression and usage and mechanics domains. Additional skills shall include proficiency in understanding the stages of spelling development, the writing process as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction text and independent reading.

b. Middle education - language acquisition and reading development and literacy in the content areas.

(1) Language acquisition and reading development: Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the complex nature of language acquisition and reading, to include phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension strategies for adolescent learners. Additional skills shall include proficiency in writing strategies, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction text and independent reading for adolescent learners.

(2) Literacy in the content areas: Skills in this area shall be designed to impart an understanding of vocabulary development and comprehension skills in areas of English, mathematics, science, history and social science, and other content areas. Strategies include teaching students how to ask effective questions, summarize and retell both verbally and in writing, and to listen effectively. Teaching strategies include literal, interpretive, critical, and evaluative comprehension, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction text and independent reading for adolescent readers.

7. Supervised clinical experiences. The supervised clinical experiences shall be continuous and systematic and comprised of early field experiences with a minimum of 10 weeks of full-time student teaching under the supervision of a cooperating teacher with demonstrated effectiveness in the classroom. The summative supervised student teaching experience shall include at least 150 clock hours spent in direct teaching at the level of endorsement. One year of successful full-time teaching experience in the endorsement area in any public school or accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the supervised student teaching experience. A fully licensed, experienced teacher shall be available in the school building to assist a beginning teacher employed through the alternate route.

8VAC20-543-100. Early childhood for three-year-olds and four-year-olds (add-on endorsement).

The program in early childhood education for three-year-olds and four-year-olds shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with an endorsement in elementary education (such as preK-3 or preK-6) or special education early childhood issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding child growth and development from birth through age five, with a specific focus on three-year-olds and four-year-olds, including:

a. Knowledge of characteristics and developmental needs of three-year-olds and four-year-olds, including the ability to recognize indicators of typical and atypical development, in the domains of language, social, emotional, cognitive, physical, and gross and fine motor development;

b. Understanding of the multiple interacting influences on child development (biological and environmental), interconnectedness of developmental domains, the wide range of ages at which developmental skills are manifested, and the individual differences in behavioral styles; and

c. Knowledge of child development within the context of family, culture, and society.

2. Understanding principles of developmental practice, with a focus on three-year-olds and four-year-olds, including practices that are:

a. Appropriate to the child's age and stage of development;

b. Appropriate for children with a wide range of individual differences in abilities, interests, and learning styles; and

c. Appropriate for the child's cultural background and experience.

3. Understanding health and nutritional practices that impact early learning including:

a. Practices and procedures that support health status conducive to optimal development (e.g., health assessment, prevention of the spread of communicable disease, oral hygiene, reduction of environmental hazards, injury prevention, and emergency preparedness);

b. Indicators of possible child abuse or neglect and the appropriate response if such indicators are observed;

c. Nutritional and dietary practices that support healthy growth and development while remaining sensitive to each family's preferences, dietary restrictions, and culture;

d. Skills for communicating with families about health and dietary concerns;

e. Community resources that support healthy living; and

f. Practices that allow children to become independent and knowledgeable about healthy living.

4. Understanding and application of formal and informal assessment procedures for documenting development and knowledge of how to use assessment to plan curriculum, including:

a. Age-appropriate and stage-appropriate methods for documenting, assessing, and interpreting development and learning;

b. Identifying and documenting children's interests, strengths, and challenges; and

c. Communicating with families to acquire and to share information relevant to assessment.

5. Understanding effective strategies for (i) facilitating positive reciprocal relationships with children for teachers, families, and communities through mutual respect, communication strategies, collaborative linkages among families, and community resources and (ii) nurturing the capacity of family members to serve as advocates on behalf of children.

6. Understanding strategies for planning, implementing, assessing, and modifying physical and psychological aspects of the learning environment to support language, physical, cognitive, and social, as well as emotional, well-being in children with a broad range of developmental levels, special needs, individual interests, and cultural backgrounds, including the ability to:

a. Utilize learning strategies that stimulate curiosity, promote thinking, and encourage participation in exploration and play;

b. Provide curriculum that facilitate learning goals in content areas and provide opportunities to acquire concepts and skills that are precursors to academic content taught in elementary school;

c. Adapt tasks to the child's zone of proximal development;

d. Nurture children's development through firsthand experiences and opportunities to explore, examine, and investigate real materials in authentic context and engage in social interactions with peers and adults;

e. Select materials and equipment, arrange physical space, and plan schedules and routines to stimulate and facilitate development; and

f. Collaborate with families, colleagues, and members of the broader community to construct learning environments that promote a spirit of unity, respect, and service in the interest of the common good.

7. Understanding strategies that create positive and nurturing relationships with each child based on respect, trust, and acceptance of individual differences in ability levels, temperament, and other characteristics, including the ability to:

a. Emphasize the importance of supportive verbal and nonverbal communication;

b. Establish classroom and behavior management practices that are respectful, meet children's emotional needs, clearly communicate expectations for appropriate behavior, promote pro-social behaviors, prevent or minimize behavioral problems through careful planning of the learning environment, teach conflict resolution strategies, and mitigate or redirect challenging behaviors; and

c. Build positive, collaborative relationships with children's families with regard to behavioral guidance.

8VAC20-543-110. Early/primary education preK-3.

The program for early/primary education preK-3 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Methods.

a. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes to support learners in achievement of Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning in English, mathematics, history and social science, science, and computer and technology;

b. The ability to integrate English, mathematics, science, health, history and social sciences, art, music, drama, movement, and technology in learning experiences;

c. The use of differentiated instruction and flexible groupings to meet the needs of learners at different stages of development, abilities, and achievement;

d. The use of appropriate methods including those in visual and performing arts, to help learners develop knowledge and basic skills, sustain intellectual curiosity, and problem-solve;

e. The ability to utilize effective classroom management skills through methods that build responsibility and self-discipline and maintain a positive learning environment;

f. The ability to modify and manage learning environments and experiences to meet the individual needs of children, including children with disabilities, gifted children, children with limited proficiency in English, and children with diverse cultural needs;

g. The ability to use formal and informal assessments to diagnose needs, plan and modify instruction, and record student progress;

h. A commitment to professional growth and development through reflection, collaboration, and continuous learning;

i. The ability to analyze, evaluate, and apply quantitative and qualitative research; and

j. The ability to use technology as a tool for teaching, learning, research, and communication.

2. Knowledge and skills.

a. Reading and English. Understanding of the content, knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning for English including oral language (speaking and listening), reading, and writing, and how these standards provide the core for teaching English in grades preK-3 (early/primary licensure).

(1) Assessment and diagnostic teaching. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the use of both formal and informal assessment as screening, diagnostic, and progress monitoring measures for the component of reading: phoneme awareness, letter recognition, decoding, fluency, vocabulary, reading levels, and comprehension; and

(b) Be proficient in the ability to use diagnostic data to inform instruction for acceleration, intervention, remediation, and differentiation.

(2) Oral communication. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching oral language (speaking and listening);

(b) Be proficient in developing students' phonological awareness skills;

(c) Demonstrate effective strategies for facilitating the learning of standard English by speakers of other languages and dialects; and

(d) Demonstrate the ability to promote creative thinking and expression, such as through storytelling, drama, and choral and oral reading, etc.

(3) Reading and literature. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in explicit phonics instruction, including an understanding of sound and symbol relationships, syllables, phonemes, morphemes, word analysis, and decoding skills;

(b) Be proficient in strategies to increase vocabulary and concept development;

(c) Be proficient in the structure of the English language, including an understanding of syntax;

(d) Be proficient in reading comprehension strategies for (i) fiction and nonfiction text predicting, retelling, and summarizing and (ii) guiding students to make connections beyond the text;

(e) Demonstrate the ability to develop comprehension skills in all content areas;

(f) Demonstrate the ability to foster the appreciation of a variety of literature;

(g) Understand the importance of promoting independent reading by selecting fiction and nonfiction texts of appropriate yet engaging topics and reading levels; and

(h) Demonstrate effective strategies for teaching students to view, interpret, analyze, and represent information and concepts in visual form with or without the spoken or written word.

(4) Writing. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching writing, including the domains of composing, written expression, and usage and mechanics and the writing process of planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing;

(b) Understand the stages of spelling development, promoting the generalization of spelling study to writing, and be proficient in systematic spelling instruction, including awareness of the purpose and limitations of "invented spelling"; and

(c) Demonstrate the ability to teach students to write cohesively for a variety of purposes and to provide instruction on the writing process: planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing in the narrative, descriptive, persuasive, and explanative modes.

(5) Technology. The individual shall demonstrate the ability to guide students in their use of technology for both process and product as they work with reading and writing.

b. Mathematics.

(1) Understanding of the mathematics relevant to the content identified in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching mathematics in grades preK-3. Experiences with practical applications and the use of appropriate technology and manipulatives should be used within the following content:

(a) Number systems and their structure, basic operations, and properties;

(b) Elementary number theory, ratio, proportion, and percent;

(c) Algebra: fundamental idea of equality; operations with monomials and polynomials; algebraic fractions; linear and quadratic equations and inequalities and linear systems of equations and inequalities; radicals and exponents; arithmetic and geometric sequences and series; algebraic and trigonometric functions; and transformations among graphical, tabular, and symbolic forms of functions;

(d) Geometry: geometric figures, their properties, relationships, the Pythagorean Theorem; deductive and inductive reasoning; perimeter, area, and surface area of two-dimensional and three-dimensional figures; coordinate and transformational geometry; and constructions; and

(e) Probability and statistics: permutations and combinations; experimental and theoretical probability; prediction; data collection and graphical representations including box-and-whisker plots; and measures of center, spread of data, variability, range, and normal distribution.

(2) Understanding of the sequential nature of mathematics and vertical progression of mathematical standards.

(3) Understanding of the multiple representations of mathematical concepts and procedures.

(4) Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - reasoning mathematically, solving problems, communicating mathematics effectively, making mathematical connections, and using mathematical models and representations at different levels of complexity.

(5) Understanding of the contributions of different cultures toward the development of mathematics and the role of mathematics in culture and society.

(6) Understanding of the appropriate use of calculators and technology in the teaching and learning of mathematics, including virtual manipulatives.

(7) Understanding of and the ability to use strategies to teach mathematics to diverse learners.

c. History and social sciences.

(1) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of history and the social science disciplines as defined in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the necessary foundation for teaching history and social sciences, including in:

(a) History.

(i) The contributions of ancient civilizations to American social and political institutions;

(ii) Major events in Virginia history from 1607 to the present;

(iii) Key individuals, documents, and events in United States history; and

(iv) The evolution of America's constitutional republic and its ideas, institutions, and practices.

(b) Geography.

(i) The use of maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information;

(ii) The relationship between human activity and the physical environment in the community and the world; and

(iii) Physical processes that shape the surface of the earth.

(c) Civics.

(i) The privileges and responsibilities of good citizenship and the importance of the rule of law for the protection of individual rights;

(ii) The process of making laws in the United States and the fundamental ideals and principles of a republican form of government;

(iii) The understanding that Americans are a people of diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions, who are united by the basic principles of a republican form of government and a common identity as Americans; and

(iv) Local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia.

(d) Economics.

(i) The basic economic principles that underlie the United States market economy;

(ii) The role of the individual and how economic decisions are made in the market place; and

(iii) The role of government in the structure of the United States economy.

(2) Understanding of the nature of history and the social sciences, and how the study of the disciplines assists students in developing critical thinking skills in helping them to understand:

(a) The relationship between past and present;

(b) The use of primary sources such as artifacts, letters, photographs, and newspapers;

(c) How events in history are shaped both by the ideas and actions of people;

(d) Diverse cultures and shared humanity;

(e) Civic participation in a democracy; and

(f) The relationship between history, literature, art, and music.

d. Science.

(1) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the four core science disciplines as defined in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these standards provide a sound foundation for teaching science in the early/primary grades.

(2) Understanding of the nature of the theory and scientific inquiry, including the following:

(a) Function of research design and experimentation;

(b) Role and nature of science in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

(c) Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling, argumentation with evidence, and contracting explanations;

(d) Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

(e) Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity, including peer review; and

(f) Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

(3) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and practices for conducting an active elementary science program, including the ability to:

(a) Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

(b) Implement classroom and laboratory safety rules and procedures, and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

(c) Conduct research projects and experiments, including applications of the design process and technology;

(d) Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

(e) Organize key science content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

(f) Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

(g) Evaluate instructional materials, technologies, and teaching practices;

(h) Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

(i) Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance in science; and

(j) Ensure student competence in science.

(4) Understanding of the content, processes, and skills of the four core science areas, including Earth sciences, biology, chemistry, and physics supporting the teaching of elementary school science as defined by the Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and Virginia Science Standards of Learning and equivalent to academic course work in each of these four core science areas.

(5) Understanding of the core scientific disciplines of Earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics to ensure:

(a) The placement of the four core scientific disciplines in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

(b) The ability to teach the processes and crosscutting concepts common to the natural and physical sciences;

(c) The application of key science principles to solve practical problems; and

(d) A "systems" understanding of the natural world.

(6) Understanding of the contributions and significance of science, including:

(a) Its social, cultural, and economic significance;

(b) The relationship of science to mathematics, the design process, and technology; and

(c) The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

8VAC20-543-120. Elementary education preK-6.

The program in elementary education preK-6 may require that the candidate has completed an undergraduate major in interdisciplinary studies (focusing on the areas of English, mathematics, history and social sciences, and science) or in Virginia's core academic areas of English, mathematics, history and social sciences (i.e., history, government, geography, and economics), or science and demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Methods.

a. Understanding of the needed knowledge, skills, and processes to support learners in achievement of Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning in English, mathematics, history and social science, science, and computer and technology;

b. Understanding of current research on the brain, its role in learning, and implications for instruction;

c. The ability to integrate English, mathematics, science, health, history and social sciences, art, music, drama, movement, and technology in learning experiences;

d. The use of differentiated instruction and flexible groupings to meet the needs of learners at different stages of development, abilities, and achievement;

e. The use of appropriate methods, including those in visual and performing arts, to help learners develop knowledge and basic skills, sustain intellectual curiosity, and problem-solve;

f. The ability to utilize effective classroom and behavior management skills through methods that build responsibility and self-discipline and maintain a positive learning environment;

g. The ability to modify and manage learning environments and experiences to meet the individual needs of children, including children with disabilities, gifted children, and children with limited proficiency in English, and children with diverse cultural needs;

h. The ability to use formal and informal assessments to diagnose needs, plan and modify instruction, and record student progress;

i. A commitment to professional growth and development through reflection, collaboration, and continuous learning;

j. The ability to analyze, evaluate, and apply quantitative and qualitative research; and

k. Understanding of the Virginia Standards of Learning for Computer Technology and the ability to use technology as a tool for teaching, learning, research, and communication.

2. Knowledge and skills.

a. Reading and English. Understanding of the content, knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning for English including communication (speaking, listening, and media literacy), reading, writing, and research and how these standards provide the core for teaching English in grades preK-6 (elementary licensure).

(1) Assessment and diagnostic teaching. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the use of both formal and informal assessment as screening diagnostic, and progress monitoring measures for the components of reading: phoneme awareness, letter recognition, decoding, fluency, vocabulary, reading level, and comprehension; and

(b) Be proficient in the ability to use diagnostic data to inform instruction for acceleration, intervention, remediation, and differentiation.

(2) Communication: speaking, listening, and media literacy. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching communication (speaking, listening, and media literacy);

(b) Be proficient in developing students' phonological awareness skills;

(c) Demonstrate the ability to teach students to identify the characteristics of and apply critical thinking to media messages and to facilitate students' proficiency in using various forms of media to collaborate and communicate;

(d) Demonstrate effective strategies for facilitating the learning of standard English by speakers of other languages and dialects; and

(e) Demonstrate the ability to promote creative thinking and expression, such as through storytelling, drama, choral and oral reading, etc.

(3) Reading and literature. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in explicit and systematic phonics instruction, including an understanding of sound and symbol relationships, syllables, phonemes, morphemes, word analysis, and decoding skills;

(b) Be proficient in strategies to increase vocabulary and concept development;

(c) Be proficient in the structure of the English language, including an understanding of syntax and semantics;

(d) Be proficient in reading comprehension strategies for both fiction and nonfiction text, including questioning, predicting, inferencing, summarizing, clarifying, evaluating, and making connections;

(e) Demonstrate the ability to support students to read with fluency, accuracy, and meaningful expression (prosody);

(f) Demonstrate the ability to develop comprehension skills in all content areas;

(g) Demonstrate the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of literature;

(h) Understand the importance of promoting independent reading by selecting fiction and nonfiction texts of appropriate yet engaging topics and reading levels; and

(i) Demonstrate effective strategies for teaching students to view, interpret, analyze, and represent information and concepts in visual form with or without the spoken or written word.

(4) Writing. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching writing, including the domains of composing and written expression, and usage and mechanics and the writing process of planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing;

(b) Understand the stages of spelling development, promoting the generalization of spelling study to writing, and be proficient in systematic spelling instruction, including awareness of the purpose and limitations of "invented spelling";

(c) Demonstrate the ability to teach students to write cohesively for a variety of purposes and to provide instruction on the writing process: planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing in the narrative, descriptive, persuasive, and explanative modes; and

(d) Demonstrate the ability to facilitate student research and related skills such as accessing information, evaluating the validity of sources, citing sources, and synthesizing information.

(5) Technology. The individual shall demonstrate the ability to guide students in their use of technology for both process and product as they work with reading, writing, and research.

b. Mathematics.

(1) Understanding of the mathematics relevant to the content identified in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching mathematics in grades preK-6. Experiences with practical applications and the use of appropriate technology and concrete materials should be used within the following content:

(a) Number systems and their structure, basic operations, and properties;

(b) Elementary number theory, ratio, proportion, and percent;

(c) Algebra: operations with monomials and polynomials; algebraic fractions; linear and quadratic equations and inequalities and linear systems of equations and inequalities; radicals and exponents; arithmetic and geometric sequences and series; algebraic and trigonometric functions; and transformations among graphical, tabular, and symbolic forms of functions;

(d) Geometry: geometric figures, their properties, relationships, the Pythagorean Theorem; deductive and inductive reasoning; perimeter, area, and surface area of two-dimensional and three-dimensional figures; coordinate and transformational geometry; and constructions;

(e) Probability and statistics: permutations and combinations; experimental and theoretical probability; prediction; graphical representations including box-and-whisker plots; and measures of center, range, and normal distribution; and

(f) Computer science: terminology, simple programming, and software applications.

(2) Understanding of the sequential and developmental nature of mathematics.

(3) Understanding of the multiple representations of mathematical concepts and procedures.

(4) Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - reasoning mathematically, solving problems, communicating mathematics effectively, making mathematical connections, and using mathematical representations - at different levels of complexity.

(5) Understanding of the contributions of different cultures toward the development of mathematics and the role of mathematics in culture and society.

(6) Understanding of the role of technology and the ability to use calculators and computers in the teaching and learning of mathematics.

c. History and social sciences.

(1) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of history and the social sciences disciplines as defined in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the necessary foundation for teaching history and social sciences, including in:

(a) History.

(i) The contributions of ancient civilizations to modern social and political institutions;

(ii) Major events in Virginia history from 1607 to the present;

(iii) Key individuals, documents, and events in United States history; and

(iv) The evolution of America's constitutional republic and its ideas, institutions, and practices.

(b) Geography.

(i) The use of maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information;

(ii) The relationship between human activity and the physical environment in the community and the world; and

(iii) Physical processes that shape the surface of the earth.

(c) Civics.

(i) The privileges and responsibilities of good citizenship and the importance of the rule of law for the protection of individual rights;

(ii) The process of making laws in the United States and the fundamental ideals and principles of a republican form of government;

(iii) The understanding that Americans are a people of diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions, who are united by basic principles of a republican form of government and a common identity as Americans; and

(iv) Local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia.

(d) Economics.

(i) The basic economic principles that underlie the United States market economy;

(ii) The role of the individual and how economic decisions are made in the market place; and

(iii) The role of government in the structure of the United States economy.

(2) Understanding of the nature of history and social sciences and how the study of the disciplines assists students in developing critical thinking skills in helping them to understand:

(a) The relationship between past and present;

(b) The use of primary sources such as artifacts, letters, photographs, and newspapers;

(c) How events in history are shaped both by the ideas and actions of people;

(d) Diverse cultures and shared humanity;

(e) Civic participation in a democracy; and

(f) The relationship between history, literature, art, and music.

d. Science.

(1) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the four core science disciplines as defined in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these standards provide a sound foundation for teaching science in the elementary grades.

(2) Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, including the:

(a) Function of research design and experimentation;

(b) Role and nature of the theory in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

(c) Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling, argumentation with evidence, and constructing explanations;

(d) Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

(e) Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity, including peer review; and

(f) Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

(3) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for an active elementary science program including the ability to:

(a) Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

(b) Implement classroom and laboratory safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

(c) Conduct research projects and experiments, including applications of the design process and technology;

(d) Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

(e) Organize key science content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

(f) Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

(g) Evaluate instructional materials, technologies, and teaching practices;

(h) Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

(i) Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance in science; and

(j) Ensure student competence in science.

(4) Understanding of the content, processes, and skills of the four science areas, including Earth sciences, biology, chemistry, and physics supporting the teaching of preK-6 science as defined by the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and equivalent course work reflecting each of the four core science areas.

(5) Understanding of the core scientific disciplines of Earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics to ensure:

(a) The placement of the four core scientific disciplines in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

(b) The ability to teach the processes and crosscutting concepts common to the natural and physical sciences;

(c) The application of key science principles to solve practical problems; and

(d) A "systems" understanding of the natural world.

(6) Understanding of the contributions and significance of science including:

(a) Its social, cultural, and economic significance;

(b) The relationship of science to mathematics, the design process, and technology; and

(c) The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

8VAC20-543-130. Middle education 6-8.

The program in middle education 6-8 with at least one area of academic preparation shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Methods.

a. Understanding of the required knowledge, skills, and processes to support learners in achievement of the Virginia Standards of Learning for grades 6-8;

b. The use of appropriate methods, including direct instruction and inquiry-based instructional methods, to help learners develop knowledge and skills, sustain intellectual curiosity, and solve problems;

c. The ability to plan and teach collaboratively to facilitate interdisciplinary learning;

d. The use of differentiated instruction and flexible groupings to meet the needs of preadolescents at different stages of development, abilities, and achievement;

e. The ability to utilize effective classroom and behavior management skills through methods that build responsibility and self-discipline and maintain a positive learning environment;

f. The ability to modify and manage learning environments and experiences to meet the individual needs of preadolescents, including children with disabilities, gifted children, and children with limited proficiency in the English language;

g. The ability to use formal and informal assessments to diagnose needs, plan and modify instruction, and record student progress;

h. A commitment to professional growth and development through reflection, collaboration, and continuous learning;

i. The ability to analyze, evaluate, apply, and conduct quantitative and qualitative research;

j. The ability to use technology as a tool for teaching, learning, research, and communication;

k. An understanding of how to apply a variety of school organizational structures, schedules, groupings, and classroom formats appropriately for middle level learners;

l. Skill in promoting the development of all students' abilities for academic achievement and continued learning; and

m. The ability to use reading in the content area strategies appropriate to text and student needs.

2. English.

a. Possession of the skills necessary to teach the writing process, to differentiate among the forms of writing (narrative, descriptive, informational, and persuasive), and to use computers and other available technology;

b. Understanding of and knowledge in grammar, usage, and mechanics and its integration in writing;

c. Understanding and the nature and development of language and its impact on vocabulary development and spelling;

d. Understanding of and knowledge in techniques and strategies to enhance reading comprehension and fluency;

e. Understanding of and knowledge in the instruction of speaking, listening, collaboration, and media literacy;

f. Knowledge of varied works from current and classic young adult literature appropriate for English instruction of fiction, nonfiction, and poetry; and

g. Skills necessary to teach research techniques, including evaluating, organizing, crediting, and synthesizing information.

3. History and social sciences.

a. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of history and the social science disciplines as defined by the Virginia History and Social Sciences Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching history and social sciences, including in:

(1) United States history.

(a) The evolution of the American constitutional republic and its ideas, institutions, and practices from the colonial period to the present; the American Revolution, including ideas and principles preserved in significant Virginia and United States historical documents as required by § 22.1-201 of the Code of Virginia (the Declaration of American Independence; the general principles of the Constitution of the United States; the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom; the charters of The Virginia Company of April 10, 1606, May 23, 1609, and March 12, 1612; and the Virginia Declaration of Rights); and historical challenges to the American political system (i.e., slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and civil rights);

(b) The influence of religious traditions on the American heritage and on contemporary American society;

(c) The changing role of America around the world; the relationship between domestic affairs and foreign policy; and the global political and economic interactions;

(d) The influence of immigration on American political, social, and economic life;

(e) Origins, effects, aftermath and significance of the two world wars, the Korean and Vietnam conflicts, and the post-Cold War era;

(f) Social, political, and economic transformations in American life during the 20th century; and

(g) Tensions between liberty and equality, liberty and order, region and nation, individualism and the common welfare, and cultural diversity and civic unity.

(2) World history.

(a) The political, philosophical, and cultural legacies of ancient, American, Asian, African, and European civilizations;

(b) Origins, ideas, and institutions of Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, Confucianism and Taoism, and Shinto, Buddhist, and Islamic religious traditions;

(c) Medieval society and institutions, relations with Islam, feudalism, and the evolution of representative government;

(d) The social, political, and economic contributions of selected civilizations in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas;

(e) The culture and ideas of the Renaissance and the Reformation, European exploration, and the origins of capitalism and colonization;

(f) The cultural ideas of the Enlightenment and the intellectual revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries;

(g) The sources, results, and influence of the American and French revolutions;

(h) The social consequences of the Industrial Revolution and its impact on politics and culture;

(i) The global influence of European ideologies of the 19th and 20th centuries (liberalism, republicanism, social democracy, Marxism, nationalism, Communism, Fascism, and Nazism); and

(j) The origins, effects, aftermath, and significance of the two world wars.

(3) Civics and economics.

(a) Essential characteristics of limited and unlimited governments;

(b) Importance of the rule of law for the protection of individual rights and the common good;

(c) Rights and responsibilities of American citizenship;

(d) Nature and purposes of constitutions and alternative ways of organizing constitutional governments;

(e) American political culture;

(f) Values and principles of the American constitutional republic;

(g) Structures, functions, and powers of local and state government;

(h) Importance of citizen participation in the political process in local and state government;

(i) Local government and civic instruction specific to Virginia;

(j) Structures, functions, and powers of the national government; and

(k) The structure and function of the United States market economy as compared with other economies.

b. Understanding of the nature of history and social sciences and how the study of these disciplines helps students go beyond critical thinking skills to help them appreciate:

(1) The significance of the past to their lives and to society;

(2) Diverse cultures and shared humanity;

(3) How things happen, how they change, and how human intervention matters;

(4) The interplay of change and continuity;

(5) Historical cause and effect;

(6) The importance of individuals who have made a difference in history and the significance of personal character to the future of society;

(7) The relationship among history, geography, civics, and economics; and

(8) The difference between fact and conjecture, evidence and assertion, and the importance of framing useful questions.

4. Mathematics.

a. Understanding of the knowledge and skills necessary to teach the Virginia Mathematics Standards of Learning and how curriculum may be organized to teach these standards to diverse learners;

b. Understanding of a core knowledge base of concepts and procedures within the discipline of mathematics, including the following strands: number and number sense; computation and estimation; geometry and measurement; statistics and probability; and patterns, functions, and algebra;

c. Understanding of the mathematics relevant to the content identified in the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching mathematics in the middle grades. Experiences with practical applications and the use of appropriate technology and manipulatives should be used within the following content:

(1) Number systems and their structure, basic operations, and properties;

(2) Elementary number theory, ratio, proportion, and percent;

(3) Algebra: fundamental idea of equality; operations with monomials and polynomials; algebraic fractions; linear and quadratic equations and inequalities and linear systems of equations and inequalities; radicals and exponents; arithmetic and geometric sequences and series; algebraic and trigonometric functions; and transformations among graphical, tabular, and symbolic forms of functions;

(4) Geometry: geometric figures, their properties, relationships, the Pythagorean Theorem; deductive and inductive reasoning; perimeter, area, and surface area of two-dimensional and three-dimensional figures; coordinate and transformational geometry; and constructions;

(5) Probability and statistics: permutations and combinations; experimental and theoretical probability; data collection and graphical representations, including box-and-whisker plots; data analysis and interpretation for predictions; measures of center; spread of data, variability, range, standard deviation, and normal distributions.

d. Understanding of the sequential nature of mathematics, the vertical progression of mathematical standards,  and the mathematical structures inherent in the content strands;

e. Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - becoming mathematical problem solvers, reasoning mathematically, communicating mathematically, making mathematical connections, and representing, modeling and describing mathematical ideas, generalizations, and relationships using a variety of methods - at different levels of complexity;

f. Understanding of the contributions of various individuals and cultures toward the development of mathematics and the role of mathematics in culture and society;

g. Understanding of the major current curriculum studies and trends in mathematics;

h. Understanding of the appropriate use of calculators and technology and the ability to use graphing utilities in the teaching and learning of mathematics, including virtual manipulatives;

i. Understanding of and the ability to select, adapt, evaluate and use instructional materials and resources, including professional journals and technology;

j. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies for managing, assessing, and monitoring student learning, including diagnosing student errors; and

k. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies to teach mathematics to diverse adolescent learners.

5. Science.

a. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the Earth, life, and physical sciences as defined in the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these provide a sound foundation for teaching science in the middle grades.

b. Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, including:

(1) Function of research design and experimentation;

(2) Role of science in explaining and predicting events and phenomena; and

(3) Science skills of data analysis, measurement, observation, prediction, and experimentation.

c. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for an active middle school science program, including the ability to:

(1) Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

(2) Conduct research projects and experiments;

(3) Implement safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

(4) Organize key science content into meaningful units of instruction;

(5) Adapt instruction to diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

(6) Evaluate instructional materials, instruction, and student achievement; and

(7) Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance in science.

d. Understanding of the content, processes, and skills of the Earth sciences, biology, chemistry, and physics supporting the teaching of middle school science as defined by the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and equivalent to academic course work in each of these core science areas.

e. Understanding of the core scientific disciplines to ensure:

(1) The placement of science in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

(2) The ability to teach the processes and organize concepts common to the natural and physical sciences; and

(3) Student achievement in science.

f. Understanding of the contributions and significance of science to include:

(1) Its social and cultural significance;

(2) The relationship of science to technology; and

(3) The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

Article 3
PreK-12 Endorsements, Special Education, Secondary Grades 6-12 Endorsements, and Adult Education

8VAC20-543-140. Professional studies requirements for preK-12 endorsements, special education, secondary grades 6-12 endorsements, and adult education.

Professional studies requirements for preK-12 endorsements, special education, secondary grades 6-12 endorsements, and adult education:

1. Human development and learning (birth through adolescence).

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the physical, social, emotional, speech and language, and intellectual development of children and the ability to use this understanding in guiding learning experiences and relating meaningfully to students.

b. The interaction of children with individual differences - economic, social, racial, ethnic, religious, physical, and mental - should be incorporated to include skills contributing to an understanding of developmental disabilities and developmental issues related but not limited to low socioeconomic status, attention deficit disorders, developmental disabilities, gifted education including the use of multiple criteria to identify gifted students, substance abuse, child abuse, and family disruptions.

2. Curriculum and instruction.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology; effective communication with and among students; selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies; selection, development, and use of appropriate curricula, methodologies, and materials that support and enhance student learning and reflect the research on unique, age-appropriate, and culturally relevant curriculum and pedagogy.

b. Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instruction must be included.

c. Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners, including limited English proficient students, gifted and talented students, and students with disabilities, and appropriate for the level of endorsement sought shall be included.

d. Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student academic progress and effective preparation for the Standards of Learning assessments.

e. Methods of improving communication between schools and families and ways of increasing family involvement in student learning at home and in school and the Virginia Standards of Learning shall be included.

f. Demonstrated proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction shall be included.

g. Persons seeking initial licensure as teachers and persons seeking licensure renewal as teachers for the first time shall complete study in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Services that are relevant to the specific teacher licensure routes.

h. Curriculum and instruction for secondary grades 6-12 endorsements shall include middle and secondary education. Pre-student teaching experiences (field experiences) should be evident within these skills. For preK-12, field experiences shall be at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels.

3. Assessment of and for learning.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding and application of creating, selecting, and implementing valid and reliable classroom-based assessments of student learning, including formative and summative assessments. Assessments designed and adapted to meet the needs of diverse learners must be addressed.

b. Analytical skills necessary to inform ongoing planning and instruction, as well as to understand and help students understand their own progress and growth must be included.

c. Skills also include the ability to understand the relationships among assessment, instruction, and monitoring student progress to include student performance measures in grading practices, the ability to interpret valid assessments using a variety of formats in order to measure student attainment of essential skills in a standards-based environment, and the ability to analyze assessment data to make decisions about how to improve instruction and student performance.

d. Understanding of state assessment programs and accountability systems, including assessments used for student achievement goal setting as related to teacher evaluation and determining student academic progress, including knowledge of legal and ethical aspects of assessment.

e. Skills include developing familiarity with assessments used in preK-12 education (e.g., diagnostic, college admission exams, industry certifications, placement assessments).

4. The teaching profession.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding of the historical, philosophical, and sociological foundations underlying the role, development, and organization of public education in the United States.

b. Attention must be given to the legal status of teachers and students, including federal and state laws and regulations; school as an organization and culture; and contemporary issues and current trends in education, including the impact of technology on education. Local, state, and federal governance of schools, including the roles of teachers and schools in communities, must be included.

c. Professionalism and ethical standards, as well as personal integrity must be addressed.

d. Knowledge and understanding of Virginia's Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachers must be included.

5. Classroom and behavior management.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of and application of research-based classroom and behavior management techniques, classroom community building, positive behavior supports, and individual interventions, including techniques that promote emotional well-being and teach and maintain behavioral conduct and skills consistent with norms, standards, and rules of the educational environment.

b. This area shall address diverse approaches based upon behavioral, cognitive, affective, social, and ecological theory and practice.

c. Approaches should support professionally appropriate practices that promote positive redirection of behavior, development of social skills, and self-discipline.

d. Knowledge and an understanding of various school crisis management and safety plans and the ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environment must be included. The link between classroom management and the students' ages must be understood and demonstrated in techniques used in the classroom.

6. Reading.

a. Adult education, preK-12, and secondary grades 6-12 - literacy in the content areas. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart an understanding of vocabulary development and comprehension skills in English, mathematics, science, history and social sciences, and other content areas. Strategies include teaching students how to ask effective questions, summarize and retell both verbally and in writing, and listen effectively. Teaching strategies include literal, interpretive, critical, and evaluative comprehension, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading for adolescent learners.

b. Special education - language acquisition and reading and writing. Skills listed for these endorsement areas represent the minimum competencies that a beginning teacher must be able to demonstrate. These skills are not intended to limit the scope of a beginning teacher's program. Additional knowledge and skills that add to a beginning teacher's competencies to deliver instruction and improve student achievement should be included as part of a quality learning experience.

(1) Language acquisition: Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning as well as the complex nature of language acquisition as a precursor to literacy. Language acquisition shall follow the typical development of linguistic competence in the areas of phonetics, semantics, syntax, morphology, phonology, and pragmatics.

(2) Reading and writing: Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning as well as the reciprocal nature of reading and writing. Reading shall include phonemic awareness, concept of print, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension strategies. Writing shall include writing strategies and conventions as supporting the composing and written expression and usage and mechanics domains. Additional skills shall include proficiency in understanding the stages of spelling development, the writing process, and the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading.

7. Supervised clinical experiences. The supervised clinical experiences shall be continuous and systematic and comprised of early field experiences with a minimum of 10 weeks of full-time student teaching under the supervision of a cooperating teacher with demonstrated effectiveness in the classroom. The summative supervised student teaching experience shall include at least 150 clock hours spent in direct teaching at the level of endorsement.

If a preK-12 endorsement is sought, teaching activities shall be at the elementary and middle or secondary levels. Individuals seeking the endorsement in library media shall complete the supervised school library media practicum in a school library media setting. Individuals seeking an endorsement in an area of special education shall complete the supervised student teaching experience requirement in the area of special education for which the endorsement is sought. One year of successful full-time teaching experience in the endorsement area in any public school or accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the supervised student teaching experience. A fully licensed, experienced teacher shall be available in the school building to assist a beginning teacher employed through the alternate route.

8VAC20-543-150. Adult education.

The program in adult education shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the nature or psychology of the adult learner or adult development;

2. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes needed for the selection, evaluation, and instructional applications of the methods and materials for adult basic skills including:

a. Curriculum development in adult basic education or general educational development (GED) instruction;

b. Beginning reading for adults;

c. Beginning mathematics for adults;

d. Reading comprehension for adult education;

e. Foundations of adult education; and

f. Other adult basic skills instruction.

3. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes; and

5. One semester of supervised successful full-time, or an equivalent number of hours of part-time, experience teaching adults.

8VAC20-543-160. Adult English as a second language (add-on endorsement).

The program in adult English as a second language shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge in the growth and development of the adult learner;

2. Knowledge of teaching methods and materials in adult English as a second language;

3. Knowledge in adult language acquisition;

4. Knowledge of assessment methods in adult English as a second language instruction;

5. Skills in teaching the adult learner;

6. Understanding of the effects of sociocultural variables in the instructional setting;

7. Skills in teaching a variety of adult learning styles;

8. Proficiency in cross-cultural communication;

9. Proficiency in speaking, listening, and reading;

10. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing; and

11. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-170. Career and technical education – agricultural education.

The program in agricultural education shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the importance and relationship of and contribution to the agricultural industry to the community, state, nation, and global economy including:

a. Knowledge of the fundamental historical foundation of the state and national agricultural industry;

b. Knowledge of contemporary components of the United States food and fiber system; and

c. Knowledge of the career opportunities in agriculture and related fields.

2. Applying the knowledge, skills, and processes involved in plant and soil sciences, including:

a. Production, use, and marketing of row crops, specialty crops, forage crops, fruits, small grains, vegetables, and cereal crops; and

b. Soil and water management.

3. Applying the knowledge, skills, and processes involved in the production, management, and marketing of animals, including:

a. Production of cattle, swine, poultry, dairy cows, sheep, aquaculture species, goats, and horses; and

b. Care and management of horses and small companion animals.

4. Applying knowledge, skills, and processes involved in agricultural mechanics and technology, including:

a. Set up safe operation, repair, and maintenance of equipment, tools, and measuring devices used in agriculture;

b. Knowledge of energy transfer systems used in agriculture;

c. Knowledge of properties of metals used in tools and equipment; and

d. Knowledge of alternative energy sources, fuels, and lubricants from agricultural and natural resources.

5. Understanding of agricultural economics, including the various markets, international trade, government policies, and the operation and management of various agricultural businesses.

6. Applying the knowledge, skills, and processes involved in natural resources, including:

a. Care, management, and conservation of soil, air, water, energy, and wildlife; and

b. Production and management of the forest.

7. Understanding the relationship of agriculture to community resource and partnership development, including:

a. Local agricultural program advisory committees;

b. Adult education programs;

c. Agricultural enterprises;

d. Student work-based learning opportunities;

e. Public and private programs and resources; and

f. Civic organizations.

8. Implementing classroom management techniques and pedagogical knowledge necessary to:

a. Understand the biological, physical, chemical, and applied sciences to practical solutions of agricultural problems;

b. Teach agricultural competencies needed by secondary students to be successful in continuing their education and entering a related career pathway;

c. Develop effective leadership skills through the Future Farmers of America (FFA) student organization as an integral part of instruction; and

d. Apply knowledge and skills for the administration of the agricultural program, including managing budgets, maintaining student performance records and equipment inventories.

9. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

10. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

11. Understanding of and proficiency in the use of instructional technologies.

12. Demonstrating and integrating workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities.

13. Ability to plan, deliver, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

8VAC20-543-180. Career and technical education – business and information technology.

The program in business and information technology shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge, skills, and principles of manual and automated accounting, including:

a. Accounting concepts, terminology, and applications;

b. Accounting systems;

c. The basic accounting cycle of source documents, verifications, analyzing, recording, posting, trial balances, and preparing financial statements; and

d. Use of accounting computer software to automate accounting tasks.

2. Knowledge and skills in economics, including:

a. Basic economic concepts and structures;

b. The role of producers and consumers in a market economy;

c. The price system;

d. The many factors that may affect income;

e. A nation's economic goals, including full employment, stable prices, and economic growth;

f. The nation's finance system;

g. How monetary and fiscal policy influence employment, output, and prices;

h. The role of government in a market economy;

i. The global economy; and

j. Distinguishing between trade deficit and trade surplus.

3. Knowledge of the foundations of business selected from the following areas:

a. Business law.

(1) Ability to recognize the legal requirements affecting business organization; and

(2) Ability to apply legal principles to business situations.

b. Business principles.

(1) Ability to identify, explain, and apply contemporary business principles;

(2) Ability to identify and explain the advantages and disadvantages of various business organizational structures; and

(3) Knowledge of the foundations of international business, the global business environment, international business communications, and global business ethics.

c. Management. Understanding and analyzing of basic management functions, tools, theories, and leadership styles to explore and solve problems in business organizations, economics, international business, and human relations issues.

d. Marketing and entrepreneurship.

(1) Understanding of basic marketing concepts in sales techniques, advertising, display, buying, wholesale and retail, distribution, service occupations, market analysis, warehousing, and inventory control; and

(2) Understanding of the unique characteristics of an entrepreneur and the knowledge and skills necessary for an entrepreneurial venture.

e. Finance.

(1) Knowledge about and skills in the areas of managing personal finance and budgeting, saving and investing, buying goods and services, banking and financial institutions, and earning and reporting income needed for sound financial decision making; and

(2) Understanding of the basic concepts of economics, insurance, credit, consumer skills, and other related topics.

4. Knowledge and skills in all of the following communications and information technologies:

a. Communications.

(1) Ability to communicate in a clear, courteous, concise, and correct manner for personal and professional purposes through the foundations of listening, writing, reading, speaking, nonverbal cues, and following written and oral directions;

(2) Ability to use information systems and technology to expedite and enhance the effectiveness of communications and telecommunications; and

(3) Ability to gather, evaluate, use, and cite information from information technology sources.

b. Impact of technology on society and the individual (digital citizenship). Knowledge to assess the impact of information technology on society.

c. Computer architecture. Ability to describe current and emerging computer architecture; configure, install, and upgrade hardware; and diagnose and repair hardware problems.

d. Operating systems, environments, and utilities. Ability to identify, evaluate, select, install, use, upgrade, customize, and diagnose and solve problems with various types of operating systems, environments, and utilities.

e. Application software (e.g., word processing; database; spreadsheet; graphics; web design; desktop, presentation, multimedia, and imaging; and emerging technologies).

(1) Ability to identify, evaluate, select, install, use, upgrade, and customize application software; and

(2) Ability to diagnose and solve problems resulting from an application software's installation and use.

f. Input technologies. Ability to use input devices and technologies (e.g., touch keyboarding, speech recognition, handwriting recognition, hand-held devices, touch screen or mouse, scanning, and other emerging input technologies) to enter, manipulate, and format text and data.

g. Database management systems. Ability to use, plan, develop, and maintain database management systems. Ability to diagnose and solve problems using database management systems.

h. Programming and application development. Ability to help students design, develop, test, and implement multi-platform (e.g., mobile, different operating systems) programs that solve business problems.

i. Networking and communications infrastructures.

(1) Facilitate students' development in the skills to design, deploy, and administer networks and communications systems;

(2) Facilitate students' ability to use, evaluate, and deploy communications and networking applications; and

(3) Facilitate students' ability to analyze networks for security vulnerabilities and develop and deploy appropriate security plans and applications.

j. Information management.

(1) Ability to plan the selection and acquisition of information technologies (hardware and software);

(2) Ability to instruct students in the development of technical and interpersonal skills and knowledge to support the user community; and

(3) Ability to describe, analyze, develop, and follow policies for managing privacy and ethical issues in organizations and in a technology-based society.

k. Web development and multimedia;

(1) Ability to instruct students in the design and development of web applications based on industry standards and principles of good design;

(2) Ability to instruct students in the design and development of multimedia applications; and

(3) Ability to design and develop multimedia and web-based applications for multiple operating systems and environments (mobile, desktop, cloud).

l. Project management.

(1) Understand the components of project management and its importance to business and information technology.

(2) Use project management tools to coordinate information technology, business, or related projects and manage teamwork.

5. Knowledge and skills necessary to teach leadership skills, organize and manage an effective co-curricular student organization, and implement the organization's activities as an integral part of instruction.

6. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8. Knowledge and skills necessary to apply basic mathematical operations to solve business problems.

9. Demonstration and integration of workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities.

10. Ability to plan, deliver, evaluate, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

8VAC20-543-190. Career and technical education – family and consumer sciences.

The program in family and consumer sciences shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge of the human growth and developmental processes throughout the lifespan, including infancy, childhood, preadolescence, adolescence, adulthood and aging, and in creating and maintaining an environment in which family members develop and interact as individuals and as members of a group;

2. Knowledge of the decision-making processes related to housing, furnishings, and equipment for individuals and families with attention given to special needs and the diversity of individuals;

3. The ability to plan, purchase, and prepare food choices that promote nutrition and wellness and safety and sanitation;

4. Knowledge of the management of resources to achieve individual and family goals at different stages of the life span and the family life cycle;

5. Knowledge of the sociological, psychological, and physiological aspects of apparel and textiles for individuals and families;

6. Knowledge of the management of families, community, work, and their interrelationships;

7. Knowledge of occupational skill development and career planning;

8. Knowledge of the use of critical science and creative skills to address problems in diverse family, community, and work environments;

9. Knowledge and skills necessary to teach leadership, communication, interpersonal problem-solving, and ethical decision-making skills;

10. The ability to plan, develop, teach, supervise, and evaluate programs in occupational programs at the secondary, postsecondary, and adult levels;

11. The ability to organize and implement Family, Career, and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA) programs as an integral part of classroom instruction;

12. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

13. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes;

14. Demonstrate and integrate workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities; and

15. Ability to plan, deliver, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

8VAC20-543-200. Career and technical education – health and medical sciences.

The program in health and medical sciences shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge of teaching methods.

a. Instructional planning - ability to determine the needs and interests of students;

b. Organizing instruction - ability to prepare teacher-made instructional materials for clinical laboratory experience;

c. Instructional execution - ability to use techniques for simulating patient care and demonstrating manipulative skills;

d. Application of technology in the classroom; and

e. Instructional evaluation - ability to determine grades for students in classroom and clinical settings.

2. Knowledge of program management.

a. Planning - ability to organize an occupational advisory committee;

b. Curriculum development - ability to keep informed of current curriculum content and patient care practices;

c. Planning and organizing teaching and occupational laboratory for laboratory simulations and demonstrations;

d. Understanding of the process for issuing credentials for health workers;

e. Understanding of the health care industry; and

f. Evaluation - ability to conduct a student follow-up study.

3. Knowledge and skills necessary to teach leadership skills, organize and manage an effective co-curricular student organization, and implement the organization's activities as an integral part of instruction.

4. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

5. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

6. Demonstrate and integrate workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities.

7. Ability to plan, deliver, evaluate, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

8VAC20-543-210. Career and technical education – marketing education.

The program in marketing shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge of marketing processes and the environment; management and supervision; economics; merchandising and operations; advertising and promotion; sales and selling; communication theory and techniques; consumer behavior; international (global) marketing; finance; accounting or marketing mathematics; and technology applications through a variety of educational and work experiences;

2. Knowledge of skills and principles common across the marketing pathways: channel management; marketing-information management; market planning; pricing; product and service management promotion; and selling;

3. Ability to plan, develop, and administer a comprehensive marketing program for high school students and adults;

4. Ability to organize and use a variety of instructional methods and techniques for teaching youths and adults;

5. Ability to conduct learning programs that include a variety of career objectives and recognize and respond to individual differences in students;

6. Ability to assist learners of different abilities in developing skills needed to qualify for further education and employment;

7. Knowledge of occupational skill development and career planning for opportunities in marketing, merchandising, hospitality, and management;

8. Knowledge and skills necessary to teach leadership skills, organize and manage an effective co-curricular student organization (DECA) and implement the organization's activities as an integral part of instruction;

9. Application of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

10. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes;

11. Application of and proficiency in instructional technology and current technological applications as these relate to marketing functions;

12. Demonstration and integration of workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities;

13. Ability to plan, deliver, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction, such as: internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship; and

14. Ability to apply mathematical operations to solve marketing problems.

8VAC20-543-220. Career and technical education – technology education.

The program in technology education shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding the nature of technology, including knowledge of the:

a. Characteristics and scope of technology;

b. Core concepts of physical, biological, and informational technologies; and

c. Relationships among technologies, including the natural intersects between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and other fields.

2. Understanding the relationships between technology and society, including the:

a. Sociocultural, political, and economic influences of technology;

b. Local and global effects of technological products and systems on the environment; and

c. Role that society plays in the use and development of technology; and

d. Influence of technology on human history.

3. Comprehension and utilization of engineering design, including the:

a. Attributes of technological design;

b. Role of constraints, optimization, and predictive analysis in engineering design;

c. Requirement of problem-solving, critical thinking, and technical writing skills; and

d. Intentional integration of mathematics and science concepts and practices.

4. Ability to succeed in a technological world, including a capacity to:

a. Employ the design process in the engineering of technological products and systems;

b. Determine and control the behavior of technological products and systems;

c. Use and maintain technological products and systems; and

d. Assess the impacts and consequences of technological products and systems.

5. Ability to select and use the major physical, biological, and informational technologies of the designed world, including the:

a. Principles and processes characteristic of contemporary and emerging transportation, manufacturing, and construction technologies, inclusive of research, engineering design and testing, planning, organization, resources, and modes of distribution;

b. Range of enabling technologies that utilize fundamental biological principles and cellular processes characteristic of traditional and modern biotechnical technologies, including research, design-based engineering and testing of agricultural products, biotechnical systems, and associated medical technologies;

c. Purpose, processes, and resources involved with creating, encoding, transmitting, receiving, decoding, storage, retrieval, and understanding of information data using communication systems in a global information society; and

d. Concept, laws, forms, and characteristics of energy as a fundamental requirement of the technological world, inclusive of the resultant power and work requisites, both renewable and nonrenewable, of the tools, machines, products, and systems within.

6. Knowledge, skills, and processes required for teaching in a STEM laboratory environment, including:

a. Laboratory safety rules, regulations, processes, and procedures;

b. Ability to organize content and practices into effective instructional units;

c. Ability to deliver instruction to diverse learners;

d. Ability to evaluate student achievement, curriculum materials, instructional strategies, and teaching practices;

e. Ability to incorporate new and emerging instructional technologies to enhance student performance across the varied domains of knowledge - cognitive, affective, and psychomotor; and

f. Ability to convey the concepts and procedures for developing a learner's technological literacy specifically and integrative STEM literacy in general.

7. Demonstration of the knowledge, abilities, and capacity necessary to teach leadership skills, organize and manage an effective co-curricular student organization, and implement the organization's activities as an integral part of instruction.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in formal technical writing.

9. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

10. Demonstrate and integrate workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities.

11. Ability to plan, deliver, evaluate, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

8VAC20-543-230. Career and technical education – trade and industrial education.

The program in trade and industrial education shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of industrial education and its role in the development of technically competent, socially responsible, and culturally sensitive individuals with potential for leadership in skilled technical work and professional studies;

2. Understanding of and the ability to relate experiences designed to develop skills in the interpretation and implementation of industrial education philosophy in accordance with changing demand;

3. The knowledge and experience of systematically planning, executing, and evaluating individual and group instruction;

4. Knowledge of the competencies necessary for effective organization and management of laboratory instruction;

5. Knowledge of the competencies necessary for making physical, social, and emotional adjustments in multicultural student-teacher relationships;

6. Knowledge of the competencies necessary for developing and utilizing systematic methods and instruments for appraising and recording student progress in the career and technical educational classroom;

7. Knowledge of the ability to provide technical work experience through cooperative education or provide a method of evaluating previous occupational experience commensurate with the minimum required standard;

8. Knowledge of the competencies and industry credentials necessary to assist students in job placement and in otherwise bridging the gap between education and work;

9. Understanding of the awareness of the human relations factor in industry, with emphasis on the area of cooperation among labor, management, and the schools;

10. Knowledge of the teacher's role in the school and community;

11. Understanding of the content, skills, and techniques necessary to teach a particular trade area;

12. Knowledge of the competencies necessary to organize and manage an effective student organization;

13. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

14. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes;

15. Demonstration and integration of work place readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities; and

16. Understanding of the planning, delivery, and management of work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

8VAC20-543-240. Career and technical education – transition and special needs (add-on endorsement).

The transition and special needs (add-on endorsement) shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge of special needs and transition programs and services, characteristics of students who are disadvantaged, disabled, gifted, and individuals with barriers to educational achievement and employment, including individuals with limited English proficiency.

2. Knowledge of program development, implementation, and evaluation.

3. Basic understanding of cultural issues pertaining to employment and postsecondary education and training.

4. Understanding of the federal and state laws and regulations pertaining to special education, rehabilitation, and the American with Disabilities Act (42 USC § 12101 et seq.).

5. Understanding and demonstration of the integration of instructional methods, resources, and transition programs for targeted populations in career and technical education, including:

a. Use of learning and teaching styles to plan and deliver differentiated instruction and differentiated assessment;

b. Knowledge of age appropriate assessments;

c. Use of assessment results to plan individual instruction strategies and assist with long-range and short-term planning;

d. Understanding of required skills that demonstrate college and career readiness;

e. Ability to plan and manage a competency-based education system;

f. Ability to adapt and modify curriculum materials and utilize Universal Design for Learning Principles to meet special student needs;

g. Use of a variety of classroom and behavior management techniques to develop an enhanced learning environment, behavior change techniques, and individual and group instruction;

h. Use of different processes to improve collaboration and develop partnerships with colleagues, parents, and the community to include service agencies and businesses; and

i. Ability to plan learning experiences that prepare individuals for transition to more advanced education and career development options.

6. Ability to develop, plan, deliver, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction such as community-based instruction, internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

7. Understanding and application of strategies for enabling students to learn all aspects of particular industries - planning, management, finances, technical and production skills, labor and community issues, health and safety, environmental issues, and the technology associated with the specific industry.

8. Ability to articulate career and life planning procedures, transitioning processes and procedures, and career-search techniques.

9. Application of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

10. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

11. Ability to use a variety of technologies to deliver instruction and media to students, parents, teachers, and community partners.

12. Demonstration and integration of workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities.

13. Demonstrate person-centered planning skills.

8VAC20-543-250. Computer science.

The program in computer science shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of mathematical principles that are the basis of many computer applications;

2. Knowledge of the functions, capabilities, and limitations of computers and computer systems;

3. Knowledge of the ethical, moral, and legal issues associated with applications in programming and computer science;

4. Knowledge of programming in at least two widely used programming languages, including definition, structure, and comparison;

5. Knowledge of programming languages including definition, design, comparison, and evaluation;

6. Knowledge of computers and computer systems and their applications;

7. Knowledge of data structures and algorithms;

8. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing; and

9. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-260. Dance arts preK-12.

The program in dance arts shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the dance arts discipline as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning and how they provide a foundation needed to teach dance arts.

2. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching dance arts to meet the developmental levels and academic needs of students in preK-12, including the following:

a. Knowledge of and experience in planning, developing, administering, and evaluating a program of dance arts education;

b. Knowledge and understanding for teaching dance arts, including performance, creation, and production; dance history and cultural context; analysis, evaluation, and critique; and aesthetics;

c. Ballet, folk, jazz, and modern dance with an area of concentration in one of these areas;

d. Scientific foundations, including human anatomy, kinesiology, and injury prevention and care for dance arts;

e. The relationship of dance arts and culture and the influence of dance on past and present cultures;

f. Knowledge and understanding of technological and artistic copyright laws;

g. Knowledge and understanding of classroom management and safety, including performance and studio;

h. Knowledge of a variety of instructional and assessment strategies to foster, support, and enhance student dance arts learning;

i. Knowledge and understanding of technology, with applications for instruction, resources, artistic expression, administration, assessment, and communication;

j. Knowledge and understanding of appropriate and sensitive attention to diversity and cultural understanding;

k. Knowledge of related areas of the fine arts, such as music, theatre arts, and the visual arts; and

l. Observation and student teaching experiences at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels.

3. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-270. Driver education (add-on endorsement).

The program in driver education shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Basic understanding of the administration of a driver education program as required by § 22.1-205 of the Code of Virginia and the Administrative Guide for Driver Education in Virginia 2010 (http://www.doe.virginia.gov/instruction/driver_education/curriculum_admin_guide/index.shtml) including:

a. Coordination and scheduling of classroom and in-car instruction;

b. The Board of Education and the Department of Motor Vehicle's regulations governing driver education programs;

c. Student safety and other legal liability issues;

d. The juvenile licensing process;

e. Highway traffic safety and the driver licensing laws in the Code of Virginia;

f. Vehicle procurement maintenance and safety equipment requirements;

g. The Department of Education's and the Department of Motor Vehicle's juvenile licensing forms;

h. Monitoring and oversight procedures that ensure the approved program meets state curriculum objectives, goals, and learning outcomes; the classroom and in-car hour requirements; and teachers have valid Virginia driver's licenses, acceptable driving records, and meet teacher licensure and/or in-car instructor training requirements;

i. Promoting parent involvement;

j. Providing opportunities for ongoing professional development; and

k. Integrating classroom and in-car instruction when possible to maximize transfer of skills.

2. Understanding of knowledge, skills, and processes of classroom driver education instruction including:

a. Traffic laws, signs, signals, pavement markings, and right-of-way rules;

b. Licensing procedures and other legal responsibilities associated with the driving privilege and vehicle ownership;

c. The effect of speed and steering on vehicle balance and control;

d. Communicating and interacting with other highway users (pedestrians, animals, motorcycles, bicycles, trucks, buses, trains, trailers, motor homes, ATVs, and other recreational users) in a positive manner;

e. Managing of time, space, and visibility, and using perceptual skills in the risk management process;

f. Alcohol and other drug use;

g. Passive protective devices and active restraint systems;

h. Vehicle controls, vehicle maintenance, vehicle functions, and vehicle malfunctions;

i. Consequences of aggressive driving, road rage, fatigue, distracted driving, and other physical, social, and psychological influences that affect the driver;

j. Natural laws and environmental factors that influence the decision-making process;

k. Adverse driving conditions and handling emergencies;

l. Planning a safe trip;

m. Differentiating instruction based on a continuous learning cycle;

n. Using assessments that foster student learning to inform decisions about instruction; and

o. Using new and emerging instructional technology and media effectively to enhance learning.

3. Understanding of knowledge, skills, and processes of the laboratory phase of instruction including:

a. Simulation and other instructional technologies;

b. Multiple-car range;

c. Route planning and preparing for sequential instructional performances that lead to effective habit formation;

d. Providing clear, concise instructions when describing the critical elements of a driving skill;

e. Correctly using occupant restraints and protective devices;

f. The role of the driver and the observer;

g. Using commentary driving to determine visual search skills needed to identify and make risk-reducing decisions for safe speed and position;

h. Using reference points to gauge vehicle position and execute maneuvers with precision;

i. Selecting vehicle position to communicate or establish line of sight to targets;

j. Balancing vehicle movement through precise and timely steering, braking, and accelerating to manage vehicle weight transfer;

k. Applying visual search skills to manage risks in low, moderate, and high-risk driving environments;

l. Adjusting speed and space to communicate and reduce risks to avoid conflicts;

m. Preventing, detecting, and managing vehicle traction loss in simulated and adverse driving conditions;

n. Using vehicle braking, traction, and stability technologies;

o. Recognizing environmental factors that influence vehicle control;

p. Applying space management strategies to the front and sides and monitoring space to the rear;

q. Understanding the consequences of speed selection;

r. Dividing mental attention between intended path of travel and other tasks;

s. Demonstrating basic and evasive maneuvers and off-road recovery;

t. Recognizing understeer and oversteer, and the effects of traction, gravity, inertia and momentum on vehicle handling and control;

u. Controlling vehicle from instructor's seat;

v. Interacting with other roadway users in a positive manner;

w. Using manual transmission;

x. Developing precision in the use of skills, processes, and habits for approach to intersection, curves, turns, parking, turnabouts, backing, lane change, passing and being passed, getting on and off highways, and responding to emergencies;

y. Administering the driver's license road skills test and issuing the six-month temporary provisional license; and

z. Completing a debriefing with a parent or guardian that includes a reminder that the parent must ultimately determine readiness for a driver's license.

4. Guiding parents to provide meaningful guided practice including:

a. Understanding the juvenile licensing laws and the parents' role in the juvenile licensing process;

b. Determining the readiness of the child to begin learning how to drive in a car;

c. Planning and supervising the learner's permit experience;

d. Keeping a record of the meaningful supervised driving hours; and

e. Adopting a written agreement with the child that reflects expectations, defines rules and consequences, and allows the parents to progressively grant broader driving privileges.

5. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

6. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-280. Engineering.

The program in engineering shall ensure that the candidate demonstrates the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the engineering discipline as defined in Virginia's high school engineering courses and how these provide a sound foundation for teaching engineering.

2. Understanding the nature of engineering design and analysis, including the:

a. Function of the engineering design process;

b. Methods used by engineers to generate, develop, and test ideas to meet design requirements;

c. Role of failure in the engineering design process.

3. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching engineering, including the ability to:

a. Formulate instruction reflecting the goals of the engineering courses that are taught in Virginia high schools;

b. Design, prototype, test, analyze, and operate solutions to engineering challenges;

c. Implement laboratory and field safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

d. Organize key engineering content and skills into meaningful units of instruction;

e. Adapt instruction to diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

f. Evaluate student achievement, instructional materials, and teaching materials; and

g. Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance.

4. Understanding of content, processes, and skills of engineering, equivalent to an undergraduate degree in engineering, with course work in principles of engineering, engineering design, statics and dynamics, circuits, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, materials, ordinary differential equations, and linear algebra.

5. Understanding of basic chemistry, biology, Earth and space sciences, physics, and mathematics, including statistics and calculus, to ensure:

a. The placement of engineering in an appropriate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and interdisciplinary context;

b. The ability to teach the processes and organizing concepts of the natural and physical sciences to analyze successful and failed engineering designs; and

c. Student achievement in engineering.

6. Understanding of the contributions and significance of engineering, including:

a. Its social and cultural significance;

b. The relationship of engineering and its sub-fields (e.g., electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, bio-engineering, etc.) to the sciences, mathematics and technology; and

c. The historical development of engineering concepts and reasoning.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing, oral, and multi-media presentations.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-290. English.

The program in English shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of English as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning;

2. Skills necessary to teach the writing process and the different modes of writing (narrative, descriptive, expository, persuasive, and analytical) and to employ available technology;

3. Knowledge of grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes;

5. Understanding of the nature and development of language including vocabulary appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose;

6. Knowledge of reading strategies and techniques used to enhance reading comprehension skills in both fiction and nonfiction texts;

7. Knowledge of communication skills including speaking and listening skills and media literacy;

8. Knowledge of varied fiction and nonfiction from young adult, British, American, world, and ethnic and minority texts appropriate for English instruction;

9. The ability to provide experiences in communication arts, such as journalism, dramatics, debate, forensics, radio, television, films, and other media production;

10. Skills necessary to teach the analysis and production of media literacy;

11. Skills necessary to teach research including ethical accessing, evaluating, organizing, crediting, and synthesizing information; and

12. Knowledge of the Computer Technology Standards of Learning and their integration into English Language Arts.

8VAC20-543-300. English as a second language preK-12.

The program in English as a second language shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Skills in methods of teaching English as a second language to include the understanding of the World-Class Instructional and Design Assessment (WIDA) English Language Development (ELD) Standards;

2. Skills in student assessment for English as a second language to include the Assessing Comprehension and Communication in English State-to-State for English Language Learners (Access for ELLs®) test;

3. Skills in the teaching of reading and writing to include (i) the five areas of reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and text comprehension; (ii) similarities and differences between reading in a first language and reading in a second language; and (iii) a balanced literacy approach;

4. Knowledge of the effects of sociocultural variables in the instructional setting;

5. Proficiency in spoken and written English;

6. Understanding of second language acquisition;

7. Knowledge of another language and its structure;

8. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

9. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes; and

10. Knowledge of English linguistics.

8VAC20-543-310. Foreign language preK-12.

A. The specific language of the endorsement shall be noted on the license.

B. Foreign language preK-12 - languages other than Latin. The program in the foreign language shall ensure that the candidate has:

1. Demonstrated the following competencies:

a. Understanding of authentic speech at a normal tempo;

b. Ability to speak with a command of vocabulary, pronunciation, and syntax adequate for expressing thoughts to a native speaker not used to dealing with foreigners;

c. Ability to read and comprehend authentic texts of average difficulty and of mature content;

d. Ability to write a variety of texts including description and narration with clarity and correctness in vocabulary and syntax;

e. Knowledge of geography, history, social structure, and artistic and literary contributions of the target societies;

f. Ability to interpret contemporary lifestyles, customs, and cultural patterns of the target societies;

g. Understanding of the application of basic concepts of phonology, syntax, and morphology to the teaching of the foreign language;

h. Knowledge of the national standards for foreign language learning, current proficiency-based and performance-based objectives of the teaching of foreign languages at the elementary and secondary levels, elementary and secondary methods and techniques for attaining these objectives, the use of technology and media in teaching languages, current curricular developments, the relationship of language study to other areas of the curriculum, and the professional literature of foreign language teaching;

i. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

j. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes;

k. Knowledge of the assessment of foreign language skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing, and the differing types of assessments and their uses, including portfolio-based assessments, integrated performance assessments, and oral proficiency interviews; and

l. Knowledge of the characteristics of effective foreign language teaching, including the standards and key elements related to foreign language teaching as outlined in the Virginia Standards for the Professional Practice of Teachers.

2. Participated in opportunities for significant foreign language study or living experiences in this country or abroad, or both.

C. Foreign language preK-12 - Latin. The program in Latin shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Ability to read and comprehend Latin in the original;

2. Ability to pronounce Latin with consistent classical, or ecclesiastical, pronunciation;

3. Knowledge of the vocabulary, phonetics, morphology, and syntax of Latin and the etymological impact of Latin;

4. Ability to discuss the culture and civilization of Greco-Roman society, including history, daily life, art, architecture, and geography;

5. Ability to explain the relationship of Greco-Roman culture and civilization to subsequent cultures and civilizations;

6. Knowledge of major literary masterpieces and their relationship to the historical and social context of the society;

7. Competency in current methodologies for teaching Latin at the elementary and secondary levels; lesson planning; scope and sequencing of material; instructional strategies and assessment under the guidance of an experienced Latin teacher;

8. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

9. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes; and

10. Knowledge of the characteristics of effective foreign language teaching, including the standards and key elements related to foreign language teaching as outlined in the Virginia Standards for the Professional Practice of Teachers.

D. Foreign language preK-12 - American Sign Language. The program in American Sign Language shall ensure that the candidate has:

1. Demonstrated the following competencies:

a. Understanding of native users of American Sign Language at a normal tempo;

b. Ability to sign with a command of vocabulary, nominal behaviors, and syntax adequate for expressing thoughts to an American Sign Language user not accustomed to dealing with individuals who do not use American Sign Language;

c. Knowledge of history, social structure, and artistic and literary contributions of the deaf culture;

d. Ability to interpret contemporary lifestyles, customs, and cultural patterns of the deaf culture;

e. Understanding of the application of basic concepts of phonology (e.g., hand shapes, location, palm orientation, and sign movements), syntax, and morphology to the teaching of the American Sign Language;

f. Knowledge of the national standards for foreign language learning, current proficiency-based and performance-based objectives of the teaching of foreign languages at the elementary and secondary levels, elementary and secondary methods and techniques for attaining these objectives, the assessment of foreign language skills, the use of technology and media in teaching languages, current curricular developments, the relationship of language study to other areas of the curriculum, and the professional literature of foreign language teaching;

g. Understanding of and proficiency in English grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

h. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes; and

i. Knowledge of the characteristics of effective foreign language teaching, including the standards and key elements related to foreign language teaching as outlined in the Virginia Standards for the Professional Practice of Teachers.

2. Participated in opportunities for significant study of the linguistics of American Sign Language and immersion experiences in the deaf culture.

8VAC20-543-320. Gifted education (add-on endorsement).

The program in gifted education shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of principles of the integration of gifted education and general education, including:

a. Strategies to facilitate the interaction of gifted students with students of similar and differing intellectual and academic abilities;

b. Development of activities to encourage parental and community involvement in the education of the gifted;

c. Strategies to encourage collaboration among professional colleagues, especially in the areas of curriculum and professional development; and

d. Strategies to collaborate and consult with general education teachers and other resource specialists on behalf of gifted students.

2. Understanding of the characteristics of gifted students, including:

a. Varied expressions of advanced aptitudes, skills, creativity, and conceptual understandings;

b. Varied expressions of the affective (social-emotional) needs of gifted students; and

c. Gifted behaviors in special populations (i.e., those who are culturally and linguistically diverse, economically disadvantaged, highly gifted, or have special needs or disabilities, including twice-exceptional students).

3. Understanding of specific techniques to identify gifted students using diagnostic and prescriptive approaches to assessment, including:

a. The selection, use, and interpretation of multiple standardized, norm-referenced aptitude and achievement assessment instruments;

b. The selection, use, and evaluation of multiple identification criteria and strategies;

c. The use of both formal and informal nonbiased measures to provide relevant information regarding the aptitude and ability or achievement of potentially gifted students;

d. The use of authentic assessment tools such as portfolios to determine performance, motivation, interest, and other characteristics of potentially gifted students;

e. The use and interpretation of reliable rating scales, checklists, and questionnaires by parents, teachers, and others;

f. The evaluation of data collected from student records such as grades, honors, and awards;

g. The use of case study reports providing information concerning exceptional conditions; and

h. The roles and responsibilities of the identification and placement committee.

4. Understanding and application of a variety of curricular and instructional models, methodologies, and strategies that ensure:

a. The use of the Virginia Standards of Learning as a foundation to develop a high level of proficiency, academic rigor, and complexity for gifted learners in all curricular academic areas;

b. The acquisition of knowledge and development of products that demonstrate creative and critical thinking as applied to student learning both in and out of the classroom, including inquiry-based instruction, questioning strategies, and problem-solving skills;

c. The development of learning environments that guide students to become self-directed, reflective, independent learners;

d. The acquisition of tools to enable students to contribute to a multicultural, diverse society, including preparation for college and careers; and

e. The development of learning environments that recognize and support the affective needs of the gifted students.

5. Understanding and application of theories and principles of appropriately differentiating curriculum specifically designed to accommodate the accelerated learning aptitudes of gifted students, including:

a. Accelerated and enrichment opportunities that recognize gifted students' needs for advanced content and pacing of instruction, original research or production, problem-finding and problem-solving, higher level thinking that leads to the generation of products, and a focus on issues, themes, and ideas integrated within and across disciplines;

b. Opportunities for students to explore, develop, and research their areas of interest, talent, or strength using varied modes of expression;

c. Emphasis on advanced and complex content that is paced and sequenced to respond to gifted students' persistent intellectual, artistic, or technical curiosity; exceptional problem-solving abilities; rapid acquisition and mastery of information; conceptual thinking processes; and imaginative expression across a broad range of disciplines;

d. Evaluation of student academic growth and learner outcomes through appropriate multiple criteria, including a variety of pre-assessments and post-assessments; and

e. Use of current and advanced technologies to enhance student performance and academic growth.

6. Understanding of contemporary issues and research in gifted education, including:

a. The systematic gathering, analyzing, and reporting of formative and summative data from local, state, and national perspectives; and

b. Current local, state, and national policies, trends, and issues.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in all forms of communication.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

9. The program shall include a practicum that shall include a minimum of 45 instructional hours of successful teaching experiences with gifted students.

8VAC20-543-330. Health and physical education preK-12.

The program in health and physical education preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of health and physical education as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning.

2. Understanding basic human anatomy, physiology, and kinesiology needed to apply discipline-specific biomechanical concepts critical to the development of physically educated individuals.

3. Understanding of the basic scientific principles of human movement as they apply to:

a. Health-related fitness (flexibility, muscular strength and endurance, cardio respiratory endurance, and body composition);

b. Skill-related fitness (coordination, agility, power, balance, speed, and reaction time); and

c. Analyzing and correcting critical elements of motor skills and performance concepts related to skillful movement and fitness.

4. Basic understanding of the administration and planning for a health and physical education program, including:

a. Differentiated instruction based on a continuous learning cycle;

b. Student safety, classroom management, injury prevention, and liability issues;

c. Standards-based curriculum and assessments that foster student learning and inform decisions about instruction;

d. The role of coordinated school and community health.

e. Utilizing school health advisory boards, local health departments, and other representative stakeholders for support for best practice; and

f. Increasing physical activity behaviors before, during, and after school.

5. Understanding of the essential health knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching developmentally and culturally appropriate health education content standards, including:

a. Health promotion and chronic disease prevention;

b. Mental, social, and emotional health;

c. Nutrition, body image, eating disorders, energy balance, and weight management;

d. Tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use prevention;

e. Safety and emergency care (first aid, CPR, AED, universal precautions);

f. Injury and violence prevention;

g. Consumer health and information access;

h. Communicable and noncommunicable diseases prevention and treatment;

i. Environmental health;

j. Personal, family, and community health;

k. Bullying prevention, resistance skills, and conflict mediation; and

l. Theories and models of behavior change and goal-setting.

6. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching physical education, including:

a. Articulated, sequential preK-12 instruction in a variety of movement forms that include:

(1) Functional fitness;

(2) Developmentally appropriate movement skills; and

(3) Movement principles and concepts.

b. Activities that meet the needs of the diverse learner;

c. Design learning activities to help students understand, develop, value and achieve personal fitness;

d. Knowledge of human growth, development, and motor learning;

e. The relationship between a physically active lifestyle and health;

f. Knowledge of the cognitive, social, and emotional development through physical activity;

g. Incorporate strategies that promote effective physical activity learning environments;

h. Use of authentic, traditional, psychomotor, and fitness assessment methods;

i. The cultural significance of dance, leisure, competition, and sportsmanship; and

j. Demonstrate personal competence in motor skill performance for a variety of movement patterns, modeling healthy behaviors, and maintaining health-enhancing level of fitness.

7. Understanding of and ability to design developmentally appropriate curriculum, instruction, and performance-based assessment that is aligned with the Virginia Standards of Learning for Health and Physical Education:

a. Develop a developmentally appropriate scope and sequence plan of essential health and physical education concepts, information, and skills based on the Virginia Standards of Learning;

b. Use the scope and sequence plan to develop performance indicators that describe the essential concepts and skills;

c. Use new and emerging instructional technology and media effectively to enhance learning;

d. Use research-based educational strategies to meet diverse learning styles and needs;

e. Adapt and create strategies best suited for delivering instruction in diverse settings;

f. Employ individual and cooperative group learning strategies;

g. Connect instruction to prior student learning, and to other curricular areas; and

h. Use evaluation to plan a continuous cycle of learning strategies that reinforce mastery of performance indicators.

8. Obtaining, analyzing and applying health-related and fitness-related data to meet the cultural, social, growth, and development needs of the students and community:

a. Select valid and current sources of information and data;

b. Use computerized sources of information and appropriate data-gathering instruments; and

c. Analyze and interpret data and determine priority areas of focused instruction.

9. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

10. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-340. History and social sciences.

The program in history and social sciences shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of history and the social science disciplines as defined by the Virginia History and Social Sciences Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching history and the social sciences, including in:

a. United States history.

(1) The evolution of the American constitutional republic and its ideas, institutions, and practices from the philosophical origins in the Enlightenment through the debates of the colonial period to the present; the American Revolution, including ideas and principles preserved in significant Virginia and United States historical documents as required by § 22.1-201 of the Code of Virginia (the Declaration of American Independence; the general principles of the Constitution of the United States; the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom; the charters of The Virginia Company of April 10, 1606, May 23, 1609, and March 12, 1612; and the Virginia Declaration of Rights); Articles of Confederation; and historical challenges to the American political system;

(2) The influence of religious traditions on American heritage and contemporary American society;

(3) The influence of immigration on American political, social, cultural, and economic life;

(4) The origins, effects, aftermath, and significance of the two world wars, the Korean and Vietnam conflicts, and the post-Cold War era;

(5) The social, political, and economic transformations in American life during the 20th century;

(6) The tensions between liberty and equality, liberty and order, region and nation, individualism and the common welfare, and cultural diversity and national unity; and

(7) The difference between a democracy and a republic and other types of economic and political systems.

b. World history.

(1) The political, philosophical, and cultural legacies of ancient American, Asian, African, and European civilizations;

(2) The origins, ideas, and institutions of Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, Confucianism and Taoism, and Shinto, Buddhist, and Islamic religious traditions;

(3) Medieval society, institutions, and civilizations; feudalism; and the evolution of representative government;

(4) The social, political, cultural, and economic innovations of selected civilizations in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas;

(5) The ideas of the Renaissance and the Reformation, European exploration, and the origins of capitalism and colonization;

(6) The cultural ideas of the Enlightenment and the intellectual and political revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries;

(7) The sources, results, and influences of the American, French, and Latin American revolutions;

(8) The social and economic consequences of the Industrial Revolution and its impact on politics, culture, and the lives of everyday people;

(9) The influence of global ideologies of the 19th and 20th centuries (liberalism, republicanism, social democracy, Marxism, nationalism, Communism, Fascism, Nazism, and post-colonialism);

(10) The origins, effects, aftermath, and significance of the two world wars, the Korean and Vietnam conflicts, and the post-Cold War era; and

(11) The development of globalization and the growing interdependence and inter-relationship among countries and cultures in the world.

c. Civics, government, and economics.

(1) The essential characteristics of governments;

(2) The importance of the rule of law for the protection of individual rights and the common good;

(3) The rights and responsibilities of American citizenship;

(4) The nature and purposes of constitutions and alternative ways of organizing constitutional governments;

(5) American political culture;

(6) Principles of the American constitutional republic;

(7) The idea of federalism and states' rights;

(8) The structures, functions, and powers of local and state government;

(9) Importance of citizen participation in the political process in local and state government;

(10) Local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia;

(11) The structures, functions, and powers of the national government;

(12) The role of the United States government in foreign policy and national security;

(13) The structure of the federal judiciary;

(14) The structure and function of the United States market economy as compared with other economies;

(15) Knowledge of the impact of the government role in the economy and individual economic and political freedoms;

(16) Knowledge of economic systems in the areas of productivity and key economic indicators;

(17) The analysis of global economic trends; and

(18) Knowledge of international organizations, both political and economic, such as the United Nations, International Court in the Hague, and the International Monetary Fund.

d. Geography.

(1) Relationship between human activity and the physical environment, the ways in which geography governs human activity, and the effects of human activity on geographic features;

(2) Use of maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information;

(3) Physical and human characteristics of places;

(4) Physical processes that shape the surface of the earth;

(5) Characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations;

(6) Patterns and networks of economic interdependence;

(7) Processes, patterns, and functions of human settlement;

(8) How the forces of conflict and cooperation influence the division and control of the earth's surface;

(9) Changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources;

(10) Applying geography to interpret the past and the present and to plan for the future; and

(11) Impact of geospatial technologies on the study of geography, physical and human.

2. Understanding of history and social sciences to appreciate the significance of:

a. Diverse cultures and shared humanity;

b. How things happen, how they change, and how human intervention matters;

c. The interplay of change and continuity;

d. How people in other times and places have struggled with fundamental questions of truth, justice, and personal responsibility;

e. The importance of individuals and groups who have made a difference in history and the significance of personal character to the future of society;

f. The relationship among history, geography, civics, and economics;

g. The difference between fact and conjecture, evidence and assertion, and the importance of framing useful questions;

h. How ideas have real consequences; and

i. The importance of primary documents and the potential problems with second-hand accounts.

3. Understanding of the use of the content and processes of history and social sciences instruction, including:

a. Fluency in historical thinking and geographic analysis skills;

b. Skill in debate, discussion, and persuasive writing;

c. The ability to organize key social science content into meaningful units of instruction based on historical thinking skills;

d. The ability to provide instruction using a variety of instructional techniques;

e. The ability to evaluate primary and secondary instructional resources, instruction, and student achievement;

f. The ability to incorporate appropriate technologies into social science instruction; and

g. The development of digital literacy skills while recognizing the influence of the media.

4. Understanding of the content, processes, and skills of one of the social sciences disciplines at a level equivalent to an undergraduate major, along with proficient understanding of the three supporting disciplines to ensure:

a. The ability to teach the processes and organizing concepts of social science;

b. An understanding of the significance of the social sciences; and

c. Student achievement in the social sciences.

5. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing and communications.

6. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

7. Skills necessary to teach research including use of primary and secondary sources, ethical accessing, evaluating, organizing, crediting, and synthesizing information.

8VAC20-543-350. Journalism (add-on endorsement).

The program in journalism (add-on endorsement) shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding the history and functions of journalism in American culture including the value of freedom of speech and of the press and the complexity of legal and ethical issues;

2. Understanding press law and ethics as it applies to scholastic media, including First Amendment-related rights and responsibilities;

3. Understanding of and experience in theory and practice of both print and nonprint media including design and layout production and the use of technology;

4. Possession of skills in teaching journalistic writing, interviewing, and editing for a variety of purposes, audiences, and formats;

5. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing and communications;

6. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes; and

7. Skills to lead student media and production, including an understanding of fiscal responsibility, conflict resolution, and time management.

8VAC20-543-360. Keyboarding (add-on endorsement).

The program in keyboarding (add-on endorsement) shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Possession of skills in fingering and keyboard manipulation techniques to model and provide touch keyboarding instruction;

2. Ability to provide instruction that allows students to develop touch fingering techniques in a kinesthetic response to the keyboard required for rapid, accurate entry of data and information;

3. Ability to provide instruction for current procedures in formatting documents;

4. Ability to provide instruction that allows students to develop proper keyboarding techniques based on ergonomics research to minimize future repetitive strain injuries;

5. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing and communications; and

6. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-370. Library media preK-12.

The program in library media preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Proficiency in teaching for learning, including knowledge of learners and learning; effective and knowledgeable teaching; collaborative instructional partners; integration of 21st century skills, learning standards, and technologies; assessment of and for student learning; and the design and implementation of instruction that engages students' interests and develops their ability to inquire, think critically, and gain and share knowledge.

2. Proficiency in literacy and reading, including familiarity with children's, young adult, and professional literature in multiple formats; use of a variety of strategies to promote reading for enjoyment and information; collection development to support diverse learning needs; and collaboration to reinforce reading instructional strategies.

3. Proficiency in information and knowledge, including efficient and ethical information-seeking behavior, ethical and equitable access to information, design and delivery of authentic learning through current and emerging technology, and the use of evidence-based action research to create and share knowledge.

4. Proficiency in advocacy and leadership, including networking with the library community, commitment to professional development, leadership in articulating the role of the school library program in the educational community and in student learning, and advocacy for school library programs, resources, and services.

5. Proficiency in program management and administration, including planning, developing, implementing, and evaluating library programs, collections, and facilities; personnel; funding; organization of materials; professional ethics; and strategic planning and program assessment.

6. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing in multiple formats.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-380. Mathematics.

The program in mathematics shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the Virginia Mathematics Standards of Learning and how curriculum may be organized to teach these standards to diverse learners;

2. Understanding of a core knowledge base of concepts and procedures within the discipline of mathematics, including the following strands: number systems and number theory, geometry and measurement, analytic geometry, statistics and probability, functions and algebra, multivariate calculus, discrete mathematics, and linear and abstract algebra;

3. Understanding of the sequential and interrelated nature of mathematics, the vertical progression of mathematical standards, and the mathematical structures inherent in the content strands;

4. Understanding of the connections among mathematical concepts and procedures and their practical applications;

5. Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - becoming mathematical problem-solvers, reasoning mathematically, communicating mathematically, making mathematical connections, and using mathematical models and representations - at different levels of complexity;

6. Understanding of the history of mathematics, including the contributions of different individuals and cultures toward the development of mathematics and the role of mathematics in culture and society;

7. Understanding of major current curriculum studies and trends in mathematics;

8. Understanding how to utilize appropriate technologies for teaching and learning mathematics, including graphing utilities, dynamic software, spreadsheets, and virtual manipulatives;

9. Understanding of and the ability to select, adapt, differentiate, evaluate, and use instructional materials and resources, including professional journals and technology;

10. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies for managing, assessing, and monitoring student learning, including diagnosing student errors;

11. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies to teach mathematics to diverse learners;

12. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing; and

13. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-390. Mathematics – Algebra I (add-on endorsement).

The program in Algebra I shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the mathematics relevant to the content identified in the Mathematics Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching middle level mathematics through Algebra I, including:

a. The structure of real numbers and subsets, basic operations, and properties;

b. Elementary number theory, ratio, proportion, and percent;

c. Algebra, trigonometry, and analytic geometry: operations with monomials and polynomials; rational expressions; linear, quadratic, and higher degree equations and inequalities; linear systems of equations and inequalities; nonlinear systems of equations; radicals and exponents; complex numbers; arithmetic and geometric sequences and series; algebraic, trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, absolute value, and step functions; domain and range of functions; composite and inverse functions; one-to-one mapping; transformations between graphical, tabular, and symbolic forms of functions; direct and inverse variation; line and curve of best fit; conics; and recognition and application of trigonometric identities;

d. Calculus: applications of limits, differentiation, and integration;

e. Linear algebra: matrices, vectors, and linear transformations;

f. Geometry: geometric figures, their properties, relationships, and application of the Pythagorean Theorem; using deductive axiomatic methods of proof and inductive reasoning; perimeter, area, and surface area of two-dimensional and three-dimensional figures; coordinate and transformational geometry; constructions and applications of algebra in geometry;

g. Probability and statistics: experimental and theoretical probability; prediction; graphical representations, including box-and-whisker plots; and measures of center, range, standard deviation, z-scores, and simple and normal distributions; and

h. Discrete mathematics: symbolic logic, sets, permutations and combinations, functions that are defined recursively, and linear programming.

2. Understanding of varied pedagogical approaches to teaching algebraic concepts and their connected procedures.

3. Understanding of the connections among algebraic concepts, procedures, models, and practical applications.

4. Understanding of the sequential and interrelated nature of mathematics and the mathematical structures inherent in algebra.

5. Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - becoming mathematical problem-solvers, reasoning mathematically, communicating mathematically, making mathematical connections, and using mathematical models and representations - at different levels of complexity.

6. Understanding how to utilize appropriate technologies for teaching and learning algebra, including graphing utilities, dynamic software, spreadsheets, and virtual manipulatives.

7. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies for managing, assessing, and monitoring student learning, including diagnosing student errors.

8. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies to teach algebra to diverse learners.

9. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

10. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-400. Music education – instrumental preK-12.

The program in music education - instrumental preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the music discipline as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning and how they provide a necessary foundation integral to teaching instrumental music.

2. Understanding of the common elements of music - rhythm, melody, harmony, timbre, texture, dynamics, and form - and their relationship with each other and student academic needs and employing this understanding in the analysis of music.

3. Effective musicianship through the development of:

a. Basic skills in conducting, score reading, teaching musical courses, and rehearsal techniques for choral and instrumental music;

b. Skills in composing, arranging, and adapting music to meet the classroom needs and ability levels of school performing groups;

c. Skills in providing and directing creative experiences and improvising when necessary;

d. Proficiency, sufficient for classroom instruction, on keyboard or other accompanying instrument; and

e. The ability to perform in ensembles.

4. Knowledge and understanding of teaching music, including music theory; performance; music history and cultural context; analysis, evaluation, and critique; and aesthetics.

5. Knowledge of music history and literature with emphasis on the relationship of music to culture and the ability to place compositions in historical and stylistic perspective.

6. Knowledge of a comprehensive program of music education based upon sound philosophy, content, and methodology for teaching in elementary, middle, and secondary schools.

7. Specialization on a musical instrument and functional teaching knowledge on each of the string, brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments.

8. Competency in teaching rehearsing and conducting combined instrumental and vocal groups. In addition, the program shall provide instruction in business procedures, organization, and management of large and small instrumental ensembles.

9. Knowledge of vocal techniques in teaching, rehearsing, and conducting combined instrumental and vocal groups.

10. Knowledge and understanding of technological and artistic copyright laws.

11. Knowledge and understanding of classroom management and safety, including performance and studio.

12. Knowledge of a variety of instructional and assessment strategies to foster, support, and enhance student music learning.

13. Knowledge and understanding of technology, with applications for instruction, resources, artistic expression, administration, business procedures, assessment, and communication.

14. Knowledge and understanding of appropriate and sensitive attention to diversity and cultural understanding.

15. Knowledge of related areas of the fine arts, such as dance arts, theatre arts, and the visual arts.

16. Observation and professional laboratory experiences with pupils in elementary, middle, and secondary schools, including instruction of instrumental groups.

17. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

18. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-410. Music education – vocal/choral preK-12.

A. The program in music education - vocal/choral preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the music discipline as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning and how they provide a necessary foundation integral to teaching instrumental music.

2. Understanding of the common elements of music - rhythm, melody, harmony, timbre, texture, dynamics, and form - and their relationship with each other and student academic needs and to employ this understanding in the analysis of music.

3. Effective musicianship through the development of:

a. Basic skills in conducting, score reading, teaching musical courses, and rehearsal techniques for choral and instrumental music;

b. Skills in composing, arranging, and adapting music to meet the classroom needs and ability levels of school performing groups;

c. Skills in providing and directing creative experiences and improvising when necessary;

d. Proficiency, sufficient for classroom instruction, on keyboard or other accompanying instrument; and

e. The ability to perform in ensembles.

4. Knowledge and understanding of teaching music, including music theory; performance; music history and cultural context; analysis, evaluation, and critique; and aesthetics.

5. Knowledge of music history and literature with emphasis on the relationship of music to culture and the ability to place compositions in historical and stylistic perspective.

6. Knowledge of a comprehensive program of music education based upon sound philosophy, content, and methodology for teaching in elementary, middle, and secondary schools.

7. Specialization in the methods, materials, and media appropriate to the teaching of vocal/choral and general music at elementary, middle, and secondary levels.

8. Competency in teaching, rehearsing, and conducting choral ensembles and combined vocal and instrumental school groups. In addition, the program shall provide instruction in business procedures, organization, and management of large and small choral ensembles.

9. Knowledge of instrumental techniques in teaching, rehearsing, and conducting combined vocal and instrumental school groups.

10. Knowledge and understanding of technological and artistic copyright laws.

11. Knowledge and understanding of classroom management and safety, including performance and studio.

12. Knowledge of a variety of instructional and assessment strategies to foster, support, and enhance student music learning.

13. Knowledge and understanding of technology, with applications for instruction, resources, artistic expression, administration, business procedures, assessment, and communication.

14. Knowledge and understanding of appropriate and sensitive attention to diversity and cultural understanding.

15. Knowledge of related areas of the fine arts, such as dance arts, theatre arts, and the visual arts.

16. Observation and professional laboratory experiences with pupils at elementary, middle, and secondary levels, including instruction of choral groups.

17. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

18. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-420. Science – biology.

The program in biology shall ensure that the candidate demonstrates the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the four core science disciplines as defined in the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these provide a sound foundation for teaching biology.

2. Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, including the:

a. Function of research design and experimentation;

b. Role and nature of the theory in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

c. Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling, augmentation with evidence, and constructing explanations;

d. Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

e. Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity including peer review; and

f. Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

3. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching laboratory science, including the ability to:

a. Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

b. Implement laboratory safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

c. Conduct research projects and experiments including applications of the design process and technology;

d. Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

e. Organize key biological content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

f. Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

g. Evaluate instructional materials and teaching practices;

h. Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

i. Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance; and

j. Ensure student competence in biology.

4. Understanding of the content, processes, and skills of biology, equivalent to an undergraduate degree in biology, with course work in genetics, biochemistry/molecular biology, cell biology, botany, zoology, anatomy/physiology, ecology, and evolutionary biology.

5. Understanding of basic physics, chemistry (including organic chemistry), the Earth sciences, and mathematics (including statistics) to ensure:

a. The placement of biology in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

b. The ability to teach the processes and crosscutting concepts common to the natural and physical sciences;

c. The application of key principles in biology to solve practical problems; and

d. A "systems" understanding of the natural world.

6. Understanding of the contributions and significance of biology, including:

a. Its social, cultural, and economic significance;

b. The relationship of biology and other sciences to mathematics, the design process, and technology; and

c. The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-430. Science – chemistry.

The program in chemistry shall ensure that the candidate demonstrates the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the four core science disciplines as defined in the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how they provide a sound foundation for teaching chemistry.

2. Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry including the:

a. Function of research design and experimentation;

b. Role and nature of the theory in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

c. Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling, augmentation with evidence, and constructing explanations;

d. Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

e. Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity including peer review; and

f. Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

3. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching laboratory science, including the ability to:

a. Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

b. Implement laboratory safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

c. Conduct research projects and experiments including applications of the design process and technology;

d. Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

e. Organize key chemistry content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

f. Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

g. Evaluate instructional materials and teaching practices;

h. Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

i. Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance; and

j. Ensure student competence in chemistry.

4. Understanding of content, processes, and skills of chemistry, equivalent to an undergraduate degree in chemistry, with course work in biochemistry, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, and analytical chemistry.

5. Understanding of basic physics, Earth science, biology, and mathematics to ensure:

a. The placement of chemistry in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

b. The ability to teach the processes and crosscutting concepts common to the natural and physical sciences;

c. The application of key principles in chemistry to solve practical problems; and

d. A "systems" understanding of the natural world.

6. Understanding of the contributions and significance of chemistry, including:

a. Its social, cultural, and economic significance;

b. The relationship of chemistry and other sciences to mathematics, the design process and technology; and

c. The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-440. Science – Earth science.

The program in Earth science shall ensure that the candidate demonstrates the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the four core science disciplines as defined in the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these provide a sound foundation for teaching Earth science.

2. Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, including the:

a. Function of research design and experimentation;

b. Role and nature of the theory in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

c. Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling, augmentation with evidence, and constructing explanations;

d. Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

e. Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity including peer review; and

f. Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

3. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and practices for teaching laboratory science, including the ability to:

a. Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

b. Implement laboratory safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

c. Conduct research projects and experiments including applications of the design process and technology;

d. Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

e. Organize key Earth science content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

f. Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

g. Evaluate instructional materials and teaching practices;

h. Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

i. Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance; and

j. Ensure student competence in Earth science.

4. Understanding of the content, processes, and skills of Earth science, equivalent to an undergraduate degree in geology, or a related area, with course work in structural geology, paleontology, petrology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy/space science.

5. Understanding of basic physics, chemistry (including organic chemistry), biology, and mathematics to ensure:

a. The placement of Earth science in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

b. The ability to teach the processes and crosscutting concepts common to the natural and physical sciences;

c. The application of key principles in Earth science to solve practical problems; and

d. A "systems" understanding of the natural world.

6. Understanding of the contributions and significance of Earth science, including:

a. Its social, cultural, and economic significance;

b. The relationship of Earth science and other sciences to mathematics, the design process, and technology; and

c. The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-450. Science – physics.

The program in physics shall ensure that the candidate demonstrates the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the four core science disciplines as defined in the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these provide a sound foundation for teaching physics.

2. Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, including the

a. Function of research design and experimentation;

b. Role and nature of the theory in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

c. Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling, augmentation with evidence, and constructing explanations;

d. Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

e. Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity including peer review; and

f. Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

3. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching laboratory science, including the ability to:

a. Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

b. Implement laboratory safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

c. Conduct research projects and experiments including applications of the design process and technology;

d. Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

e. Organize key physics content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

f. Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

g. Evaluate instructional materials and teaching practices;

h. Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

i. Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance; and

j. Ensure student competence in physics.

4. Understanding of content, processes, and skills of physics, equivalent to an undergraduate degree in physics, with course work in mechanics, electricity and magnetism, optics, and modern physics.

5. Understanding of basic Earth science, chemistry (including organic chemistry), biology, and mathematics to ensure:

a. The placement of physics in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

b. The ability to teach the processes and crosscutting concepts common to the natural and physical sciences; and

c. A "systems" understanding of the natural world.

6. Understanding of the contributions and significance of physics, including:

a. Its social, cultural, and economic significance;

b. The relationship of physics and other sciences to mathematics, the design process, and technology; and

c. The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-460. Special education adapted curriculum K-12.

A. The program in special education is designed to ensure through coursework and field experiences in a variety of settings that the candidate has demonstrated the core competencies in this section to prepare children and youth for participation in the general education curriculum and within the community to the maximum extent possible. The candidate also shall complete the competencies in at least one of the endorsement areas of Special Education Adapted Curriculum K-12, in addition to those required under professional studies, including reading and language acquisition.

1. Foundations. Characteristics, legal, and medical aspects.

a. Knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities, including:

(1) Historical perspectives, models, theories, philosophies, and trends that provide the basis for special education practice;

(2) Characteristics of children and youth with disabilities relative to age, varying levels of severity, and developmental differences manifested in cognitive, linguistic, physical, psychomotor, social, or emotional functioning;

(3) Normal patterns of development (i.e., physical, psychomotor, cognitive, linguistic, social, and emotional development) and their relationship to the various disabilities;

(4) Medical aspects of disabilities;

(5) The dynamic influence of the family system and cultural and environmental milieu and related issues pertinent to the education of students with disabilities;

(6) Educational implications of the various disabilities; and

(7) Understanding of ethical issues and the practice of accepted standards of professional behavior.

b. An understanding and application of the legal aspects, regulatory requirements, and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities, including:

(1) Legislative and judicial mandates related to education and special education (e.g., the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the Americans with Disabilities Act, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, etc.);

(2) Current regulations governing special education (e.g., individualized education program (IEP) development; disciplinary practices, policies, and procedures; and alternative placements and programs in schools); and

(3) Rights and responsibilities of parents, students, teachers, and schools as they relate to individuals with disabilities and disability issues.

2. Assessments and evaluation.

An understanding and application of the foundation of assessment and evaluation related to best special education practice, including:

a. Ethical issues and responsibilities in the assessment of individuals with disabilities;

b. Procedures for screening, prereferral, referral, and eligibility determinations;

c. Factors that may influence assessment findings such as cultural, behavioral, and learning diversity;

d. A general knowledge of measurement theory and practice, including validity, reliability, norming, bias, sensitivity, and specificity;

e. Administration, scoring, and interpretation of commonly used individual and group instruments, including norm-referenced, criterion-referenced, and curriculum-based measures as well as task analysis, observation, portfolio, and environmental assessments;

f. Synthesis and interpretation of assessment findings for eligibility, program planning, and program evaluation decisions; and

g. Knowledge of the Virginia Accountability System, assessment options, and procedures for participation for students with disabilities.

3. Management of instruction and behavior.

An understanding and application of classroom and behavior management techniques and individual interventions, including techniques that:

a. Promote emotional well-being and teach and maintain behavioral conduct and skills consistent with norms, standards, and rules of the educational environment;

b. Address diverse approaches and classroom organization based upon behavioral, cognitive, affective, social, and ecological theory and practice;

c. Provide positive behavioral supports; and

d. Are based on functional assessment of behavior.

4. Collaboration.

a. Skills in consultation, case management, and collaboration, including:

Coordination of service delivery with related service providers, general educators, and other professions in collaborative work environments to include:

(1) Understanding the Standards of Learning (SOL), structure of the curriculum, and accountability systems across K-12;

(2) Understanding and assessing the organization and environment of general education classrooms across the K-12 setting;

(3) Implementation of collaborative models, including collaborative consultation, co-teaching with co-planning, and student intervention teams;

(4) Procedures to collaboratively develop, provide, and evaluate instructional and behavioral plans consistent with students' individual needs;

(5) Understanding of the roles and responsibilities of each member of the collaborative team; and

(6) Knowledge and application of effective communication strategies and culturally responsive strategies with a variety of stakeholders in the collaborative environment;

b. Training, managing, and monitoring paraprofessionals;

c. Involving of families in the education of their children with disabilities;

d. Understanding the standards of professionalism;

e. Cooperating with community agencies and other resource providers; and

f. Models and strategies for promoting students' self-advocacy skills.

B. The program in special education adapted curriculum K-12 shall ensure through coursework and field experiences in a variety of settings that the candidate seeking endorsement in special education adapted curriculum has the special education core competencies and the specific competency requirements specified in this section. The candidate shall demonstrate the following competencies to prepare children and youth to acquire the functional, academic, and community living skills necessary to reach an appropriate level of independence and be assessed in progress toward an aligned curriculum while participating in programs with nondisabled peers to the fullest extent possible:

1. Characteristics.

a. Demonstrate knowledge of the definitions; characteristics, including medical and health conditions; and learning and behavioral support needs of students with disabilities (K-12) whose cognitive impairments or adaptive skills require adaptations to the general curriculum and whose functional skills are significantly different from typically developing peers, and therefore require adaptations to the general curriculum for an appropriate education, including, but not limited to, students with:

(1) Autism spectrum disorders;

(2) Developmental delay;

(3) Intellectual disability;

(4) Traumatic brain injury; and

(5) Multiple disabilities, including sensory, deaf-blindness, speech-language, orthopedic and/or health impairments as an additional disability to those referenced in subdivision 1 a of this subsection.

b. Knowledge of characteristics shall include:

(1) Medical needs, sensory needs, and position and handling needs of children with multiple disabilities;

(2) Speech and language development and communication and impact on educational, behavioral, and social interactions;

(3) Impact of disability on self-determination and self-advocacy skills; and

(4) Historical and legal perspectives, models, theories, philosophies, and trends related to specific student populations.

2. Individualized education program (IEP) development and implementation.

a. Demonstrate knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements for IEP development including timelines, components, team composition, roles, and responsibilities.

b. Apply knowledge of content standards, assessment, and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to:

(1) Construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques, such as task analysis, observation, portfolio assessment, and other curriculum-based measures;

(2) Make decisions about student progress, instruction, program, modifications, adaptations, placement, teaching methodology, and transitional services and activities for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and the standards of learning through an aligned curriculum;

(3) Be able to write educationally relevant IEP goals and objectives that address self-care and self-management of student physical, sensory, and medical needs that also enhance academic success in the adapted curriculum.

3. Instructional methods and strategies for the adapted curriculum.

An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities, including:

a. Curriculum development that includes a scope and sequence, lesson plans, instructional methods, and assessments that are based on grade level content standards;

b. Foundational knowledge of reading and writing that includes an understanding of the complex nature of language acquisition and reading (reading competencies in professional studies requirements in 8VAC40-543-140). Skills in this area include phonemic awareness, an understanding of sound and symbol relationships, explicit phonics instruction, syllables, phonemes, morphemes, decoding skills, word attack skills, and knowledge of how phonics, syntax, and semantics interact. Additional skills shall include proficiency in a wide variety of comprehension strategies and writing, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of literature and independent reading; and reading and writing across the content areas;

c. Foundational knowledge of the complex nature of numeracy acquisition and the sequential nature of mathematics including mathematical concepts, mathematical thinking, calculation, and problem-solving;

d. Alternative ways to teach content material including curriculum adaptation and curriculum modifications;

e. Procedures to develop, provide, and evaluate instruction consistent with students' individual needs;

f. Strategies to promote successful integration of students with disabilities with their nondisabled peers;

g. Use of technology to promote student learning;

h. Structure and organization of general education classrooms and other instructional settings representing the continuum of special education services, to include field experiences;

i. Demonstrate the ability to implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and Standards of Learning through an aligned curriculum across the K-12 grade levels, including the ability to:

(1) Identify and apply differentiated instructional methodologies including systematic instruction, multisensory approaches, learning cognitive strategies, diverse learning styles, and technology use;

(2) Implement a blended curriculum that includes teaching academic skills using the aligned standards of learning and incorporating functional and essential life skills into instruction;

(3) Provide explicit instruction of reading, writing and mathematics at appropriate developmental and grade level in a cumulative manner to students with disabilities accessing the general education curriculum through an aligned curriculum;

(4) Conduct and analyze results of functional behavior assessment;

(5) Implement behavioral intervention plans incorporating positive behavioral supports;

(6) Promote the potential and capacity of individual students to meet high functional, academic, behavioral, and social expectations;

(7) Design alternative ways to teach content material including modifying and adapting the general education curriculum;

(8) Develop appropriate transition between grade levels, setting, and environments;

(9) Use assistive and instructional technology, including augmentative and alternative communication methods and systems;

(10) Implement and evaluate group management technique and individual interventions that teach and maintain emotional, behavioral, and social skills;

(11) Implement and monitor IEP specified modifications and adaptations within the general education classroom; and

(12) Integrate students in the community through collaboration with community service systems.

4. Individualized supports and specialized care of students with significant disabilities.

a. An understanding and application of service delivery for students with significant disabilities and their unique care needs, including the ability to identify the physical, sensory, and health and medical needs of students with significant disabilities and understand how these needs impact the educational program including:

(1) Understanding of typical physical development of children and application of this knowledge in developing learning experiences for students with significant disabilities;

(2) Basic understanding of the most common medical diagnoses associated with students with significant disabilities and the impact on their functioning in school and community settings;

(3) Understanding of the role muscle tone plays in the positioning and handling of students and familiarity with common positioning equipment used in the classroom; and

(4) Understanding of alternative and augmentative communication systems and the ability to identify an appropriate communication system based on the needs of the student.

b. Understanding of the roles and responsibilities of related and support staff working in a collaborative setting and the process and procedures related to initiating a related service request.

c. Ability to develop lesson plans that blend and incorporate the academic, functional, and behavioral goals and objectives, while integrating positioning, self-help, feeding, grooming, sensory, and toileting programs into the instructional delivery.

5. Transitioning.

Demonstrate the ability to prepare students and work with families to provide successful student transitions throughout the educational experience to include postsecondary education, training, employment, and independent living that addresses an understanding of long-term planning, age-appropriate transition assessments, career development, life skills, community experiences and resources, and self-determination to include goal setting, decision-making, problem-solving, self-awareness and self-advocacy, guardianship, and other legal considerations.

a. Skills in consultation, case management, and collaboration for students with varying degrees of disability severity.

(1) Coordinate service delivery with general educators including career and technical educators and school counselors, related services providers, and other providers;

(2) Awareness of community resources agencies and strategies to interface with community agencies when developing and planning IEPs;

(3) Knowledge of related services and accommodations that pertain to postsecondary transitions that increase student access to postsecondary education and community resources; and

(4) Ability to coordinate and facilitate meetings involving parents, students, outside agencies, and administrators to include the understanding of consent to share information, including confidentiality and disability disclosure.

b. Understand the difference between entitlement and eligibility for agency services as students move to the adult world, including a basic understanding of Social Security Income benefits planning, work incentive, Medicaid, community independent living, and waivers.

c. Recognize uses of technology and seek out technology at postsecondary settings that shall aid the student in their education, work, and independent living.

d. Recognize and plan for individual student potential and their capacity to meet high academic, behavioral, and social expectations and the impact of academic and social success on personal development.

e. Knowledge of person-centered planning strategies to promote student involvement in planning.

f. Knowledge of generic skills that lead to success in school, work, and community, including time management, preparedness, social interactions, and communication skills.

g. Understand social skill development and the unique social skills deficits and challenges associated with disabilities:

(1) Assesses social skill strengths and needs; and

(2) Plans and uses specialized social skills strategies.

h. Knowledge of use and implementation of vocational assessments to encourage and support students' advocacy and self-determination skills.

i. Knowledge of legal issues surrounding age of majority and guardianship.

j. Knowledge of graduation requirements, diploma options and legal issues surrounding age of majority, and guardianship.

6. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

C. Completion of supervised classroom experiences with students with disabilities and an adapted curriculum K-12.

8VAC20-543-470. Special education blindness and visual impairments preK-12.

The program in special education visual impairments preK-12 is designed to ensure through course work and field experiences in a variety of settings that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the characteristics of individuals with disabilities, including:

a. Developmental and cognitive characteristics of children and youth with disabilities, particularly blindness or visual impairment;

b. Language development and the effects of blindness, visual impairment, and other disabling conditions and cultural and linguistic diversity on language development;

c. Characteristics of individuals with visual impairments, including impact of visual impairment on children's social and emotional development, and family interaction patterns; and

d. Understanding of psychosocial aspects of visual impairment and cultural identity.

2. Understanding of the foundation of the legal aspects associated with students with disabilities and students with visual impairments, including:

a. Legislative and judicial mandates related to education and special education;

b. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Americans with Disabilities Act;

c. Legal decisions related to persons with disabilities;

d. Current regulations and procedures governing special education, including individualized education program (IEP) development, individualized family service plan (IFSP), and transition services; and

e. Disciplinary practices, policies, and procedures and alternative placementsand programs in schools.

3. Understanding of the foundation of assessment and evaluation with an emphasis on individuals with visual impairments, including:

a. Administering, scoring, and interpreting assessments, including norm-referenced, criterion-referenced, and curriculum-based individual and group assessments;

b. Administration and interpretation of a functional vision assessment (FVA), learning media assessment (LMA), and assistive technology assessment and assessment in the areas of the expanded core curriculum (ECC);

c. Interpreting assessments for eligibility, placement, and program decisions and to inform instruction;

d. Techniques to collect, record, and analyze information;

e. Diagnostic instruction using ongoing assessment data;

f. Techniques for recognizing capacity and diversity and its influence on student assessment and evaluation;

g. Using data from student program evaluation to inform curriculum development, instructional practice, and accommodations; and

h. Low vision practices and procedures, including assessment and instructional programming for functional vision.

4. Understanding of service delivery, classroom and behavior management, and instruction for students who are blind and visually impaired, including:

a. The application of current research and evidence-based practice;

b. Classroom organization and curriculum development;

c. Curriculum adaptations and accommodations;

d. The development of language and literacy skills;

e. The use of technology in teaching and instructing students to use assistive technologies to promote learning and provide access to the general education curriculum;

f. Classroom management, including behavior support systems and individual planning;

g. Methods and procedures for teaching students with visual impairments;

h. Instructional programming and modifications of curriculum to facilitate inclusion of students with blindness and visual impairment in programs and services with sighted and typically developing peers;

i. Individual and group behavior management techniques;

j. Career and vocational aspects of individuals with disabilities, including persons with visual impairments, including knowledge of careers, vocational opportunities, and transition from school to work; and

k. Social and recreational skills and resources for individuals with visual impairments, including methods and materials for assessing and teaching activities of daily living.

5. Understanding of consultation, case management, and collaboration including:

a. Coordinating service delivery with other professionals in collaborative work environments;

b. Training, managing, and monitoring paraprofessionals;

c. Involving families in the education of their children with blindness or visual impairment;

d. Implementation of collaborative models, including collaborative consultation, co-teaching, and student intervention teams; and

e. Interfacing with community agencies and resources.

6. Understanding of the foundations of Braille reading and writing, including:

a. Teaching reading and writing of grade 2 Braille on both a Braille writer and a "slate and stylus"; and

b. Knowledge of other codes, including Nemeth, foreign language code, music code, and computer Braille.

7. Understanding of anatomy, physiology, and diseases of the eye and the educational implications.

8. Understanding principles and how to instruct in human guide techniques and pre-cane orientation and mobility instruction.

9. Understanding of the standards of professionalism, including ethical and professional practice.

10. Completion of supervised classroom experiences at the elementary and secondary levels with students who have visual impairments, to include those with blindness and low vision, and with individuals who may have additional disabilities.

11. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

12. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-480. Special education deaf and hard of hearing preK-12.

The program in special education deaf and hard of hearing preK-12 is designed to ensure through course work and field experiences in a variety of settings that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the characteristics of individuals with disabilities, including the following:

a. Developmental and cognitive characteristics of children and youth with disabilities;

b. Characteristics of individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing, including sociocultural influences and possible health-related or genetically-related problems; and

c. Foundations of the education and culture of persons who are deaf or hard of hearing.

2. Understanding of the foundation of the legal aspects associated with students with disabilities and students who are deaf or hard of hearing including:

a. Legislative and judicial mandates related to education and special education;

b. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Americans with Disabilities Act;

c. Legal decisions related to persons with disabilities;

d. Current regulations and procedures governing special education, including individualized education program (IEP) development, individualized family service plan (IFSP), and transition services; and

e. Disciplinary practices, policies, and procedures and alternative placements and programs in schools.

3. Understanding of the foundation of assessment and evaluation with an emphasis on individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing, including:

a. Administering, scoring, and interpreting assessments, including norm-referenced, criterion-referenced, and curriculum-based individual and group assessments;

b. Interpreting assessment results for eligibility, placement, and to inform instruction (i.e., linking assessment results to classroom interventions);

c. Techniques to collect, record, and analyze information from observing students;

d. Data-based decision-making skills using assessment data to inform diagnostic instruction;

e. Techniques for recognizing capacity and diversity and its influence on student assessment and evaluation.

4. Understanding of service delivery, classroom and behavior management, and instruction, including:

a. The application of current research in practice;

b. Classroom organization and curriculum development;

c. Curriculum adaptations and accommodations;

d. The development of language and literacy skills;

e. The use of technology to promote student learning;

f. Classroom and behavior management, including behavior support systems and individual planning;

g. Evidence-based strategies and procedures for teaching persons who are deaf or hard of hearing;

h. Instructional programming and modifications of curriculum to facilitate inclusion of students with disabilities into the continuum of programs and services with peers without disabilities;

i. Strategies to promote successful socialization of students who are deaf or hard of hearing with their hearing peers; and

j. Career and vocational skill development of individuals with disabilities, including persons who are deaf or hard of hearing and who may have additional needs.

5. Skills in consultation, case management, and collaboration, including:

a. Coordinating service delivery with other professionals in collaborative work environments;

b. Training, managing, and monitoring paraprofessionals;

c. Implementation of collaborative models, including collaborative consultation, co-teaching, and student intervention teams;

d. Involving families in the education of their children with disabilities; and

e. Cooperating with community agencies and resources.

6. Understanding of speech, hearing, and language development, including:

a. Speech, hearing, and language development and the effects of sensory loss and cultural diversity on typical language development;

b. How to promote development of listening and spoken language skills in children who are deaf or hard of hearing: how to promote development of American Sign Language skills in children who are deaf or hard of hearing;

c. Anatomy of speech structures, auditory and visual mechanisms, production, transmission, and psychophysical characteristics of sound; and

d. General and specific effects of having partial or no hearing on production and reception of speech and on English language development.

7. Understanding of audiology, including:

a. Diagnostic evaluation, testing procedures, and interpreting audiology reports to inform instruction in and expectations for development of listening and spoken language skills; and

b. Characteristics of individual, group amplification and assistive listening devices (e.g., cochlear implant systems, hearing aids, FM systems, sound field systems, etc.) with emphasis on utilization in educational environments.

8. Understanding of communication modalities to include various modalities of communication, including cued speech, speech reading, listening, signed language, and spoken language.

9. Demonstrated proficiency in expressive and receptive sign language, to include American Sign Language and contact varieties.

10. Understanding of the standards for professionalism.

11. Completion of supervised classroom experiences at the elementary and secondary levels with students who are deaf or hard of hearing, including those with additional disabilities.

12. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

13. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-490. Special education early childhood (birth through age five).

The program in special education early childhood (birth through age five) is designed to ensure through course work and field experiences in a variety of settings that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the nature and characteristics of major disabling and at-risk conditions, including:

a. Trends for service delivery to the birth-through-age-five population;

b. An overview of early intervention and early childhood special education;

c. Historical perspective of special education; and

d. Awareness of the issues surrounding cultural and linguistic diversity.

2. Understanding of the foundation of the legal aspects associated with students with disabilities, including:

a. Legislative and judicial mandates related to education and special education;

b. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Americans with Disabilities Act;

c. Legal decisions related to persons with disabilities;

d. Current regulations and procedures governing special education to include individualized education program (IEP) development and individualized family service plan (IFSP); and

e. Disciplinary practices, policies, and procedures and alternative placements and programs in schools.

3. Knowledge of the selection, administration, and interpretation of formal and informal assessment techniques for young children with disabling and at-risk conditions and their families, including:

a. Eligibility and diagnosis of disabling and at-risk conditions;

b. Progress monitoring for growth compared to same age, typically developing peers and functioning in environments where same age peers would normally attend (to include, but not be limited to, settings that the families choose);

c. Program development and improvement; and

d. Curriculum-based assessments for instructional planning.

4. Understanding of the methods for providing instructional programs for early intervention, including:

a. Service delivery options;

b. Development of individualized education programs (IEPs) and individualized family service plans (IFSPs);

c. Curriculum development and implementation to ensure developmentally appropriate intervention techniques in the areas of self-help, motor, cognitive, social and emotional, and language; and

d. Service delivery to support success and functionality in all settings where same age, typically developing peers would be located.

5. Understanding of teaching social and emotional skills to assist with behavior management and the application of principles of learning and child development to individual and group management using a variety of techniques that are appropriate to the age of that child.

6. Understanding of speech and language development and intervention methods, including the effects of disabling and at-risk conditions on young children, including:

a. Developmental stages of language acquisition;

b. Cultural and linguistic diversity;

c. English language learner language acquisition; and

d. Use of language to get needs and wants met and for social interaction.

7. Understanding of and experiences with the medical aspects of young children with disabling and at-risk conditions and the management of neuro-developmental and motor disabilities, including:

a. Emergency care and the role of health care professionals in the lives of individuals with disabilities; and

b. Use and effects of medications.

8. Skills in consultation, case management, collaboration, coaching, mentoring, and co-teaching, including techniques in working with children, families, educators, related service providers, and other human service professionals that include:

a. Service coordination;

b. Interagency coordination;

c. Inclusive practices;

d. Transition facilitation; and

e. Training, managing, and monitoring paraprofessionals.

9. Understanding of the theories and techniques of family-centered intervention, including:

a. Cultural and linguistic differences influences; and

b. Family issues.

10. Understanding of the standards of professionalism.

11. Completion of supervised experiences at the early childhood level in a variety of settings, including but not limited to early intervention, home-based, school-based, and community-based settings.

12. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

13. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-500. Special education general curriculum K-12.

A. The program in special education is designed to ensure through course work and field experiences in a variety of settings that the candidate has demonstrated the core competencies in this section to prepare children and youth for participation in the general education curriculum and within the community to the maximum extent possible. The candidate also shall complete the competencies in at least one of the endorsement areas of Special Education General Curriculum K-12, in addition to those required under professional studies in 8VAC40-543-140, including reading and language acquisition.

1. Foundations - Characteristics, legal, and medical aspects.

a. Knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities, including:

(1) Historical perspectives, models, theories, philosophies, and trends that provide the basis for special education practice;

(2) Characteristics of children and youth with disabilities relative to age, varying levels of severity, and developmental differences manifested in cognitive, linguistic, physical, psychomotor, social, or emotional functioning;

(3) Normal patterns of development (i.e., physical, psychomotor, cognitive, linguistic, social, or emotional development) and their relationship to the various disabilities;

(4) Medical aspects of disabilities;

(5) The dynamic influence of the family system and cultural and environmental milieu and related issues pertinent to the education of students with disabilities;

(6) Educational implications of the various disabilities; and

(7) Understanding of ethical issues and the practice of accepted standards of professional behavior.

b. An understanding and application of the legal aspects, regulatory requirements, and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities, including:

(1) Legislative and judicial mandates related to education and special education (e.g., the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the Americans with Disabilities Act, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, etc.);

(2) Current regulations governing special education (e.g., individualized education program (IEP) development; disciplinary practices, policies, and procedures; and alternative placements and programs in schools); and

(3) Rights and responsibilities of parents, students, teachers, and schools as they relate to individuals with disabilities and disability issues.

2. Assessments and evaluation.

An understanding and application of the foundation of assessment and evaluation related to best special education practice, including:

a. Ethical issues and responsibilities in the assessment of individuals with disabilities;

b. Procedures for screening, pre-referral, referral, and eligibility determinations;

c. Factors that may influence assessment findings such as cultural, behavioral, and learning diversity;

d. A general knowledge of measurement theory and practice, including validity, reliability, norming, bias, sensitivity, and specificity;

e. Administration, scoring, and interpretation of commonly used individual and group instruments, including norm-referenced, criterion-referenced, and curriculum-based measures as well as task analysis, observation, portfolio, and environmental assessments;

f. Synthesis and interpretation of assessment findings for eligibility, program planning, and program evaluation decisions; and

g. Knowledge of the Virginia Accountability System, assessment options, and procedures for participation for students with disabilities.

3. Management of instruction and behavior.

An understanding and application of classroom and behavior management techniques and individual interventions, including techniques that:

a. Promote emotional well-being and teach and maintain behavioral conduct and skills consistent with norms, standards, and rules of the educational environment;

b. Address diverse approaches to classroom organization and set-up based upon behavioral, cognitive, affective, social, and ecological theory and practice;

c. Provide positive behavioral supports; and

d. Are based on functional assessment of behavior.

4. Collaboration.

a. Skills in consultation, case management, and collaboration, including coordination of service delivery with related service providers, general educators, and other professions in collaborative work environments to include:

(1) Understanding the Standards of Learning, the structure of the curriculum, and accountability systems across K-12;

(2) Understanding and assessing the organization and environment of general education classrooms across the K-12 setting;

(3) Implementation of collaborative models, including collaborative consultation, co-teaching with co-planning, and student intervention teams;

(4) Procedures to collaboratively develop, provide, and evaluate instructional and behavioral plans consistent with students' individual needs;

(5) Understanding the roles and responsibilities of each member of the collaborative team; and

(6) Knowledge and application of effective communication strategies and culturally responsive strategies with a variety of stakeholders in the collaborative environment;

b. Training, managing, and monitoring paraprofessionals;

c. Involvement of families in the education of their children with disabilities;

d. Understanding the standards of professionalism;

e. Cooperating with community agencies and other resource providers; and

f. Models and strategies for promoting students' self-advocacy skills.

B. The program in special education general curriculum K-12 shall ensure through coursework and field experiences in a variety of settings that the candidate seeking endorsement in special education general curriculum K-12 has the special education core competencies and the specific competency requirements specified in this section.

1. Characteristics.

a. Demonstrate knowledge of definitions, characteristics, and learning and behavioral support needs of students with disabilities whose cognitive and functional skills are not significantly different from typically developing peers and therefore require access to the general education curriculum for an appropriate education, including but not limited to, students with:

(1) Autism spectrum disorder;

(2) Deaf-blindness;

(3) Developmental delay;

(4) Emotional disability;

(5) Hearing impairment (or deaf and hard of hearing);

(6) Intellectual disability;

(7) Learning disability;

(8) Multiple disabilities;

(9) Orthopedic impairment;

(10) Other health impairment;

(11) Speech-language impairment;

(12) Traumatic brain injury; and/or

(13) Visual impairment (including blindness).

b. Knowledge of characteristics shall include:

(1) Age-span and developmental issues;

(2) Levels of severity;

(3) Cognitive functioning;

(4) Language development;

(5) Emotional and behavioral adjustment;

(6) Social development;

(7) Medical aspects; and

(8) Cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic factors.

2. Individualized education program development and implementation.

a. Demonstrate knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements for IEP development, including timelines, components, team composition, roles, and responsibilities.

b. Apply knowledge of content standards, assessment, and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to:

(1) Construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques, such as task analysis, observation, portfolio assessment, and other curriculum-based measures;

(2) Make decisions about student progress, instruction, program, accommodations, placement, teaching methodology, and transition services and activities for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and the Virginia Standards of Learning; and

(3) Develop an individualized education program (IEP) that addresses the academic and functional needs of the student with disabilities in the general education curriculum and meets regulatory requirements.

3. Instructional strategies for reading and writing.

An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities, including:

a. Curriculum development that includes a scope and sequence, lesson plans, instructional methods, and assessments that are based on the general education curriculum standards of learning at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels;

b. Foundational knowledge of reading and writing that includes an understanding of the complex nature of language acquisition and reading (reading competencies in professional studies requirements). Skills in this area include: phonemic awareness, an understanding of sound and symbol relationships, explicit phonics instruction, syllables, phonemes, morphemes, decoding skills, word attack skills, and knowledge of how phonics, syntax, and semantics interact. Additional skills shall include proficiency in a wide variety of comprehension, vocabulary, and writing strategies, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of literature, independent reading, and reading and writing across content areas;

c. Alternative ways to teach content material including curriculum adaptation and curriculum modifications;

d. Procedures to develop, provide, and evaluate instruction consistent with students' individual needs;

e. Strategies to promote successful integration of students with disabilities with their nondisabled peers;

f. Use of technology to promote student learning;

g. Structure and organization of general education classrooms and other instructional settings representing the continuum of special education services, to include field experiences; and

h. Demonstrate the ability to implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels, including the ability to:

(1) Identify and apply differentiated instructional methodologies including systematic instruction, multisensory approaches, learning cognitive strategies, study skills, diverse learning styles, and technology use;

(2) Teach skills and remediate deficits in academic areas at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels;

(3) Provide explicit instruction of reading and writing at appropriate developmental and grade level in a systematic and cumulative manner to students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum;

(4) Promote the potential and capacity of individual students to meet high academic, behavioral, and social expectations;

(5) Design alternative ways to teach content material including modifying curriculum in both directive and nondirective methodologies;

(6) Use assistive and instructional technology in order to access the general education curriculum;

(7) Implement and evaluate group management techniques and individual interventions that teach and maintain emotional, behavioral, and social skills; and

(8) Implement and monitor IEP specified accommodations within the general education classroom.

4. Instructional strategies for mathematics.

An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities, including:

a. Curriculum development that includes a scope and sequence, lesson plans, instructional methods, and assessments that are based on the general education curriculum standards of learning at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels;

b. Foundational knowledge of the complex nature of numeracy acquisition and nature of mathematics including mathematical concepts, mathematical thinking, mathematics vocabulary, calculation, and problem-solving;

c. Alternative ways to teach content material including curriculum adaptation and curriculum modifications;

d. Procedures to develop, provide, and evaluate instruction consistent with students' individual needs;

e. Strategies to promote successful integration of students with disabilities with their nondisabled peers;

f. Use of technology to promote student learning;

g. Structure and organization of general education classrooms and other instructional settings representing the continuum of special education services, to include field experiences;

h. Demonstrate the ability to implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels, including the ability to:

(1) Identify and apply differentiated instructional methodologies including systematic instruction, multisensory approaches, learning cognitive strategies, study skills, diverse learning styles, and technology use;

(2) Teach skills and remediate deficits in academic areas at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels;

(3) Provide explicit instruction in mathematics at appropriate developmental and grade level in a systematic and cumulative manner to students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum;

(4) Promote the potential and capacity of individual students to meet high academic, behavioral, and social expectations;

(5) Design alternative ways to teach content material including modifying curriculum in both directive and nondirective methodologies;

(6) Use assistive and instructional technology in order to access the general education curriculum;

(7) Implement and evaluate group management techniques and individual interventions that teach and maintain emotional, behavioral, and social skills; and

(8) Implement and monitor IEP specified accommodations within the general education classroom.

5. Transitioning.

Demonstrate the ability to prepare students and work with families to provide successful student transitions throughout the educational experience to include postsecondary education, training, employment, and independent living that addresses an understanding of long-term planning, transition assessments, career development, life skills, community experiences and resources, self-advocacy, and self-determination, guardianship, and legal considerations.

a. Skills in consultation, case management, and collaboration for students with varying degrees of disability severity;

(1) Coordinate service delivery with general educators, related service providers, and other providers;

(2) Awareness of community resources agencies and strategies to interface with community agencies when developing and planning IEPs;

(3) Knowledge of related services and accommodations that pertain to postsecondary transitions that increase student access to postsecondary education and community resources;

(4) Ability to coordinate and facilitate meetings involving parents, students, outside agencies, and administrators.

b. Understand the difference between entitlement and eligibility for agency services as students move to the adult world including a basic understanding of Social Security Income benefits planning, work incentive, Medicaid, and community independent living.

c. Recognize uses of technology and seek out technology at postsecondary settings that shall aid the student in their education, work, and independent living.

d. Recognize and plan for individual student potential and their capacity to meet high academic, behavioral, and social expectations and the impact of academic and social success on personal development:

(1) Knowledge of person-centered planning strategies to promote student involvement in planning; and

(2) Knowledge of generic skills that lead to success in school, work, and community, including time management, preparedness, social interactions, and communication skills.

e. Understand social skill development and the unique social skills deficits and challenges associated with disabilities:

(1) Assess social skill strengths and needs; and

(2) Plan and use specialized social skills strategies.

f. Knowledge of use and implementation of vocational assessments to encourage and support students' self-advocacy and self-determination skills.

g. Knowledge of graduation requirements, diploma options, and legal issues surrounding age of majority and guardianship.

6. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

C. Completion of supervised classroom experiences with students with disabilities and the general curriculum K-12.

8VAC20-543-510. Special education – general curriculum elementary education K-6 (add-on endorsement).

The program in special education - general curriculum elementary education K-6 (add-on endorsement) shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with an endorsement in elementary education (early/primary education preK-3/elementary education preK-6) issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies. The candidate must:

1. Hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with an endorsement in elementary education (early/primary education preK-3/elementary education preK-6);

2. Have completed competencies in the education of students with disabilities distributed in each of the following areas:

a. Foundations. Characteristics that include knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include an understanding and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

b. Individualized education program (IEP) development and implementation.

(1) Knowledge of the eligibility process, legal, and regulatory requirements of IEP development including timelines, components, team composition, roles, and responsibilities.

(2) Skills in this area include the ability to apply knowledge of assessment and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques; to make decisions about student progress, instructional, program, goal development, accommodations, placement, and teaching methodology for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and the standards of learning; and to demonstrate the use of assessment, evaluation, and other information to develop and implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels.

c. Assessment and evaluation.

(1) Understanding and application of the foundation of assessment and evaluation related to best practice in special education; including types and characteristics of assessment, introduction to formal and informal assessment, and use of assessments and other information to determine special education eligibility, service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities.

(2) Understanding of the current legal and ethical issues related to assessment selection and use, including comprehensive evaluation requirements, students with disabilities participation in the state and local accountability systems, assessment options, appropriate grading and testing accommodations, and assessment of students from diverse backgrounds.

d. Instructional strategies in reading and writing.

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in reading and writing.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum, English requirements, and expectations, and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified reading needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in reading and writing instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge and ability to utilize current assistive and instructional reading and writing technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized reading and writing assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as it relates to the curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach reading and writing instructional strategies in a variety of settings and collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the general curriculum and monitor student progress.

e. Instructional strategies in mathematics.

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in mathematics.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum mathematics requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address calculations, reasoning, and problem-solving skills. Skills in this area include the ability to understand and use a range of specialized mathematics instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in mathematics instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge of and ability to utilize current mathematics related assistive and instructional technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized mathematics assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as related to the mathematics curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach mathematics instructional strategies in a variety of settings and collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the mathematics general curriculum and monitor student progress.

3. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-520. Special education – general curriculum middle education grades 6-8 (add-on endorsement).

The program in special education - general curriculum middle education grades 6-8 (add-on endorsement) shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with an endorsement in middle education (middle education 6-8 English, middle education 6-8 history and social sciences, middle education 6-8 mathematics, or middle education 6-8 sciences) issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies. The candidate must:

1. Hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with an endorsement in middle education (middle education 6-8 English, middle education 6-8 history and social sciences, middle education 6-8 mathematics, or middle education 6-8 sciences).

2. Have completed competencies in the education of students with disabilities distributed in each of the following areas:

a. Foundations. Characteristics that include knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include an understanding and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

b. Individualized education program (IEP) development and implementation. Knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements of IEP development including timelines, components, team composition, roles, and responsibilities. Skills in this area include the ability to apply knowledge of assessment and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques; to make decisions about student progress, instructional, program, goal development, accommodations, placement, and teaching methodology for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and the standards of learning; and to demonstrate the use of assessment, evaluation, and other information to develop and implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels.

c. Transitioning. Skills in this area include the ability to prepare students and work with families and community agencies to provide successful student transitions throughout the educational experience to include postsecondary education training, employment, and independent living which addresses an understanding of long-term planning, career development, life skills, community experiences and resources, self-advocacy, and self-determination, guardianship, and legal considerations.

d. Instructional strategies in reading and writing.

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in reading and writing.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum, English requirements and expectations, and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified reading needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in reading and writing instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge and ability to utilize current assistive and instructional reading and writing technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized reading and writing assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as related to the curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach reading and writing instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

e. Instructional strategies in mathematics.

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in mathematics.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum mathematics requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address calculations, reasoning, and problem-solving skills. Skills in this area include the ability to understand and use a range of specialized mathematics instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in mathematics instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge of and ability to utilize current mathematics related assistive and instructional technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized mathematics assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as it relates to the mathematics curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach mathematics instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the mathematics general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

3. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-530. Special education – general curriculum secondary education grades 6-12 (add-on endorsement).

The program in special education - general curriculum secondary education grades 6-12 (add-on endorsement) shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with an endorsement in English, history and social sciences, mathematics, biology, chemistry, Earth science, or physics issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies. The candidate must:

1. Hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with an endorsement in English, history and social sciences, mathematics, biology, chemistry, Earth science, or physics.

2. Have completed competencies in the education of students with disabilities distributed in each of the following areas:

a. Foundations. Characteristics that include knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include an understanding and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

b. Individualized education program development and implementation. Knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements of IEP development including timelines, components, team composition, roles, and responsibilities. Skills in this area include the ability to apply knowledge of assessment and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques; to make decisions about student progress, instructional, program, goal development, accommodations, placement, and teaching methodology for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and the standards of learning; and to demonstrate the use of assessment, evaluation, and other information to develop and implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels.

c. Transitioning. Skills in this area include the ability to prepare students and work with families and community agencies to provide successful student transitions throughout the educational experience to include postsecondary education training, employment, and independent living which addresses an understanding of long-term planning, career development, life skills, community experiences and resources, self-advocacy, and self-determination, guardianship, and legal considerations.

d. Instructional strategies in reading and writing.

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in reading and writing.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum, English requirements and expectations, and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified reading needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in reading and writing instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge and ability to utilize current assistive and instructional reading and writing technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized reading and writing assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as related to the curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach reading and writing instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

e. Instructional strategies in mathematics.

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in mathematics.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum mathematics requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address calculations, reasoning, and problem-solving skills. Skills in this area include the ability to understand and use a range of specialized mathematics instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in mathematics instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge of and ability to utilize current mathematics related assistive and instructional technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized mathematics assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as it relates to the mathematics curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach mathematics instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the mathematics general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

3. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-540. Speech communication (add-on endorsement).

The program in speech communication shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding and knowledge of oral communication, including language acquisition involving the processes of expressive and receptive language and voice production involving the aesthetics of speech;

2. Understanding and knowledge of common speech production patterns, including articulation, pronunciation, and dialectical variances as these relate to standard English patterns;

3. Understanding the components of effective messages, including appropriate use of language, voice and diction, and nonverbal elements;

4. Understanding of and proficiency in effective communication, including interpersonal communication, small group communication, skills contributing to effective listening, the art of persuasion, oral interpretation, group discussion, mass communication, public speaking, and debate, verbal and nonverbal messages, and the ability to critique such communication interactions;

5. Understanding media, digital, and visual literacy and the skills to evaluate and utilize these literacies in presentations;

6. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

7. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes;

8. Skills necessary to teach research including ethical accessing, evaluating, organizing, crediting, and synthesizing information as needed for speech communication; and

9. Knowledge of the Computer Technology Standards of Learning and their integration into Speech Communication.

8VAC20-543-550. Theatre arts preK-12.

The program in theatre arts preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the theatre arts discipline as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning and how these provide a necessary foundation integral to teaching theatre arts.

2. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching theatre arts to the developmental levels and academic needs of students in preK-12, including the following:

a. Experience in planning, developing, administering, and evaluating a program of theatre arts education;

b. Knowledge and understanding for teaching theatre arts, including performance and production; theatre history and cultural context; analysis, evaluation, and critique; and aesthetics;

c. Directing;

d. Technical theatre, including lighting, set design, stage craft, costuming, makeup, and safety;

e. Performance, including acting and acting styles;

f. Dramatic literature;

g. The relationship of theatre and culture and the influence of theatre on past and present culture;

h. Knowledge and understanding of technological and artistic copyright laws;

i. Knowledge and understanding of classroom management and safety, including performance and studio;

k. Knowledge of instructional and assessment strategies to foster, support, and enhance student theatre arts learning;

l. Knowledge of related areas of theatre arts, such as art, dance arts, music, and the visual arts;

m. Knowledge and understanding of technology, with applications for instruction, resources, artistic expression, administration, assessment, and communication;

n. Knowledge and understanding of appropriate and sensitive attention to diversity and cultural understanding; and

o. Observation and student teaching experiences at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels.

3. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-560. Visual arts preK-12.

The program in visual arts preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the visual arts discipline as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning, and how they provide a necessary foundation for teaching the visual arts;

2. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching art appropriate to the developmental levels and academic needs of students in preK-12 including the following areas:

a. Knowledge and experience in planning, developing, administering, and evaluating a program of visual arts education;

b. Two-dimensional media and concepts: basic and complex techniques and concepts in two-dimensional design, drawing, painting, printmaking, computer graphics, and other electronic imagery;

c. Three-dimensional media and concepts: basic and complex techniques and concepts in three-dimensional design, sculpture, ceramics, fiber arts, crafts, and computer and other electronic imagery;

d. Knowledge and understanding for teaching the visual arts, including visual communication and production, art history and cultural context, analysis, evaluation and critique, and aesthetics;

e. The relationship of visual arts and culture and the influence of visual arts on past and present cultures;

f. Related areas of visual arts, such as architecture, dance arts, music, theatre arts, photography, and other expressive arts;

g. Knowledge and understanding of technological and artistic copyright laws;

h. Knowledge and understanding of classroom management and safety, including use of toxic art material in various aspects of studio and classroom work;

i. Knowledge of a variety of instructional and assessment strategies to foster, support, and enhance student visual arts learning;

j. Knowledge and understanding of technology, with applications for instruction, resources, artistic expression, administration, assessment, and communication;

k. Knowledge and understanding of appropriate and sensitive attention to diversity and cultural understanding; and

l. Observation and student teaching experiences at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels.

3. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

Article 4
Administration and Supervision and Support Personnel

8VAC20-543-570. Administration and supervision preK-12.

A. The program in administration and supervision preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge, understanding, and application of planning, assessment, and instructional leadership that builds collective professional capacity, including;

a. Principles of student motivation, growth, and development as a foundation for age-appropriate and grade-appropriate curriculum, instruction, and assessment;

b. Collaborative leadership in gathering and analyzing data to identify needs to develop and implement a school improvement plan that results in increased student learning;

c. Planning, implementation, and refinement of standards-based curriculum aligned with instruction and assessment;

d. Collaborative planning and implementation of a variety of assessment techniques, including examination of student work, that yield individual, class, grade level, and school level data as a foundation for identifying existing competencies and targeting areas in need of further attention;

e. Incorporation of differentiated and effective instruction that responds to individual learner needs including appropriate response to cultural, ethnic, and linguistic diversity;

f. Knowledge, understanding, and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements, and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities;

g. Collaboratively working with parents and school personnel to ensure that students with disabilities are included as a valued part of the school community, and that they receive effective and appropriately intensive instruction to assist them in meeting the standards set for all students as well as individual goals outlined in their individualized education plans (IEPs);

h. Integration of technology in curriculum and instruction to enhance learner understanding;

i. Identification, analysis, and resolution of problems using effective problem-solving techniques; and

j. Development, articulation, implementation, and stewardship of a vision of excellence linked to mission and core beliefs that promote continuous improvement consistent with the goals of the school division.

2. Knowledge, understanding, and application of leadership and organizations, including;

a. The change process of systems, organizations, and individuals using appropriate and effective adult learning models;

b. Aligning organizational practice, division mission, and core beliefs for developing and implementing strategic plans;

c. Information sources and processing, including data collection and data analysis strategies;

d. Using data as a part of ongoing program evaluation to inform and lead change;

e. Developing a change management strategy for improved student outcomes;

f. Developing distributed leadership strategies to create personalized learning environments for diverse schools; and

g. Effective two-way communication skills including consensus building, negotiation, and mediation skills.

3. Knowledge, understanding, and application of management and leadership skills that achieve effective and efficient organizational operations and sustain an instructional program conducive to student academic progress, including;

a. Alignment of curriculum and instruction and assessment of the educational program to achieve high academic success at the school and division or district level;

b. Principles and issues of supervising and leading others to ensure a working and learning climate that is safe, secure, and respectful of a diverse school community;

c. Management decisions that ensure successful teaching and learning including human resources management and development, theories of motivation, change in school culture, innovation and creativity, conflict resolution, adult learning, and professional development models;

d. Knowledge, understanding, and application of Virginia's Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachers and the Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Principals;

e. Principles and issues related to fiscal operations of school management;

f. Principles and issues related to school facilities and use of space and time for supporting high-quality school instruction and student learning;

g. Legal issues impacting school operations and management;

h. Technologies that support management functions; and

i. Application of data-driven decision-making to initiate and continue improvement in school and classroom practices and student achievement.

4. Knowledge, understanding, and application of the conditions and dynamics impacting a diverse school community, including:

a. Emerging issues and trends within school and community relations;

b. Working collaboratively with staff, families, and community members to secure resources and to support the success of a diverse population;

c. Developing appropriate public relations and public engagement strategies and processes for building and sustaining positive relationships with families, caregivers, and community partners; and

d. Integration of technology to support communication efforts.

5. Knowledge, understanding, and application of the purpose of education and the role of professionalism in advancing educational goals, including:

a. Philosophy of education that reflects commitment to principles of honesty, fairness, caring, and equity in day-to-day professional behavior;

b. Integration of high quality, content rich, job-embedded professional learning that respects the contribution of all faculty and staff members in building a diverse professional learning community;

c. Reflective understanding of potential moral and legal consequences of decision-making in the school setting;

d. Intentional and purposeful effort to model professional, moral, and ethical standards as well as personal integrity in all interactions; and

e. Intentional and purposeful effort to model continuous professional learning and to work collegially and collaboratively with all members of the school community to support the school's goals and enhance its collective capacity.

6. Knowledge, understanding, and application of basic leadership theories and influences that impact schools including:

a. Concepts of leadership including systems theory, change theory, learning organizations, and current leadership theory;

b. Identify and respond to internal and external forces and influences on a school;

c. Identify and apply the processes of educational policy development at the state, local, and school level; and

d. Identify and demonstrate ways to influence educational policy development at the state, local, and school level.

B. Complete a deliberately structured and supervised internship that is focused on student academic progress for all students and

1. Provides significant experiences within a school environment for candidates to synthesize and apply the content knowledge and develop professional skills through school-based leadership experiences;

2. Shall occur in a public or accredited nonpublic school;

3. Provides exposure to five different multiple sites (elementary, middle, high, central office, and agency) with diverse student populations; and

4. Documents a minimum of 320 clock hours, of which at least 120 clock hours are embedded as experiential field-based opportunities experienced during coursework.

C. Satisfy the requirements for the school leaders licensure assessment prescribed by the Board of Education. Individuals seeking an initial administration and supervision endorsement who are interested in serving as central office instructional personnel are not required to take and pass the school leaders assessment prescribed by the Board of Education.

8VAC20-543-580. Mathematics specialist for elementary education.

A. A mathematics specialist is a teacher in the elementary grades who has interest and special preparation in mathematics content, scientifically based research in the teaching and learning of mathematics, diagnostic and assessment methods, and leadership skills. The school-based mathematics specialist shall serve as a resource in professional development, instructing children who have learning difficulties in mathematics, curriculum development and implementation, mentoring new teachers, and parent and community education.

B. The mathematics specialist program shall ensure that the candidate has completed at least three years of successful classroom teaching experience in which the teaching of mathematics was an important responsibility and demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the Virginia Mathematics Standards of Learning and how curriculum may be organized to teach these standards to diverse learners;

2. Understanding of a core knowledge base of concepts and procedures within the discipline of mathematics, including the following strands: number systems and number theory; geometry and measurement; statistics and probability; and functions and algebra;

3. Understanding of the sequential nature of mathematics, the vertical progression of mathematical standards, and the mathematical structures inherent in the content strands;

4. Understanding of the connections among mathematical concepts and procedures and their practical applications;

5. Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - becoming mathematical problem-solvers, reasoning mathematically, communicating mathematically, making mathematical connections, and using mathematical models and representations - at different levels of complexity;

6. Understanding of major current curriculum studies and trends in mathematics;

7. Understanding how to utilize appropriate technologies for teaching and learning mathematics including virtual manipulatives;

8. Understanding of and the ability to select, adapt, evaluate, and use instructional materials and resources, including professional journals and technology;

9. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies for managing, assessing, and monitoring student learning, including diagnosing student errors;

10. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies to teach mathematics to diverse learners;

11. Understanding of leadership skills needed to improve mathematics programs at the school and division levels, including the needs of high-achieving and low-achieving students and of strategies to challenge them at appropriate levels; child psychology, including personality and learning behaviors; educational measurement and evaluation; and effective professional development approaches;

12. Understanding of how to develop and lead appropriate professional development based on the needs of students and the school community;

13. Understanding of how to work with school-based administration for the improvement of mathematics teaching and learning;

14. Understanding of how to effectively mentor teachers for the improvement of mathematics teaching and learning;

15. Understanding of how to effectively work with parents and the at-large community to improve mathematics teaching and learning;

16. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing; and

17. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-590. Mathematics specialist for middle education.

A. A mathematics specialist is a teacher in the middle grades who has interest and special preparation in mathematics content, scientifically-based research in the teaching and learning of mathematics, diagnostic and assessment methods, and leadership skills. The school-based mathematics specialist shall serve as a resource in professional development, instructing children who have learning difficulties in mathematics, curriculum development and implementation, mentoring new teachers, and parent and community education.

B. The mathematics specialist program shall ensure that the candidate has completed at least three years of successful classroom teaching experience in which the teaching of mathematics was an important responsibility and demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the Virginia Mathematics Standards of Learning and how curriculum may be organized to teach these standards to diverse learners;

2. Understanding of a core knowledge base of concepts and procedures within the discipline of mathematics, including the following strands: number systems and number theory; geometry and measurement; statistics and probability; and functions and algebra;

3. Understanding of the sequential nature of mathematics, the vertical progression of mathematical standards, and the mathematical structures inherent in the content strands;

4. Understanding of the connections among mathematical concepts and procedures and their practical applications;

5. Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - becoming mathematical problem-solvers, reasoning mathematically, communicating mathematically, making mathematical connections, and using mathematical models and representations - at different levels of complexity;

6. Understanding of major current curriculum studies and trends in mathematics;

7. Understanding how to utilize appropriate technologies for teaching and learning mathematics, including graphing utilities, dynamic software, spreadsheets, and virtual manipulatives;

8. Understanding of and the ability to select, adapt, evaluate, and use instructional materials and resources, including professional journals and technology;

9. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies for managing, assessing, and monitoring student learning, including diagnosing student errors;

10. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies to teach mathematics to diverse learners;

11. Understanding of leadership skills needed to improve mathematics programs at the school and division levels, including the needs of high-achieving and low-achieving students and of strategies to challenge them at appropriate levels; child psychology, including personality and learning behaviors; educational measurement and evaluation; and effective professional development approaches;

12. Understanding of how to develop and lead appropriate professional development based on the needs of students and the school community;

13. Understanding of how to work with school-based administration for the improvement of mathematics teaching and learning;

14. Understanding of how to effectively mentor teachers for the improvement of mathematics teaching and learning;

15. Understanding of how to effectively work with parents and the at-large community to improve mathematics teaching and learning;

16. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing; and

17. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-600. Reading specialist.

The reading specialist program shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Assessment and diagnostic teaching. The candidate shall:

a. Demonstrate expertise in the use of formal and informal screening, diagnostic, and progress monitoring assessment for language proficiency, concepts of print, phonemic awareness, letter recognition, decoding, fluency, vocabulary, reading levels, and comprehension; and

b. Demonstrate expertise in the ability to use diagnostic data to inform instruction for acceleration, intervention, remediation, and differentiation.

2. Communication: speaking, listening, media literacy. The candidate shall:

a. Demonstrate expertise in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching communication, (speaking, listening, and media literacy);

b. Demonstrate expertise in developing students' phonological awareness skills;

c. Demonstrate effective strategies for facilitating the learning of standard English by speakers of other languages and dialects;

d. Demonstrate an understanding of the unique needs of students with language differences and delays;

e. Demonstrate the ability to promote creative thinking and expression, such as through storytelling, drama, and choral and oral reading, etc.; and

f. Demonstrate the ability to teach students to identify the characteristics of, and apply critical thinking to, media messages and to facilitate their proficiency in using various forms of media to collaborate and communicate.

3. Reading. The candidate shall:

a. Demonstrate expertise in explicit and systematic phonics instruction, including an understanding of sound and symbol relationships, syllables, phonemes, morphemes, decoding skills, word analysis, and word attack skills;

b. Demonstrate expertise in the morphology of English including inflections, prefixes, suffixes, roots, and word relationships;

c. Demonstrate expertise in strategies to increase vocabulary;

d. Demonstrate expertise in the structure of the English language, including and understanding of syntax, semantics, and vocabulary development;

e. Demonstrate expertise in reading comprehension strategies, including a repertoire of questioning strategies, understanding the dimensions of word meanings, teaching predicting, inferencing, summarizing, clarifying, evaluating, and making connections;

f. Demonstrate expertise in the ability to teach strategies in literal, interpretive, critical, and evaluative comprehension;

g. Demonstrate the ability to develop comprehension skills in all content areas;

h. Demonstrate the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of literature; and

i. Understand the importance of promoting independent reading and reading strategically through a variety of means including by selecting fiction and nonfiction texts of appropriate yet engaging topics and reading levels; and

j. Demonstrate effective strategies for teaching students to view, interpret, analyze, and represent information and concepts in visual form with or without the spoken or written word.

4. Writing. The candidate shall:

a. Demonstrate expertise in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching writing, including the domains of composing and written expression and usage and mechanics and the writing process of planning, drafting, revising, editing, and sharing;

b. Demonstrate expertise in systematic spelling instruction, including awareness of the purpose and limitations of "invented spelling," orthographic patterns, and strategies for promoting generalization of spelling study to writing; and

c. Demonstrate expertise to teach the writing process: plan, draft, revise, edit, and share in the narrative, descriptive, and explanative modes.

5. Technology. The candidate shall demonstrate expertise in their use of technology for both process and product as they work to guide students with reading, writing, and research.

6. Leadership, coaching, and specialization. The candidate shall:

a. Demonstrate an understanding of developmental psychology, including personality and learning behaviors;

b. Demonstrate an understanding of the needs of high achieving students and of strategies to challenge them at appropriate levels;

c. Demonstrate an understanding of the significance of cultural contexts upon language;

d. Demonstrate an understanding of varying degrees of learning disabilities;

e. Demonstrate expertise with educational measurement and evaluation including validity, reliability, and normative comparisons in test design and selections;

f. Demonstrate expertise to interpret grade equivalents, percentile ranks, normal curve equivalents, and standards scores;

g. Demonstrate the ability to instruct and advise teachers in the skills necessary to differentiate reading instruction for both low and high achieving readers;

h. Demonstrate the ability to coach and support teachers through classroom observations, demonstrations, co-teaching, and other forms of job-embedded professional development;

i. Demonstrate the ability to organize and supervise the reading program within the classroom, school, or division;

j. Demonstrate effective communication skills in working with a variety of groups, including parents, teachers, administrators, community leaders, etc.;

k. Demonstrate knowledge of current research and exemplary practices in English and reading;

l. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing; and

m. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-610. School counselor preK-12.

The school counselor preK-12 program shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. The ability to support students by cooperatively working with parents and guardians and teachers.

2. Understanding of the principles and theories of human growth and development throughout the lifespan and their implications for school counseling.

3. Understanding of the social and cultural foundations of education and their implications for school counseling programs.

4. Understanding of lifespan career development.

5. Understanding of the skills and processes for counseling students to include:

a. Individual and group counseling for academic development;

b. Individual and group counseling for career development; and

c. Individual and group counseling for personal and social development.

6. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for providing developmental group guidance, including:

a. Academic development;

b. Career development; and

c. Personal and social development.

7. Understanding of the skills and processes related to the school counseling program at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels, including:

a. Characteristics of learners at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels;

b. Program planning;

c. Coordination; and

d. Consultation.

8. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of student appraisal and assessment relative to school guidance and counseling programs, including:

a. Individual assessment; and

b. Group assessment.

9. Understanding of the school counseling professional, including:

a. Legal considerations;

b. Ethical considerations; and

c. Professional issues and standards.

10. Understanding of the skills and processes of research and evaluation aimed at improving school counseling programs.

11. Understanding work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship,

12. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

13. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

14. The program shall include at least 100 clock hours of internship and practicum experience in the preK-6 setting and 100 clock hours of internship and practicum experience in the grades 7-12 setting.

8VAC20-543-620. School psychology.

The school psychology program shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge of basic teaching and learning principles and the conditions under which they operate maximally (academic environment and instructional match).

2. Knowledge and application of psychological foundations of human functioning including biological bases of behavior; cultural diversity; infant, child, and adolescent development; effects of poverty and lack of opportunity on learning; interplay between behavior, learning and motivation; personality theory; human learning; and social bases of behavior and mental health, to ensure student academic achievement, student growth and development, and mental health.

3. Knowledge of and skill at applying educational foundations of schooling, including education of exceptional learners; evidence-based instructional and remedial interventions, techniques, and strategies; formative and summative evaluation; evidence-based behavioral interventions; and organization and operations of schools, to ensure effective collaboration with other school professionals toward implementing school practices that promote learning and mental health.

4. Knowledge of various methods for assessing students' cognitive processes and abilities and skill in administering a variety of such methods; knowledge of various methods for assessing student academic strengths and weaknesses and skill in administering a variety of such methods; knowledge of various methods for assessing student interpersonal emotional and social and behavioral functioning and skill in administering a variety of such methods; and knowledge of universal screening measures designed for early and tiered academic and behavioral intervention. Knowledge of a variety of progress monitoring tools, especially student growth percentiles and skill in implementing at least two such tools.

5. Understanding and knowledge of direct and indirect methods of academic and behavioral intervention, and proficiency in delivering such interventions including:

a. Counseling on an individual, group, and family basis;

b. Consulting with administrators, teachers, parents, and other professionals about student problems and appropriate change strategies;

c. Designing and implementing individual and group behavior change programs; designing, implementing, and evaluating crisis intervention and threat (self-directed and other-directed) assessment programs; and

d. Designing and implementing academic and instructional interventions.

6. Statistics and research design, measurement, and program evaluation.

7. The profession of psychology applied to schools, including:

a. Basic knowledge of the standards of practice promoted by the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP);

b. Knowledge of and skill with several basic problem-solving schemes;

c. Knowledge of and ability to identify the variety of mental health problems exhibited by infants, children, and adolescents through age 21, including the ability to collaborate with other community-based professionals and private practitioners in providing wraparound services to the extent possible (systems of care philosophy);

d. History and foundations of school psychology;

e. Legal and ethical issues of practicing in schools;

f. Professional issues and standards related to practicing as a psychologist in a public school setting; and

g. Knowledge of the roles of all individuals practicing and working in a public school setting.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

9. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

10. The candidate shall have earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 60 graduate hours, 54 of which are academic coursework, exclusive of field-based experiences, that culminate in at least a master's degree.

11. The candidate shall complete an internship that is documented by the degree granting institution. The internship experience shall occur on a full-time basis over a period of one year or on a half-time basis over a period of two consecutive years. The internship shall occur under conditions of appropriate supervision (i.e., the school-based supervisor shall be licensed as either a school or clinical psychologist). The internship shall include experiences at multiple age levels, at least one half of which shall be in an accredited schooling setting.

8VAC20-543-630. School social worker.

The school social worker program shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for direct and indirect intervention, including:

a. Facilitating integrated intervention efforts that emphasize primary prevention, early screening, and multi-tiered interventions that target multiple risk factors in various settings;

b. Identifying approaches that seek to improve individual and system factors contributing to academic success and data-informed decision making and intervention fidelity;

c. Counseling on an individual, group, or family basis;

d. Consulting with administrators, teachers, parents, and other professionals about student problems and appropriate change strategies;

e. Networking and brokering with school programs and community agencies to provide essential services for families and children; and

f. Skills in collaborating with and facilitating collaboration among students, parents, members, administrators, teachers, and staff to identify ways to intervene early, reduce barriers to learning, and improve student outcomes.

2. Understanding of child development, psychopathology, social and environmental conditioning, cultural diversity, and family systems including:

a. Acknowledgment of the interrelatedness of various ecological systems such as education, juvenile justice, family and children's health, mental health, and child protective services; and

b. Knowledge of social problem impact on student performance and behaviors.

3. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for effective casework practice:

a. Examine factors in home, school, and community that impact students' educational performance and success; and

b. Assist in reducing identified barriers to learning.

4. Specialized knowledge and understanding of the organization and operations of school systems including:

a. Historical and current perspectives of public school education at the local, state, and national levels, including educational reform and legislation; and

b. Identifying and conveying the impact social problems, within ecological systems of home, school, and community, have on student performance in the educational setting.

5. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes involved with assessing and programming for exceptional students including:

a. Skills in implementing systematic assessment, data gathering and interpretation at multiple levels, and developing action plans to address the areas of need;

b. Identifying and utilizing research-based interventions to enhance the educational opportunities and school performance of vulnerable and at-risk populations;

c. Providing leadership in developing prevention programs and policies with administrators that impact school climate, student learning, and academic success; and

d. Ability to facilitate team decision-making and problem-solving strategies.

6. Understanding of the school social work profession, including:

a. History and foundations of school social work;

b. Legal and ethical issues;

c. Professional issues and standards; and

d. The role and function of the school social worker to include contextual variables influencing school social work roles and functions (e.g., political, legal, ethical, and value-based issues) that confront schools.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

9. The candidate shall have earned a master's of social work degree from a regionally accredited college or university school of social work with a minimum of 60 graduate semester hours.

10. The candidate shall complete a minimum of six graduate semester hours in education to include six semester hours from two of the following courses:

a. The teaching profession (3 semester hours);

b. Characteristics of special education (3 semester hours);

c. Human development and learning (3 semester hours); or

d. Classroom and behavior management (3 semester hours).

11. The candidate shall complete a supervised practicum or field experience of a minimum of 400 clock hours in a public or accredited nonpublic school discharging the duties of a school social worker. One year of successful, full-time experience as a school social worker in a public or accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the school social work practicum.

8VAC20-543-640. Vocational evaluator.

The vocational evaluator program shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the foundations of vocational evaluation and career assessment, including philosophy and process of vocational evaluation and assessment, use of occupational and labor market information, and functional aspects of physical, mental and intellectual disabilities.

2. Understanding of the basic concepts and skills of planning for and delivering vocational evaluation and career assessment services, including the use of vocational interviewing, individualized service planning, report development and communication, and use of modifications and accommodations.

3. Ability to modify standard instruments and to develop new instruments to respond to labor markets or individual needs.

4. Understanding of the federal and state laws and regulations pertaining to special education (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), rehabilitation (Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act.)

5. Understanding of the content, processes, and skills necessary to administer and report findings of standardized testing, including knowledge of tests and measurements and selection and use of appropriate instruments.

6. Above average communication skills in order to explain assessment information to school personnel, parents, students, and other service providers

7. Understanding of natural supports and assistive technology.

8. Ability to select, administer, and interpret a wide assortment of evaluation instruments which includes commercial work sample systems, and situational assessments.

9. Understanding and knowledge of specific assessment techniques and skills and the processes for conducting vocational evaluation and career assessment, including:

a. Job and training analysis;

b. Work samples and systems;

c. Situational and community-based assessment;

d. Behavioral observation;

e. Learning and functional skills assessment; and

f. Work site assessment (ecological assessment).

10. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

11. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

NOTICE: The following form used in administering the regulation was filed by the agency. The form is not being published; however, online users of this issue of the Virginia Register of Regulations may click on the name of the form with a hyperlink to access it. The form is also available from the agency contact or may be viewed at the Office of the Registrar of Regulations, General Assembly Building, 2nd Floor, Richmond, Virginia 23219.

FORMS (8VAC20-543)

Request for New Education Program Endorsement Area (undated)

VA.R. Doc. No. R13-3477; Filed July 27, 2015, 12:31 p.m.
TITLE 8. EDUCATION
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION
Proposed Regulation

Titles of Regulations: 8VAC20-542. Regulations Governing the Review and Approval of Education Programs in Virginia (repealing 8VAC20-542-10 through 8VAC20-542-600).

8VAC20-543. Regulations Governing the Review and Approval of Education Programs in Virginia (adding 8VAC20-543-10 through 8VAC20-543-640).

Statutory Authority: §§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Public Hearing Information:

October 22, 2015 - 11 a.m. - James Monroe Building, 101 North 14th Street, 22nd Floor, Conference Room, Richmond, VA 23219. The public hearing will begin immediately following adjournment of the Board of Education business meeting.

Public Comment Deadline: October 31, 2015.

Agency Contact: Patty S. Pitts, Assistant Superintendent for Teacher Education and Licensure, Department of Education, P.O. Box 2120, Richmond, VA 23218, telephone (804) 371-2522, or email patty.pitts@doe.virginia.gov.

Basis: The bases for the regulation are the following:

Section 4 of Article VIII of the Constitution of Virginia, which provides that the general supervision of the public school system shall be vested in a Board of Education.

Section 22.1-16 of the Code of Virginia, which authorizes the board to promulgate such regulations as may be necessary to carry out its powers and duties.

Section 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia, which states that education preparation programs shall meet the requirements for accreditation and program approval as prescribed by the Board of Education in its regulations.

Section 22.1-305.2 of the Code of Virginia regarding the Advisory Board on Teacher Education and Licensure.

Purpose: The proposed regulatory action is essential to protect the health, safety, or welfare of citizens as the regulations set forth the requirements for college and university programs that prepare instructional personnel to be accredited and approved. The completion of an approved program prepares an individual to be licensed by the Virginia Board of Education.

Section 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia, states, in part, the following: "Education preparation programs shall meet the requirements for accreditation and program approval as prescribed by the Board of Education in its regulations."

On September 21, 2007, Regulations Governing the Review and Approval of Education Programs in Virginia, promulgated by the Board of Education, became effective. One additional amendment became effective on January 19, 2011, in response to a requirement of the 2010 Virginia General Assembly to include local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia in certain preparation programs.

A comprehensive review of the Regulations Governing the Review and Approval of Education Programs in Virginia was conducted, and the regulations in their entirety were examined. The proposed action is to repeal the existing chapter and promulgate a new chapter.

Substance: The proposed new regulations are outlined in detail under the Detail of Changes section in the Proposed Regulation Agency Background Document on the Virginia Regulatory Town Hall. Substantive elements of the proposed new regulations focus on revision of selected definitions to conform with changes in the proposed new regulations; modifications in administration of the proposed new regulations, including national accreditation for all approved Virginia professional education programs and increased rigor in biennial measures of accountability; addition of new education program endorsement areas in mathematics, engineering, and special education and increased rigor in professional studies requirements for selected education program endorsement areas.

Issues: The primary advantage to the public and the Commonwealth is to ensure that programs preparing instructional personnel are reviewed according to Board of Education standards. Institutions of higher education are accountable to meet statutory and regulatory requirements to continue to offer approved preparation programs. In addition, an amendment will require all professional education programs in Virginia to be accredited by the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP), thereby, requiring national accreditation and Board of Education approval. An issue for institutions of higher education is the cost associated with obtaining and maintaining national accreditation.

Department of Planning and Budget's Econonic Impact Analysis:

Summary of the Proposed Amendments to Regulation. The Board of Education (Board) proposes to repeal the current regulation (8VAC20-542) and replace it with a new regulation (8VAC20-543). In doing so, the Board proposes numerous amendments to the rules including:

• Revising definitions for accredited program, biennial accountability measures, biennial report, field experiences, professional education program, and regional accrediting agency.

• Adding definitions for Annual Report Card, education endorsement program, program completers, and program non-completers.

• Eliminating definitions for candidates completing a program, candidates exiting a program, distance learning, education program, exceptionalities, full-time faculty, general education, governance, part-time faculty, pedagogical studies, professional education faculty, scholarly activities, and school faculty.1

• Removing the professional studies coursework cap.

• Allowing professional studies coursework and methodology to include field experiences to be designated for completion within a baccalaureate degree program.2

• Requiring education programs to ensure that candidates complete training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators.3

• Eliminating the option for the Board to approve the professional education process and require all professional education programs to be accredited by a national organization.4

• Revising the biennial standards for candidate progress and performance on Board licensure assessments.

• Modifying the student teaching requirements to stipulate continuous, systematic supervised clinical experiences comprised of early field experiences with a minimum of ten weeks of full-time student teaching under the supervision of a cooperating teacher with demonstrated effectiveness in the classroom, as indicated by a proficient or exemplary evaluation rating.

•·Expanding indicators for evidence of employer job satisfaction with candidates completing the program to require documentation to address teacher performance, including student academic progress.

• Mandating that ratings for education endorsement programs include national accreditation of professional education programs as a prerequisite to education endorsement program approval and a description of education endorsement program candidates biennial passing rates, reported by percentages.

• Expanding the approved with stipulations rating to more clearly define consequences for education endorsement programs that fall below the 80 percent biennial passing rate for program completers and non-completers.

• Amending the approval denied rating to more clearly define how this standard is applied.

• Requiring accredited professional education programs to submit a new Annual Report Card that includes yearly data on the preparation of professional school personnel.

• Amending the competencies language for all educational endorsement programs to include general and specific competencies and requirements for education endorsement programs.

• Deleting language describing education program endorsements in career and technical education-industrial cooperative training (ICT) and special education-speech-language disorders preK-12.5

• Adding education program endorsements in engineering; special education-general curriculum K-6, middle grades 6-8, and secondary education grades 6-12; and mathematics specialist for middle education.

Result of Analysis. The benefits likely exceed the costs for some changes. For other amendments, whether the benefits exceed the costs depend on the policy views of the observer.

Estimated Economic Impact.

1. First Aid, CPR, and AED Training: The legislatively mandated proposal to specify that education programs ensure that candidates complete training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators will introduce significant benefits and costs. Having all (or nearly all) teachers educated in the Commonwealth trained in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators will increase the likelihood that someone with potentially lifesaving skills will be on hand during medical emergencies in the classroom. To the extent that the future teachers absorb and retain the knowledge they gain in this training, the long-run benefits may be quite significant.

For onsite training in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators, the American Red Cross charges $250 plus $72 per student if there are at least 20 students. So for example, an education program with 50 students the fees would total $3,850.6 If done all in person, the Red Cross training would take 5.5 hours. Alternatively, the students could do 2 hours of online training ahead of time. In that case the in-person training would last 1.5 hours. The fees would be the same in either case, but the amount of time that potentially could have been used for other subjects differs.

2. Education Program Accreditation: Under the current regulations, Professional education programs in Virginia shall obtain and maintain national accreditation from the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and the Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC), or a process approved by the Board of Education. Of the 37 Virginia colleges with professional education programs, 28 have national accreditation and 9 have accreditation via the Board-approved process. The proposal to eliminate the option for the Board to approve the professional education process and require all professional education programs to be accredited by a national organization will increase costs for the 9 colleges whose professional education programs are not yet nationally accredited.

On July 1, 2013, the NCATE and TEAC merged, creating the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP), the new sole national accreditor for educator preparation.7 The CAEP accreditation visit fee ranges from $5,250 to $14,000, depending on the size of the required visit team. The annual CAEP fee is based upon the number of program completers in the professional education program. The following table displays the CAEP annual fee range:

2014-2015 CAEP EPP Fees
(July 1, 2014 - June 30, 2015)

Completers

Annual Fees

1 - 50

$2,320

51 - 150

$2,575

151 - 300

$2,935

301 - 500

$3,400

501 - 1000

$4,480

1000+

$5,200

Since 28 out of the 37 Virginia colleges with professional education programs have already opted to have national accreditation, it appears that there is significant benefit associated with having national accreditation. Thus taking into account this benefit, the net cost to the 9 colleges whose professional education programs are not yet nationally accredited will likely be significantly less than just considering their additional financial cost. The proposal to eliminate the option for the Board to approve the professional education process and require all professional education programs to be accredited by a national organization also enables the Virginia Department of Education to reallocate staff resources to be used in other productive ways. This produces an additional benefit.

Businesses and Entities Affected. The proposed amendments affect the 37 colleges and universities in Virginia that have education programs, the 132 public school divisions in the Commonwealth, current and future teachers, and businesses or organizations that provide training in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators.

Localities Particularly Affected. The proposed amendments do not disproportionately affect particular localities.

Projected Impact on Employment. The requirement that education programs ensure that candidates complete training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators will increase demand for these services from businesses and organizations that provide such training. The increase in demand may be enough to create additional jobs.

Effects on the Use and Value of Private Property. The requirement that education programs ensure that candidates complete training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators will likely increase business for firms that provide such training.

Small Businesses: Costs and Other Effects. The proposed amendments are unlikely to significantly affect costs for small businesses. The requirement that education programs ensure that candidates complete training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators will increase demand for small firms that provide such training.

Small Businesses: Alternative Method that Minimizes Adverse Impact. The proposed amendments will not adversely affect small businesses.

Real Estate Development Costs. The proposed amendments are unlikely to significantly affect real estate development costs.

Legal Mandate. General: The Department of Planning and Budget (DPB) has analyzed the economic impact of this proposed regulation in accordance with § 2.2-4007.04 of the Code of Virginia and Executive Order Number 14 (2010). Section 2.2-4007.04 requires that such economic impact analyses determine the public benefits and costs of the proposed amendments. Further the report should include but not be limited to:

• the projected number of businesses or other entities to whom the proposed regulatory action would apply,

• the identity of any localities and types of businesses or other entities particularly affected,

• the projected number of persons and employment positions to be affected,

• the projected costs to affected businesses or entities to implement or comply with the regulation, and

• the impact on the use and value of private property.

Small Businesses: If the proposed regulatory action will have an adverse effect on small businesses, § 2.2-4007.04 requires that such economic impact analyses include:

• an identification and estimate of the number of small businesses subject to the proposed regulation,

• the projected reporting, recordkeeping, and other administrative costs required for small businesses to comply with the proposed regulation, including the type of professional skills necessary for preparing required reports and other documents,

• a statement of the probable effect of the proposed regulation on affected small businesses, and

• a description of any less intrusive or less costly alternative methods of achieving the purpose of the proposed regulation.

Additionally, pursuant to § 2.2-4007.1, if there is a finding that a proposed regulation may have an adverse impact on small business, the Joint Commission on Administrative Rules is notified at the time the proposed regulation is submitted to the Virginia Register of Regulations for publication. This analysis shall represent DPB's best estimate for the purposes of public review and comment on the proposed regulation.

________________________________________________

1DOE indicated that presently, these definitions primarily refer to terms used in the Board-approved accreditation process. Since that option for accreditation is being eliminated, these terms would become obsolete and are therefore being repealed.

2Field experiences are currently excluded.

3This change was mandated by Chapter 498 of the 2013 Acts of Assembly.

4According to DOE, this change is expected to affect nine institutions of higher education.

5According to DOE, the ICT program was never used so it was eliminated from the regulatory text. The change to the special education program resulted from a joint effort with the Department of Health Professions (DHP) to eliminate confusion as to whether these individuals should be licensed by DHP or DOE. Chapter 781 of the 2014 Acts of Assembly clarified that DHP would issue the licenses; therefore DOE is eliminating references to the program from its regulations.

6$250 + (50 x $72) = $3,850

7Source: Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation website (http://caepnet.org/about/history/)

Agency Response to Economic Impact Analysis: The agency concurs with the economic impact analysis completed by the Department of Planning and Budget. The agency will continue to examine the economic and administrative impact of the regulations as they progress through the regulatory process.

Summary:

The proposed action repeals existing regulations (8VAC20-542) and adopts new regulations (8VAC20-543) regarding educational programs that prepare instructional personnel to be accredited and approved for licensure by the Board of Education. Substantive elements of the proposed new regulations focus on (i) revision of selected definitions to conform with changes in the proposed new regulations; (ii) modifications in administration of the proposed new regulations, including national accreditation for all approved Virginia professional education programs and increased rigor in biennial measures of accountability; (iii) addition of new educational program endorsement areas in mathematics, engineering, and special education; and (iv) increased rigor in professional studies requirements for selected education program endorsement areas.

CHAPTER 543
REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN VIRGINIA

Part I
Definitions

8VAC20-543-10. Definitions.

The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the meanings indicated unless the context implies otherwise:

"Accreditation" means a process for assessing and improving academic and educational quality through voluntary peer review. This process informs the public that an institution has a professional education program that has met national standards of educational quality.

"Accredited institution" means an institution of higher education accredited by a regional accrediting agency recognized by the United States Department of Education.

"Accredited program" means a Virginia professional education program accredited by the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP), including CAEP/National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and CAEP/Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC).

"Annual report card" means the Virginia Department of Education yearly data report card required of all professional education programs in Virginia that offer approved programs for the preparation of school personnel.

"Biennial accountability measures" means those specific benchmarks set forth in 8VAC20-543-40 to meet the standards required to obtain or maintain education endorsement program approval status.

"Biennial accountability measurement report" means the compliance report submitted to the Virginia Department of Education every two years by an accredited professional education program.

"Candidates" means individuals enrolled in education programs.

"Department" means the Virginia Department of Education.

"Diversity" means the wide range of differences among groups of people and individuals based on ethnicity, race, socioeconomic status, gender, exceptionalities, language, religion, and geographical area.

"Education endorsement program" means a state-approved course of study, the completion of which signifies that an enrollee has met all the state's educational and training requirements for initial licensure in a specified endorsement area.

"Field experiences" means program components that are (i) conducted in off-campus settings or on-campus settings dedicated to the instruction of children who would or could otherwise be served by school divisions in Virginia or accredited nonpublic schools and (ii) accredited for this purpose by external entities such as regional accrediting agencies. Field experiences include classroom observations, tutoring, assisting teachers and school administrators, and supervised clinical experiences (i.e., practica, student teaching, and internships).

"Indicators" means operational definitions that suggest the kinds of evidence that professional education programs shall provide to demonstrate that a standard is met.

"Instructional technology" means the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning and the use of computers and other technologies.

"Licensing" means the official recognition by a state governmental agency that an individual has met state requirements and is, therefore, approved to practice as a licensed professional.

"Professional education program" means the Virginia institution, college, school, department or other administrative body within a Virginia institution of higher education, or another Virginia entity, for a defined education program that is primarily responsible for the preparation of teachers and other professional school personnel.

"Professional studies" means courses and other learning experiences designed to prepare candidates to demonstrate competence in the areas of human development and learning, curriculum and instruction, assessment of and for learning, classroom and behavior management, the teaching profession, reading, and supervised clinical experiences.

"Program approval" means the process by which a state governmental agency reviews an education program to determine if it meets the state's standards for the preparation of school personnel.

"Program completers" means individuals who have successfully completed all coursework, required licensure assessments, including those prescribed by the Board of Education, and supervised student teaching or required internship.

"Program noncompleters" means individuals who have been officially admitted into an education program and who have taken, regardless of whether the individuals passed or failed, required licensure assessments and who exit the program prior to completion. Program noncompleters shall have been officially released in writing from an education endorsement program by an authorized administrator of the program. Program noncompleters who did not take required assessments are not included in biennial reporting pass rates.

"Regional accrediting agency" means one of the six accrediting associations recognized by the United States Department of Education as follows: New England Association of Schools and Colleges, Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities, Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, and Western Association of Schools and Colleges.

"Standards of Learning for Virginia public schools" means the Commonwealth's expectations for student learning and achievement in grades K-12 in English, mathematics, science, history/social science, technology, fine arts, foreign language, health and physical education, and driver education.

Part II
Accreditation and Administering this Chapter

8VAC20-543-20. Accreditation and administering this chapter.

A. Institutions of higher education seeking approval of an education endorsement program shall be accredited by a regional accrediting agency.

B. Professional education programs in Virginia shall obtain and maintain national accreditation from the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP), including CAEP/National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and CAEP/Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC). Professional education programs in Virginia seeking accreditation through CAEP shall adhere to procedures and timelines established by CAEP and the CAEP/Virginia Partnership Agreement. Professional education programs shall ensure and document that programs are aligned with standards set forth in 8VAC20-543-40 through 8VAC20-543-50 and meet competencies outlined in 8VAC20-543-60 through 8VAC20-543-640.

C. If a professional education program fails to maintain accreditation, enrolled candidates shall be permitted to complete their programs of study. Professional education programs that fail to maintain accreditation shall not admit new candidates. Candidates shall be notified of the education endorsement program's approval status.

D. Teacher candidates shall complete academic degrees in the arts and sciences, or equivalent, except in health, physical, and career and technical education. Candidates in early/primary education preK-3, elementary education (preK-6), middle education (6-8), and special education programs may complete a major in interdisciplinary studies or its equivalent. Candidates seeking a secondary endorsement area must have earned a major, or the equivalent, in the area sought.

E. Professional studies coursework and methodology, including field experiences, required in this chapter shall be designed for completion within a baccalaureate degree program.

F. Professional education programs shall ensure that candidates demonstrate proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction; complete study in child abuse recognition and intervention; and complete training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators.

G. Standards and procedures for the review and approval of each education endorsement program shall adhere to procedures for administering the chapter as defined in this section and in 8VAC20-543-40, 8VAC20-543-50, and 8VAC20-543-60. These procedures shall result in biennial recommendations to the Board of Education for one of the following three ratings: "approved," "approved with stipulations," or "approval denied."

H. Education endorsement programs shall be approved under this chapter biennially based on compliance with the criteria described in 8VAC20-543-40, 8VAC20-543-50, and 8VAC20-543-60.

I. The Department of Education will determine the timeline and procedures for applying for education endorsement program approval.

J. Education endorsement programs in Virginia shall address the competencies set forth in this chapter, and the curriculum for each program must be documented and submitted to the Department of Education for approval.

K. Professional education programs shall submit to the Department of Education on behalf of each education endorsement program under consideration a biennial accountability measurement report and an annual report card to include data prescribed by the Board of Education on education endorsement programs in accordance with department procedures and timelines.

L. The professional education program authorized administrator shall maintain copies of approved education endorsement programs and required reports.

M. The Department of Education may conduct onsite visits to review education endorsement programs and verify data.

N. The Advisory Board on Teacher Education and Licensure (ABTEL) is authorized to review and make recommendations to the Board of Education on approval of Virginia education endorsement programs for school personnel. The Board of Education has final authority on education endorsement program approval.

O. Modifications may be made by the Superintendent of Public Instruction in the administration of this chapter. Proposed modifications shall be made in writing to the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Commonwealth of Virginia.

Part III
Application for New Education Endorsement Programs

8VAC20-543-30. Application for new education endorsement programs.

A. Requests for new education endorsement programs shall be approved by the Virginia Board of Education.

B. The professional education program shall submit a request for the new program in a format provided by the Department of Education that shall address the following requirements:

1. Rationale for the new education endorsement program, to include local division or service area demand data and statements of support from the institution's dean, provost, president, or designee and Virginia school divisions. A summary of the stakeholders' involvement in the development of the education endorsement program must be included.

2. Capacity of the institution to offer the education endorsement program.

3. List of the requirements for the education endorsement program, to include the degree, major, and the curriculum.

4. Matrices demonstrating that the competencies set forth in this chapter have been incorporated in the education endorsement program.

5. Description of structured and integrated field experiences to include early clinical experiences and a summative supervised student teaching experience.

6. Description of the partnerships and collaborations based on preK-12 school needs.

Part IV
Standards for Biennial Approval of Education Endorsement Programs

8VAC20-543-40. Standards for biennial approval of education endorsement programs.

Education endorsement programs in Virginia shall be approved by the Board of Education and demonstrate achievement biennially of the accountability measures in this section. The institution of higher education must report evidence of the standards for Board of Education review biennially.

1. Candidate progress and performance on prescribed Board of Education licensure assessments. Candidate passing rates, reported by percentages, shall not fall below 80% biennially for program completers and program noncompleters. Program completers are individuals who have successfully completed all coursework, required licensure assessments, and supervised student teaching or required internship. Program noncompleters are those individuals who have been officially admitted into the education program and who have taken, regardless of whether the individual passed or failed, required licensure assessments, and who exit the program prior to completion. Program noncompleters shall have been officially released (in writing) from an education endorsement program by an authorized administrator of the program.

2. Candidate progress and performance on an assessment of basic skills as prescribed by the Board of Education for individuals seeking entry into an approved education endorsement program.

Indicators of the achievement of this standard shall include the following:

a. Results on Board of Education prescribed entry-level assessments;

b. Documentation that candidates enrolled in the program who fail to achieve a minimum score established by the Board of Education have the opportunity to address deficiencies; and

c. Documentation of the number of candidates admitted into the program who did not meet the prescribed admission assessment and the opportunities provided to the candidates to address deficiencies.

3. Structured and integrated field experiences to include early clinical experiences and a summative supervised student teaching experience.

Indicators of the achievement of this standard shall include the following:

a. Evidence that candidates receive quality clinically-based structured and integrated field experiences that prepare them to work in diverse educational environments; and

b. Evidence that supervised clinical experiences are continuous and systematic and comprised of early field experiences with a minimum of 10 weeks of full-time student teaching under the supervision of a cooperating teacher with demonstrated effectiveness in the classroom, as indicated by a proficient or exemplary evaluation rating. The supervised student teaching experience shall include at least 150 clock hours spent in direct teaching at the level of endorsement.

4. Evidence of opportunities for candidates to participate in diverse school settings that provide experiences with populations that include racial, economic, linguistic, and ethnic diversity throughout the program experiences.

The indicator of the achievement of this standard shall include evidence that the professional education program provides opportunities for candidates to have program experiences in diverse school settings that provide experiences with populations that include racial, economic, linguistic, and ethnic diversity within each biennial period.

5. Evidence of contributions to preK-12 student achievement by candidates completing the program.

Indicators of the achievement of this standard shall include the following:

a. Evidence to show that candidates know about, create, and use appropriate and effective data-driven assessments in teaching that shall provide dependable information about student achievement;

b. Evidence to document that faculty have made provisions for evaluating the effects that candidates have on preK-12 student learning in the context of teaching as they design unit assessment systems and assessments for each program; and

c. Evidence that the education program assesses candidates' mastery of exit criteria and performance proficiencies, including the ability to affect student learning, through the use of multiple sources of data such as a culminating experience, portfolios, interviews, videotaped and observed performance in schools, standardized tests, and course grades.

6. Evidence of employer job satisfaction with candidates completing the program.

Indicators of the achievement of this standard shall include:

a. Documentation that the professional education program has two years of evidence regarding candidate performance based on employer surveys.

b. Documented evidence of teacher effectiveness, including student academic progress.

7. Partnerships and collaborations based on preK-12 school needs.

Indicators of the achievement of this standard shall include the following:

a. Documented evidence that the education endorsement program has established partnerships reflecting collaboratively designed program descriptions based on identified needs of the preK-12 community.

b. Documented evidence that the administration and supervision program collaborates with partnering schools to identify and select candidates for school leadership programs who meet local needs, demonstrate both potential for and interest in school leadership, and meet the qualifications for admission to advanced programs.

Part V
Application of Standards for Biennial Approval of Education Endorsement Programs

8VAC20-543-50. Application of the standards.

A. As a prerequisite to education endorsement program approval, professional education programs in Virginia shall have national accreditation. Failure to do so will result in the education endorsement program being designated as "approval denied."

B. The education endorsement program's candidate passing rates, reported by percentages, shall not fall below 80% biennially for program completers and program noncompleters. Program completers are individuals who have successfully completed all coursework, required licensure assessments, and supervised student teaching or required internship. Program noncompleters are those individuals who have been officially admitted into the education program and who have taken, regardless of whether the individual passed or failed, required licensure assessments, and who exit the program prior to completion. Program noncompleters shall have been officially released (in writing) from an education endorsement program by an authorized administrator of the program.

C. The professional education program's authorized administrator is responsible to certify documented evidence that the following standards as set forth in 8VAC20-543-40 have been met by the education endorsement program:

1. The professional education program shall demonstrate candidate progress and performance on an assessment of basic skills as prescribed by the Board of Education for individuals seeking entry into an approved education endorsement program.

2. The professional education program shall provide structured and integrated field experiences.

3. The professional education program shall provide evidence of opportunities for candidates to participate in diverse school settings that provide experiences with populations that include racial, economic, linguistic, and ethnic diversity throughout the program experiences.

4. The professional education program shall provide evidence of contributions to preK-12 student achievement by candidates completing the program.

5. The professional education program shall provide evidence of employer job satisfaction with candidates completing the program.

6. The professional education program shall develop and provide evidence of biennial accountability measures for partnerships and collaborations based on preK-12 school needs.

D. After submitting to the Department of Education the information contained in 8VAC20-543-40, education endorsement programs in Virginia shall receive one of the following three ratings:

1. Approved. The education endorsement program has met all standards set forth in 8VAC20-543-40.

2. Approved with stipulations. The education endorsement program has met standards in subsections A and B of this section and is making documented progress toward meeting standards in subsection C of this section. Biennial passing rates that fall below the 80% requirement for program completers and noncompleters shall result in the education endorsement program receiving a rating of "approved with stipulations." The passing rate for program completers and noncompleters must meet the 80% passing rate requirement by the end of the next biennial period for the program to be approved; if the 80% pass rate is not achieved, the program will be denied.

3. Approval denied. Approval may be denied if:

a. The education endorsement program has not met standards in subsection A of this section;

b. The education endorsement program has met standards in subsection A of this section but has not met requirements in subsection B of this section for two consecutive biennial reporting periods. The program shall be denied and the public notified. The program may resubmit a request for approval at the end of the next biennial period.

Part VI
Professional Education Program Accountability

8VAC20-543-60. Biennial accountability measurement report.

The accredited professional education program shall report, every two years, in accordance with Virginia Department of Education procedures, those specific criteria set forth in 8VAC20-543-40 to meet the standards required to obtain or maintain education endorsement program approval status.

8VAC20-543-70. Annual report card.

The accredited professional education program shall submit to the Virginia Department of Education a yearly data report card on the preparation of professional school personnel. The report card shall be published on the department's website. The information required on the report card shall be approved by the Board of Education and will include the following:

1. Institution's accreditation status;

2. Education endorsement program status;

3. Number of candidates admitted in education endorsement programs;

4. Number of candidates admitted in education endorsement programs who are in the top quartile of the college or university population.

5. Number of program completers, including number of program completers in critical shortage teaching areas;

6. Number of program noncompleters;

7. Biennial accountability data results;

8. Number of candidates admitted into the program for the reporting year who did not meet the prescribed admission assessment requirement;

9. Number of program completers for the reporting year who were admitted without meeting the prescribed admission assessment requirement;

10. Number of program noncompleters for the reporting year who were admitted to the program without meeting the prescribed admission assessment requirement;

11. Satisfaction ratings by school administrators and clinical experience supervisors on student teachers;

12. Satisfaction ratings by employers of program completers;

13. Satisfaction ratings of program completers within two years of employment; and

14. Other data as required by the Board of Education.

Part VII
Competencies for Endorsement Areas
Article 1
General Competencies

8VAC20-543-80. Competencies and requirements for endorsement areas.

A. The professional education program develops, maintains, and continuously evaluates high quality education endorsement programs that are collaboratively designed and based on identified needs of the preK-12 community. Candidates in education endorsement programs shall demonstrate competence in the areas in which they plan to practice and complete professional studies requirements and applicable assessments, in addition to meeting requirements for specific licenses, pursuant to the Licensure Regulations for School Personnel (8VAC20-22). The Licensure Regulations for School Personnel set forth the required degrees from regionally accredited colleges or universities for licenses, endorsements, and prerequisite licenses or endorsements for add-on endorsements.

B. All education endorsement programs in early/primary education preK-3, elementary education preK-6, middle education 6-8, and history and social sciences must include local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia.

C. Candidates in education endorsement programs demonstrate an understanding of competencies, including the core concepts and facts of the disciplines and the Virginia Standards of Learning, for the content areas in which they plan to teach where required.

D. Candidates in early/primary education preK-3, elementary education preK-6, and special education complete a minimum of six semester hours of reading coursework as outlined in the reading competencies.

E. Candidates seeking an early/primary education preK-3 or an elementary education preK-6 endorsement must complete 12-15 semester hours each in English, history and social sciences, mathematics, and science addressing competencies set forth in this chapter or complete the following:

1. English: complete six semester hours in English and pass a rigorous assessment in elementary English prescribed by the Board of Education.

2. History and social sciences: complete six semester hours in history and social sciences and pass a rigorous assessment in elementary history and social sciences prescribed by the Board of Education.

3. Mathematics: complete six semester hours in mathematics, complete a methods of teaching elementary mathematics course, and pass a rigorous assessment in elementary mathematics prescribed by the Board of Education.

4. Science: complete six semester hours in laboratory sciences in two science disciplines, complete a methods of teaching elementary science course, and pass a rigorous assessment in elementary science prescribed by the Board of Education.

F. Candidates seeking an endorsement in special education-general curriculum K-12 must have one area of specialization in English, history and social sciences, mathematics, or science with 12-15 semester hours in the specialization area.

G. Candidates seeking a middle education endorsement must have an area of concentration in English, history and social sciences, mathematics, or science with 21-24 semester hours in the concentration area.

Article 2
Early/Primary Education, Elementary Education, and Middle Education Endorsements

8VAC20-543-90. Professional studies requirements for early/primary education, elementary education, and middle education.

Professional studies requirements for early/primary education, elementary education, and middle education:

1. Human development and learning (birth through adolescence).

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the physical, social, emotional, speech and language, and intellectual development of children and the ability to use this understanding in guiding learning experiences and relating meaningfully to students.

b. The interaction of children with individual differences - economic, social, racial, ethnic, religious, physical, and mental - should be incorporated to include skills contributing to an understanding of developmental disabilities and developmental issues related but not limited to low socioeconomic status, attention deficit disorders, developmental disorders, gifted education, including the use of multiple criteria to identify gifted students, substance abuse, child abuse, and family disruptions.

2. Curriculum and instruction.

a. Early/primary education preK-3 or elementary education preK-6 curriculum and instruction.

(1) Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology; effective communication with and among students; selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies; selection, development, and use of appropriate curricula, methodologies, and materials that support and enhance student learning and reflect the research on unique, age-appropriate, and culturally relevant curriculum and pedagogy.

(2) Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instruction must be included.

(3) Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners, including limited English proficient students, gifted and talented students, and students with disabilities, and appropriate for the level of endorsement (preK-3 or preK-6) sought shall be included.

(4) Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student engagement and student academic progress and effective preparation for the Standards of Learning assessments.

(5) Study in (i) methods of improving communication between schools and families, (ii) communicating with families regarding social and instructional needs of children, (iii) ways of increasing family involvement in student learning at home and in school, (iv) the Virginia Standards of Learning, and (v) Virginia Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds prepared by the department's Office of Humanities and Early Childhood shall be included.

(6) Early childhood educators must understand the role of families in child development and in relation to teaching educational skills.

(7) Early childhood educators must understand the role of the informal and play-mediated settings for promoting students' skills and development and must demonstrate knowledge and skill in interacting in such situations to promote specific learning outcomes as reflected in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning.

(8) Demonstrated proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction shall be included. Persons seeking initial licensure as teachers and persons seeking licensure renewal as teachers for the first time shall complete study in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Services that are relevant to the specific teacher licensure routes. Pre-student teaching experiences (field experiences) should be evident within these skills.

b. Middle education 6-8 curriculum and instruction.

(1) Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology; effective communication with and among students, selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies; evaluation of pupil performance; and the relationships among assessment, instruction, and monitoring student progress to include student performance measures in grading practices, the ability to construct and interpret valid assessments using a variety of formats in order to measure student attainment of essential skills in a standards-based environment, and the ability to analyze assessment data to make decisions about how to improve instruction and student performance.

(2) Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instruction must be included.

(3) Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners including limited English proficient students, gifted and talented students, and students with disabilities, and must be appropriate for the middle education endorsement shall be included.

(4) Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student engagement and student academic progress and effective preparation for the Standards of Learning assessments.

(5) Study in methods of improving communication between schools and families, ways of increasing family involvement in student learning at home and in school, and the Standards of Learning shall be included.

(6) Demonstrated proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction shall be included.

(7) Persons seeking initial licensure as teachers and persons seeking licensure renewal as teachers for the first time shall complete study in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Services that are relevant to the specific teacher licensure routes. Pre-student teaching experiences (field experiences) should be evident within these skills.

3. Classroom and behavior management. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding and application of research-based classroom and behavior management techniques, classroom community building, positive behavior supports, and individual interventions, including techniques that promote emotional well-being and teach and maintain behavioral conduct and skills consistent with norms, standards, and rules of the educational environment. This area shall address diverse approaches based upon behavioral, cognitive, affective, social, and ecological theory and practice. Approaches should support professionally appropriate practices that promote positive redirection of behavior, development of social skills, and self discipline. Knowledge and an understanding of various school crisis management and safety plans and the demonstrated ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environment must be included. The link between classroom management and students' ages must be understood and demonstrated in techniques used in the classroom.

4. Assessment of and for learning.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding and application of creating, selecting, and implementing valid and reliable classroom-based assessments of student learning, including formative and summative assessments. Assessments designed and adapted to meet the needs of diverse learners must be addressed.

b. Analytical skills necessary to inform ongoing planning and instruction, as well as to understand, and help students understand their own progress and growth must be included.

c. Skills also include the ability to understand the relationships among assessment, instruction, and monitoring student progress to include student performance measures in grading practices; the ability to interpret valid assessments using a variety of formats in order to measure student attainment of essential skills in a standards-based environment; and the ability to analyze assessment data to make decisions about how to improve instruction and student performance.

d. Understanding of state assessment programs and accountability systems, including assessments used for student achievement goal setting as related to teacher evaluation and determining student academic progress, including knowledge of legal and ethical aspects of assessment.

e. Skills include developing familiarity with assessments used in preK-12 education (e.g., diagnostic, college admission exams, industry certifications, placement assessments).

5. The teaching profession.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding of the historical, philosophical, and sociological foundations underlying the role, development, and organization of public education in the United States.

b. Attention must be given to the legal status of teachers and students, including federal and state laws and regulations; school as an organization and culture; and contemporary issues and current trends in education, including the impact of technology on education. Local, state, and federal governance of schools, including the roles of teachers and schools in communities, must be included.

c. Professionalism and ethical standards as well as personal integrity must be addressed.

d. Knowledge and understanding of Virginia's Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachers must be included.

6. Reading.

a. Early/primary education preK-3 and elementary education preK-6 - language acquisition and reading and writing. Skills listed for these endorsement areas represent the minimum competencies that a beginning teacher must be able to demonstrate. These skills are not intended to limit the scope of a beginning teacher's program. Additional knowledge and skills that add to a beginning teacher's competencies to deliver instruction and improve student achievement should be included as part of a quality learning experience.

(1) Language acquisition: Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning as well as the complex nature of language acquisition as a precursor to literacy. Language acquisition shall follow the typical development of linguistic competence in the areas of phonetics, semantics, syntax, morphology, phonology, and pragmatics.

(2) Reading and writing: Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning as well as the reciprocal nature of reading and writing. Reading shall include phonemic awareness, concept of print, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension strategies. Writing shall include writing strategies and conventions as supporting the composing and writing expression and usage and mechanics domains. Additional skills shall include proficiency in understanding the stages of spelling development, the writing process as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction text and independent reading.

b. Middle education - language acquisition and reading development and literacy in the content areas.

(1) Language acquisition and reading development: Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the complex nature of language acquisition and reading, to include phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension strategies for adolescent learners. Additional skills shall include proficiency in writing strategies, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction text and independent reading for adolescent learners.

(2) Literacy in the content areas: Skills in this area shall be designed to impart an understanding of vocabulary development and comprehension skills in areas of English, mathematics, science, history and social science, and other content areas. Strategies include teaching students how to ask effective questions, summarize and retell both verbally and in writing, and to listen effectively. Teaching strategies include literal, interpretive, critical, and evaluative comprehension, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction text and independent reading for adolescent readers.

7. Supervised clinical experiences. The supervised clinical experiences shall be continuous and systematic and comprised of early field experiences with a minimum of 10 weeks of full-time student teaching under the supervision of a cooperating teacher with demonstrated effectiveness in the classroom. The summative supervised student teaching experience shall include at least 150 clock hours spent in direct teaching at the level of endorsement. One year of successful full-time teaching experience in the endorsement area in any public school or accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the supervised student teaching experience. A fully licensed, experienced teacher shall be available in the school building to assist a beginning teacher employed through the alternate route.

8VAC20-543-100. Early childhood for three-year-olds and four-year-olds (add-on endorsement).

The program in early childhood education for three-year-olds and four-year-olds shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with an endorsement in elementary education (such as preK-3 or preK-6) or special education early childhood issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding child growth and development from birth through age five, with a specific focus on three-year-olds and four-year-olds, including:

a. Knowledge of characteristics and developmental needs of three-year-olds and four-year-olds, including the ability to recognize indicators of typical and atypical development, in the domains of language, social, emotional, cognitive, physical, and gross and fine motor development;

b. Understanding of the multiple interacting influences on child development (biological and environmental), interconnectedness of developmental domains, the wide range of ages at which developmental skills are manifested, and the individual differences in behavioral styles; and

c. Knowledge of child development within the context of family, culture, and society.

2. Understanding principles of developmental practice, with a focus on three-year-olds and four-year-olds, including practices that are:

a. Appropriate to the child's age and stage of development;

b. Appropriate for children with a wide range of individual differences in abilities, interests, and learning styles; and

c. Appropriate for the child's cultural background and experience.

3. Understanding health and nutritional practices that impact early learning including:

a. Practices and procedures that support health status conducive to optimal development (e.g., health assessment, prevention of the spread of communicable disease, oral hygiene, reduction of environmental hazards, injury prevention, and emergency preparedness);

b. Indicators of possible child abuse or neglect and the appropriate response if such indicators are observed;

c. Nutritional and dietary practices that support healthy growth and development while remaining sensitive to each family's preferences, dietary restrictions, and culture;

d. Skills for communicating with families about health and dietary concerns;

e. Community resources that support healthy living; and

f. Practices that allow children to become independent and knowledgeable about healthy living.

4. Understanding and application of formal and informal assessment procedures for documenting development and knowledge of how to use assessment to plan curriculum, including:

a. Age-appropriate and stage-appropriate methods for documenting, assessing, and interpreting development and learning;

b. Identifying and documenting children's interests, strengths, and challenges; and

c. Communicating with families to acquire and to share information relevant to assessment.

5. Understanding effective strategies for (i) facilitating positive reciprocal relationships with children for teachers, families, and communities through mutual respect, communication strategies, collaborative linkages among families, and community resources and (ii) nurturing the capacity of family members to serve as advocates on behalf of children.

6. Understanding strategies for planning, implementing, assessing, and modifying physical and psychological aspects of the learning environment to support language, physical, cognitive, and social, as well as emotional, well-being in children with a broad range of developmental levels, special needs, individual interests, and cultural backgrounds, including the ability to:

a. Utilize learning strategies that stimulate curiosity, promote thinking, and encourage participation in exploration and play;

b. Provide curriculum that facilitate learning goals in content areas and provide opportunities to acquire concepts and skills that are precursors to academic content taught in elementary school;

c. Adapt tasks to the child's zone of proximal development;

d. Nurture children's development through firsthand experiences and opportunities to explore, examine, and investigate real materials in authentic context and engage in social interactions with peers and adults;

e. Select materials and equipment, arrange physical space, and plan schedules and routines to stimulate and facilitate development; and

f. Collaborate with families, colleagues, and members of the broader community to construct learning environments that promote a spirit of unity, respect, and service in the interest of the common good.

7. Understanding strategies that create positive and nurturing relationships with each child based on respect, trust, and acceptance of individual differences in ability levels, temperament, and other characteristics, including the ability to:

a. Emphasize the importance of supportive verbal and nonverbal communication;

b. Establish classroom and behavior management practices that are respectful, meet children's emotional needs, clearly communicate expectations for appropriate behavior, promote pro-social behaviors, prevent or minimize behavioral problems through careful planning of the learning environment, teach conflict resolution strategies, and mitigate or redirect challenging behaviors; and

c. Build positive, collaborative relationships with children's families with regard to behavioral guidance.

8VAC20-543-110. Early/primary education preK-3.

The program for early/primary education preK-3 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Methods.

a. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes to support learners in achievement of Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning in English, mathematics, history and social science, science, and computer and technology;

b. The ability to integrate English, mathematics, science, health, history and social sciences, art, music, drama, movement, and technology in learning experiences;

c. The use of differentiated instruction and flexible groupings to meet the needs of learners at different stages of development, abilities, and achievement;

d. The use of appropriate methods including those in visual and performing arts, to help learners develop knowledge and basic skills, sustain intellectual curiosity, and problem-solve;

e. The ability to utilize effective classroom management skills through methods that build responsibility and self-discipline and maintain a positive learning environment;

f. The ability to modify and manage learning environments and experiences to meet the individual needs of children, including children with disabilities, gifted children, children with limited proficiency in English, and children with diverse cultural needs;

g. The ability to use formal and informal assessments to diagnose needs, plan and modify instruction, and record student progress;

h. A commitment to professional growth and development through reflection, collaboration, and continuous learning;

i. The ability to analyze, evaluate, and apply quantitative and qualitative research; and

j. The ability to use technology as a tool for teaching, learning, research, and communication.

2. Knowledge and skills.

a. Reading and English. Understanding of the content, knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning for English including oral language (speaking and listening), reading, and writing, and how these standards provide the core for teaching English in grades preK-3 (early/primary licensure).

(1) Assessment and diagnostic teaching. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the use of both formal and informal assessment as screening, diagnostic, and progress monitoring measures for the component of reading: phoneme awareness, letter recognition, decoding, fluency, vocabulary, reading levels, and comprehension; and

(b) Be proficient in the ability to use diagnostic data to inform instruction for acceleration, intervention, remediation, and differentiation.

(2) Oral communication. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching oral language (speaking and listening);

(b) Be proficient in developing students' phonological awareness skills;

(c) Demonstrate effective strategies for facilitating the learning of standard English by speakers of other languages and dialects; and

(d) Demonstrate the ability to promote creative thinking and expression, such as through storytelling, drama, and choral and oral reading, etc.

(3) Reading and literature. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in explicit phonics instruction, including an understanding of sound and symbol relationships, syllables, phonemes, morphemes, word analysis, and decoding skills;

(b) Be proficient in strategies to increase vocabulary and concept development;

(c) Be proficient in the structure of the English language, including an understanding of syntax;

(d) Be proficient in reading comprehension strategies for (i) fiction and nonfiction text predicting, retelling, and summarizing and (ii) guiding students to make connections beyond the text;

(e) Demonstrate the ability to develop comprehension skills in all content areas;

(f) Demonstrate the ability to foster the appreciation of a variety of literature;

(g) Understand the importance of promoting independent reading by selecting fiction and nonfiction texts of appropriate yet engaging topics and reading levels; and

(h) Demonstrate effective strategies for teaching students to view, interpret, analyze, and represent information and concepts in visual form with or without the spoken or written word.

(4) Writing. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching writing, including the domains of composing, written expression, and usage and mechanics and the writing process of planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing;

(b) Understand the stages of spelling development, promoting the generalization of spelling study to writing, and be proficient in systematic spelling instruction, including awareness of the purpose and limitations of "invented spelling"; and

(c) Demonstrate the ability to teach students to write cohesively for a variety of purposes and to provide instruction on the writing process: planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing in the narrative, descriptive, persuasive, and explanative modes.

(5) Technology. The individual shall demonstrate the ability to guide students in their use of technology for both process and product as they work with reading and writing.

b. Mathematics.

(1) Understanding of the mathematics relevant to the content identified in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching mathematics in grades preK-3. Experiences with practical applications and the use of appropriate technology and manipulatives should be used within the following content:

(a) Number systems and their structure, basic operations, and properties;

(b) Elementary number theory, ratio, proportion, and percent;

(c) Algebra: fundamental idea of equality; operations with monomials and polynomials; algebraic fractions; linear and quadratic equations and inequalities and linear systems of equations and inequalities; radicals and exponents; arithmetic and geometric sequences and series; algebraic and trigonometric functions; and transformations among graphical, tabular, and symbolic forms of functions;

(d) Geometry: geometric figures, their properties, relationships, the Pythagorean Theorem; deductive and inductive reasoning; perimeter, area, and surface area of two-dimensional and three-dimensional figures; coordinate and transformational geometry; and constructions; and

(e) Probability and statistics: permutations and combinations; experimental and theoretical probability; prediction; data collection and graphical representations including box-and-whisker plots; and measures of center, spread of data, variability, range, and normal distribution.

(2) Understanding of the sequential nature of mathematics and vertical progression of mathematical standards.

(3) Understanding of the multiple representations of mathematical concepts and procedures.

(4) Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - reasoning mathematically, solving problems, communicating mathematics effectively, making mathematical connections, and using mathematical models and representations at different levels of complexity.

(5) Understanding of the contributions of different cultures toward the development of mathematics and the role of mathematics in culture and society.

(6) Understanding of the appropriate use of calculators and technology in the teaching and learning of mathematics, including virtual manipulatives.

(7) Understanding of and the ability to use strategies to teach mathematics to diverse learners.

c. History and social sciences.

(1) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of history and the social science disciplines as defined in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the necessary foundation for teaching history and social sciences, including in:

(a) History.

(i) The contributions of ancient civilizations to American social and political institutions;

(ii) Major events in Virginia history from 1607 to the present;

(iii) Key individuals, documents, and events in United States history; and

(iv) The evolution of America's constitutional republic and its ideas, institutions, and practices.

(b) Geography.

(i) The use of maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information;

(ii) The relationship between human activity and the physical environment in the community and the world; and

(iii) Physical processes that shape the surface of the earth.

(c) Civics.

(i) The privileges and responsibilities of good citizenship and the importance of the rule of law for the protection of individual rights;

(ii) The process of making laws in the United States and the fundamental ideals and principles of a republican form of government;

(iii) The understanding that Americans are a people of diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions, who are united by the basic principles of a republican form of government and a common identity as Americans; and

(iv) Local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia.

(d) Economics.

(i) The basic economic principles that underlie the United States market economy;

(ii) The role of the individual and how economic decisions are made in the market place; and

(iii) The role of government in the structure of the United States economy.

(2) Understanding of the nature of history and the social sciences, and how the study of the disciplines assists students in developing critical thinking skills in helping them to understand:

(a) The relationship between past and present;

(b) The use of primary sources such as artifacts, letters, photographs, and newspapers;

(c) How events in history are shaped both by the ideas and actions of people;

(d) Diverse cultures and shared humanity;

(e) Civic participation in a democracy; and

(f) The relationship between history, literature, art, and music.

d. Science.

(1) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the four core science disciplines as defined in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these standards provide a sound foundation for teaching science in the early/primary grades.

(2) Understanding of the nature of the theory and scientific inquiry, including the following:

(a) Function of research design and experimentation;

(b) Role and nature of science in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

(c) Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling, argumentation with evidence, and contracting explanations;

(d) Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

(e) Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity, including peer review; and

(f) Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

(3) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and practices for conducting an active elementary science program, including the ability to:

(a) Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

(b) Implement classroom and laboratory safety rules and procedures, and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

(c) Conduct research projects and experiments, including applications of the design process and technology;

(d) Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

(e) Organize key science content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

(f) Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

(g) Evaluate instructional materials, technologies, and teaching practices;

(h) Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

(i) Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance in science; and

(j) Ensure student competence in science.

(4) Understanding of the content, processes, and skills of the four core science areas, including Earth sciences, biology, chemistry, and physics supporting the teaching of elementary school science as defined by the Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and Virginia Science Standards of Learning and equivalent to academic course work in each of these four core science areas.

(5) Understanding of the core scientific disciplines of Earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics to ensure:

(a) The placement of the four core scientific disciplines in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

(b) The ability to teach the processes and crosscutting concepts common to the natural and physical sciences;

(c) The application of key science principles to solve practical problems; and

(d) A "systems" understanding of the natural world.

(6) Understanding of the contributions and significance of science, including:

(a) Its social, cultural, and economic significance;

(b) The relationship of science to mathematics, the design process, and technology; and

(c) The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

8VAC20-543-120. Elementary education preK-6.

The program in elementary education preK-6 may require that the candidate has completed an undergraduate major in interdisciplinary studies (focusing on the areas of English, mathematics, history and social sciences, and science) or in Virginia's core academic areas of English, mathematics, history and social sciences (i.e., history, government, geography, and economics), or science and demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Methods.

a. Understanding of the needed knowledge, skills, and processes to support learners in achievement of Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning in English, mathematics, history and social science, science, and computer and technology;

b. Understanding of current research on the brain, its role in learning, and implications for instruction;

c. The ability to integrate English, mathematics, science, health, history and social sciences, art, music, drama, movement, and technology in learning experiences;

d. The use of differentiated instruction and flexible groupings to meet the needs of learners at different stages of development, abilities, and achievement;

e. The use of appropriate methods, including those in visual and performing arts, to help learners develop knowledge and basic skills, sustain intellectual curiosity, and problem-solve;

f. The ability to utilize effective classroom and behavior management skills through methods that build responsibility and self-discipline and maintain a positive learning environment;

g. The ability to modify and manage learning environments and experiences to meet the individual needs of children, including children with disabilities, gifted children, and children with limited proficiency in English, and children with diverse cultural needs;

h. The ability to use formal and informal assessments to diagnose needs, plan and modify instruction, and record student progress;

i. A commitment to professional growth and development through reflection, collaboration, and continuous learning;

j. The ability to analyze, evaluate, and apply quantitative and qualitative research; and

k. Understanding of the Virginia Standards of Learning for Computer Technology and the ability to use technology as a tool for teaching, learning, research, and communication.

2. Knowledge and skills.

a. Reading and English. Understanding of the content, knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning for English including communication (speaking, listening, and media literacy), reading, writing, and research and how these standards provide the core for teaching English in grades preK-6 (elementary licensure).

(1) Assessment and diagnostic teaching. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the use of both formal and informal assessment as screening diagnostic, and progress monitoring measures for the components of reading: phoneme awareness, letter recognition, decoding, fluency, vocabulary, reading level, and comprehension; and

(b) Be proficient in the ability to use diagnostic data to inform instruction for acceleration, intervention, remediation, and differentiation.

(2) Communication: speaking, listening, and media literacy. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching communication (speaking, listening, and media literacy);

(b) Be proficient in developing students' phonological awareness skills;

(c) Demonstrate the ability to teach students to identify the characteristics of and apply critical thinking to media messages and to facilitate students' proficiency in using various forms of media to collaborate and communicate;

(d) Demonstrate effective strategies for facilitating the learning of standard English by speakers of other languages and dialects; and

(e) Demonstrate the ability to promote creative thinking and expression, such as through storytelling, drama, choral and oral reading, etc.

(3) Reading and literature. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in explicit and systematic phonics instruction, including an understanding of sound and symbol relationships, syllables, phonemes, morphemes, word analysis, and decoding skills;

(b) Be proficient in strategies to increase vocabulary and concept development;

(c) Be proficient in the structure of the English language, including an understanding of syntax and semantics;

(d) Be proficient in reading comprehension strategies for both fiction and nonfiction text, including questioning, predicting, inferencing, summarizing, clarifying, evaluating, and making connections;

(e) Demonstrate the ability to support students to read with fluency, accuracy, and meaningful expression (prosody);

(f) Demonstrate the ability to develop comprehension skills in all content areas;

(g) Demonstrate the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of literature;

(h) Understand the importance of promoting independent reading by selecting fiction and nonfiction texts of appropriate yet engaging topics and reading levels; and

(i) Demonstrate effective strategies for teaching students to view, interpret, analyze, and represent information and concepts in visual form with or without the spoken or written word.

(4) Writing. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching writing, including the domains of composing and written expression, and usage and mechanics and the writing process of planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing;

(b) Understand the stages of spelling development, promoting the generalization of spelling study to writing, and be proficient in systematic spelling instruction, including awareness of the purpose and limitations of "invented spelling";

(c) Demonstrate the ability to teach students to write cohesively for a variety of purposes and to provide instruction on the writing process: planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing in the narrative, descriptive, persuasive, and explanative modes; and

(d) Demonstrate the ability to facilitate student research and related skills such as accessing information, evaluating the validity of sources, citing sources, and synthesizing information.

(5) Technology. The individual shall demonstrate the ability to guide students in their use of technology for both process and product as they work with reading, writing, and research.

b. Mathematics.

(1) Understanding of the mathematics relevant to the content identified in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching mathematics in grades preK-6. Experiences with practical applications and the use of appropriate technology and concrete materials should be used within the following content:

(a) Number systems and their structure, basic operations, and properties;

(b) Elementary number theory, ratio, proportion, and percent;

(c) Algebra: operations with monomials and polynomials; algebraic fractions; linear and quadratic equations and inequalities and linear systems of equations and inequalities; radicals and exponents; arithmetic and geometric sequences and series; algebraic and trigonometric functions; and transformations among graphical, tabular, and symbolic forms of functions;

(d) Geometry: geometric figures, their properties, relationships, the Pythagorean Theorem; deductive and inductive reasoning; perimeter, area, and surface area of two-dimensional and three-dimensional figures; coordinate and transformational geometry; and constructions;

(e) Probability and statistics: permutations and combinations; experimental and theoretical probability; prediction; graphical representations including box-and-whisker plots; and measures of center, range, and normal distribution; and

(f) Computer science: terminology, simple programming, and software applications.

(2) Understanding of the sequential and developmental nature of mathematics.

(3) Understanding of the multiple representations of mathematical concepts and procedures.

(4) Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - reasoning mathematically, solving problems, communicating mathematics effectively, making mathematical connections, and using mathematical representations - at different levels of complexity.

(5) Understanding of the contributions of different cultures toward the development of mathematics and the role of mathematics in culture and society.

(6) Understanding of the role of technology and the ability to use calculators and computers in the teaching and learning of mathematics.

c. History and social sciences.

(1) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of history and the social sciences disciplines as defined in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the necessary foundation for teaching history and social sciences, including in:

(a) History.

(i) The contributions of ancient civilizations to modern social and political institutions;

(ii) Major events in Virginia history from 1607 to the present;

(iii) Key individuals, documents, and events in United States history; and

(iv) The evolution of America's constitutional republic and its ideas, institutions, and practices.

(b) Geography.

(i) The use of maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information;

(ii) The relationship between human activity and the physical environment in the community and the world; and

(iii) Physical processes that shape the surface of the earth.

(c) Civics.

(i) The privileges and responsibilities of good citizenship and the importance of the rule of law for the protection of individual rights;

(ii) The process of making laws in the United States and the fundamental ideals and principles of a republican form of government;

(iii) The understanding that Americans are a people of diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions, who are united by basic principles of a republican form of government and a common identity as Americans; and

(iv) Local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia.

(d) Economics.

(i) The basic economic principles that underlie the United States market economy;

(ii) The role of the individual and how economic decisions are made in the market place; and

(iii) The role of government in the structure of the United States economy.

(2) Understanding of the nature of history and social sciences and how the study of the disciplines assists students in developing critical thinking skills in helping them to understand:

(a) The relationship between past and present;

(b) The use of primary sources such as artifacts, letters, photographs, and newspapers;

(c) How events in history are shaped both by the ideas and actions of people;

(d) Diverse cultures and shared humanity;

(e) Civic participation in a democracy; and

(f) The relationship between history, literature, art, and music.

d. Science.

(1) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the four core science disciplines as defined in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these standards provide a sound foundation for teaching science in the elementary grades.

(2) Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, including the:

(a) Function of research design and experimentation;

(b) Role and nature of the theory in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

(c) Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling, argumentation with evidence, and constructing explanations;

(d) Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

(e) Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity, including peer review; and

(f) Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

(3) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for an active elementary science program including the ability to:

(a) Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

(b) Implement classroom and laboratory safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

(c) Conduct research projects and experiments, including applications of the design process and technology;

(d) Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

(e) Organize key science content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

(f) Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

(g) Evaluate instructional materials, technologies, and teaching practices;

(h) Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

(i) Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance in science; and

(j) Ensure student competence in science.

(4) Understanding of the content, processes, and skills of the four science areas, including Earth sciences, biology, chemistry, and physics supporting the teaching of preK-6 science as defined by the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and equivalent course work reflecting each of the four core science areas.

(5) Understanding of the core scientific disciplines of Earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics to ensure:

(a) The placement of the four core scientific disciplines in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

(b) The ability to teach the processes and crosscutting concepts common to the natural and physical sciences;

(c) The application of key science principles to solve practical problems; and

(d) A "systems" understanding of the natural world.

(6) Understanding of the contributions and significance of science including:

(a) Its social, cultural, and economic significance;

(b) The relationship of science to mathematics, the design process, and technology; and

(c) The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

8VAC20-543-130. Middle education 6-8.

The program in middle education 6-8 with at least one area of academic preparation shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Methods.

a. Understanding of the required knowledge, skills, and processes to support learners in achievement of the Virginia Standards of Learning for grades 6-8;

b. The use of appropriate methods, including direct instruction and inquiry-based instructional methods, to help learners develop knowledge and skills, sustain intellectual curiosity, and solve problems;

c. The ability to plan and teach collaboratively to facilitate interdisciplinary learning;

d. The use of differentiated instruction and flexible groupings to meet the needs of preadolescents at different stages of development, abilities, and achievement;

e. The ability to utilize effective classroom and behavior management skills through methods that build responsibility and self-discipline and maintain a positive learning environment;

f. The ability to modify and manage learning environments and experiences to meet the individual needs of preadolescents, including children with disabilities, gifted children, and children with limited proficiency in the English language;

g. The ability to use formal and informal assessments to diagnose needs, plan and modify instruction, and record student progress;

h. A commitment to professional growth and development through reflection, collaboration, and continuous learning;

i. The ability to analyze, evaluate, apply, and conduct quantitative and qualitative research;

j. The ability to use technology as a tool for teaching, learning, research, and communication;

k. An understanding of how to apply a variety of school organizational structures, schedules, groupings, and classroom formats appropriately for middle level learners;

l. Skill in promoting the development of all students' abilities for academic achievement and continued learning; and

m. The ability to use reading in the content area strategies appropriate to text and student needs.

2. English.

a. Possession of the skills necessary to teach the writing process, to differentiate among the forms of writing (narrative, descriptive, informational, and persuasive), and to use computers and other available technology;

b. Understanding of and knowledge in grammar, usage, and mechanics and its integration in writing;

c. Understanding and the nature and development of language and its impact on vocabulary development and spelling;

d. Understanding of and knowledge in techniques and strategies to enhance reading comprehension and fluency;

e. Understanding of and knowledge in the instruction of speaking, listening, collaboration, and media literacy;

f. Knowledge of varied works from current and classic young adult literature appropriate for English instruction of fiction, nonfiction, and poetry; and

g. Skills necessary to teach research techniques, including evaluating, organizing, crediting, and synthesizing information.

3. History and social sciences.

a. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of history and the social science disciplines as defined by the Virginia History and Social Sciences Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching history and social sciences, including in:

(1) United States history.

(a) The evolution of the American constitutional republic and its ideas, institutions, and practices from the colonial period to the present; the American Revolution, including ideas and principles preserved in significant Virginia and United States historical documents as required by § 22.1-201 of the Code of Virginia (the Declaration of American Independence; the general principles of the Constitution of the United States; the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom; the charters of The Virginia Company of April 10, 1606, May 23, 1609, and March 12, 1612; and the Virginia Declaration of Rights); and historical challenges to the American political system (i.e., slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and civil rights);

(b) The influence of religious traditions on the American heritage and on contemporary American society;

(c) The changing role of America around the world; the relationship between domestic affairs and foreign policy; and the global political and economic interactions;

(d) The influence of immigration on American political, social, and economic life;

(e) Origins, effects, aftermath and significance of the two world wars, the Korean and Vietnam conflicts, and the post-Cold War era;

(f) Social, political, and economic transformations in American life during the 20th century; and

(g) Tensions between liberty and equality, liberty and order, region and nation, individualism and the common welfare, and cultural diversity and civic unity.

(2) World history.

(a) The political, philosophical, and cultural legacies of ancient, American, Asian, African, and European civilizations;

(b) Origins, ideas, and institutions of Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, Confucianism and Taoism, and Shinto, Buddhist, and Islamic religious traditions;

(c) Medieval society and institutions, relations with Islam, feudalism, and the evolution of representative government;

(d) The social, political, and economic contributions of selected civilizations in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas;

(e) The culture and ideas of the Renaissance and the Reformation, European exploration, and the origins of capitalism and colonization;

(f) The cultural ideas of the Enlightenment and the intellectual revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries;

(g) The sources, results, and influence of the American and French revolutions;

(h) The social consequences of the Industrial Revolution and its impact on politics and culture;

(i) The global influence of European ideologies of the 19th and 20th centuries (liberalism, republicanism, social democracy, Marxism, nationalism, Communism, Fascism, and Nazism); and

(j) The origins, effects, aftermath, and significance of the two world wars.

(3) Civics and economics.

(a) Essential characteristics of limited and unlimited governments;

(b) Importance of the rule of law for the protection of individual rights and the common good;

(c) Rights and responsibilities of American citizenship;

(d) Nature and purposes of constitutions and alternative ways of organizing constitutional governments;

(e) American political culture;

(f) Values and principles of the American constitutional republic;

(g) Structures, functions, and powers of local and state government;

(h) Importance of citizen participation in the political process in local and state government;

(i) Local government and civic instruction specific to Virginia;

(j) Structures, functions, and powers of the national government; and

(k) The structure and function of the United States market economy as compared with other economies.

b. Understanding of the nature of history and social sciences and how the study of these disciplines helps students go beyond critical thinking skills to help them appreciate:

(1) The significance of the past to their lives and to society;

(2) Diverse cultures and shared humanity;

(3) How things happen, how they change, and how human intervention matters;

(4) The interplay of change and continuity;

(5) Historical cause and effect;

(6) The importance of individuals who have made a difference in history and the significance of personal character to the future of society;

(7) The relationship among history, geography, civics, and economics; and

(8) The difference between fact and conjecture, evidence and assertion, and the importance of framing useful questions.

4. Mathematics.

a. Understanding of the knowledge and skills necessary to teach the Virginia Mathematics Standards of Learning and how curriculum may be organized to teach these standards to diverse learners;

b. Understanding of a core knowledge base of concepts and procedures within the discipline of mathematics, including the following strands: number and number sense; computation and estimation; geometry and measurement; statistics and probability; and patterns, functions, and algebra;

c. Understanding of the mathematics relevant to the content identified in the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching mathematics in the middle grades. Experiences with practical applications and the use of appropriate technology and manipulatives should be used within the following content:

(1) Number systems and their structure, basic operations, and properties;

(2) Elementary number theory, ratio, proportion, and percent;

(3) Algebra: fundamental idea of equality; operations with monomials and polynomials; algebraic fractions; linear and quadratic equations and inequalities and linear systems of equations and inequalities; radicals and exponents; arithmetic and geometric sequences and series; algebraic and trigonometric functions; and transformations among graphical, tabular, and symbolic forms of functions;

(4) Geometry: geometric figures, their properties, relationships, the Pythagorean Theorem; deductive and inductive reasoning; perimeter, area, and surface area of two-dimensional and three-dimensional figures; coordinate and transformational geometry; and constructions;

(5) Probability and statistics: permutations and combinations; experimental and theoretical probability; data collection and graphical representations, including box-and-whisker plots; data analysis and interpretation for predictions; measures of center; spread of data, variability, range, standard deviation, and normal distributions.

d. Understanding of the sequential nature of mathematics, the vertical progression of mathematical standards,  and the mathematical structures inherent in the content strands;

e. Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - becoming mathematical problem solvers, reasoning mathematically, communicating mathematically, making mathematical connections, and representing, modeling and describing mathematical ideas, generalizations, and relationships using a variety of methods - at different levels of complexity;

f. Understanding of the contributions of various individuals and cultures toward the development of mathematics and the role of mathematics in culture and society;

g. Understanding of the major current curriculum studies and trends in mathematics;

h. Understanding of the appropriate use of calculators and technology and the ability to use graphing utilities in the teaching and learning of mathematics, including virtual manipulatives;

i. Understanding of and the ability to select, adapt, evaluate and use instructional materials and resources, including professional journals and technology;

j. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies for managing, assessing, and monitoring student learning, including diagnosing student errors; and

k. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies to teach mathematics to diverse adolescent learners.

5. Science.

a. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the Earth, life, and physical sciences as defined in the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these provide a sound foundation for teaching science in the middle grades.

b. Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, including:

(1) Function of research design and experimentation;

(2) Role of science in explaining and predicting events and phenomena; and

(3) Science skills of data analysis, measurement, observation, prediction, and experimentation.

c. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for an active middle school science program, including the ability to:

(1) Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

(2) Conduct research projects and experiments;

(3) Implement safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

(4) Organize key science content into meaningful units of instruction;

(5) Adapt instruction to diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

(6) Evaluate instructional materials, instruction, and student achievement; and

(7) Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance in science.

d. Understanding of the content, processes, and skills of the Earth sciences, biology, chemistry, and physics supporting the teaching of middle school science as defined by the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and equivalent to academic course work in each of these core science areas.

e. Understanding of the core scientific disciplines to ensure:

(1) The placement of science in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

(2) The ability to teach the processes and organize concepts common to the natural and physical sciences; and

(3) Student achievement in science.

f. Understanding of the contributions and significance of science to include:

(1) Its social and cultural significance;

(2) The relationship of science to technology; and

(3) The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

Article 3
PreK-12 Endorsements, Special Education, Secondary Grades 6-12 Endorsements, and Adult Education

8VAC20-543-140. Professional studies requirements for preK-12 endorsements, special education, secondary grades 6-12 endorsements, and adult education.

Professional studies requirements for preK-12 endorsements, special education, secondary grades 6-12 endorsements, and adult education:

1. Human development and learning (birth through adolescence).

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the physical, social, emotional, speech and language, and intellectual development of children and the ability to use this understanding in guiding learning experiences and relating meaningfully to students.

b. The interaction of children with individual differences - economic, social, racial, ethnic, religious, physical, and mental - should be incorporated to include skills contributing to an understanding of developmental disabilities and developmental issues related but not limited to low socioeconomic status, attention deficit disorders, developmental disabilities, gifted education including the use of multiple criteria to identify gifted students, substance abuse, child abuse, and family disruptions.

2. Curriculum and instruction.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology; effective communication with and among students; selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies; selection, development, and use of appropriate curricula, methodologies, and materials that support and enhance student learning and reflect the research on unique, age-appropriate, and culturally relevant curriculum and pedagogy.

b. Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instruction must be included.

c. Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners, including limited English proficient students, gifted and talented students, and students with disabilities, and appropriate for the level of endorsement sought shall be included.

d. Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student academic progress and effective preparation for the Standards of Learning assessments.

e. Methods of improving communication between schools and families and ways of increasing family involvement in student learning at home and in school and the Virginia Standards of Learning shall be included.

f. Demonstrated proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction shall be included.

g. Persons seeking initial licensure as teachers and persons seeking licensure renewal as teachers for the first time shall complete study in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Services that are relevant to the specific teacher licensure routes.

h. Curriculum and instruction for secondary grades 6-12 endorsements shall include middle and secondary education. Pre-student teaching experiences (field experiences) should be evident within these skills. For preK-12, field experiences shall be at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels.

3. Assessment of and for learning.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding and application of creating, selecting, and implementing valid and reliable classroom-based assessments of student learning, including formative and summative assessments. Assessments designed and adapted to meet the needs of diverse learners must be addressed.

b. Analytical skills necessary to inform ongoing planning and instruction, as well as to understand and help students understand their own progress and growth must be included.

c. Skills also include the ability to understand the relationships among assessment, instruction, and monitoring student progress to include student performance measures in grading practices, the ability to interpret valid assessments using a variety of formats in order to measure student attainment of essential skills in a standards-based environment, and the ability to analyze assessment data to make decisions about how to improve instruction and student performance.

d. Understanding of state assessment programs and accountability systems, including assessments used for student achievement goal setting as related to teacher evaluation and determining student academic progress, including knowledge of legal and ethical aspects of assessment.

e. Skills include developing familiarity with assessments used in preK-12 education (e.g., diagnostic, college admission exams, industry certifications, placement assessments).

4. The teaching profession.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding of the historical, philosophical, and sociological foundations underlying the role, development, and organization of public education in the United States.

b. Attention must be given to the legal status of teachers and students, including federal and state laws and regulations; school as an organization and culture; and contemporary issues and current trends in education, including the impact of technology on education. Local, state, and federal governance of schools, including the roles of teachers and schools in communities, must be included.

c. Professionalism and ethical standards, as well as personal integrity must be addressed.

d. Knowledge and understanding of Virginia's Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachers must be included.

5. Classroom and behavior management.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of and application of research-based classroom and behavior management techniques, classroom community building, positive behavior supports, and individual interventions, including techniques that promote emotional well-being and teach and maintain behavioral conduct and skills consistent with norms, standards, and rules of the educational environment.

b. This area shall address diverse approaches based upon behavioral, cognitive, affective, social, and ecological theory and practice.

c. Approaches should support professionally appropriate practices that promote positive redirection of behavior, development of social skills, and self-discipline.

d. Knowledge and an understanding of various school crisis management and safety plans and the ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environment must be included. The link between classroom management and the students' ages must be understood and demonstrated in techniques used in the classroom.

6. Reading.

a. Adult education, preK-12, and secondary grades 6-12 - literacy in the content areas. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart an understanding of vocabulary development and comprehension skills in English, mathematics, science, history and social sciences, and other content areas. Strategies include teaching students how to ask effective questions, summarize and retell both verbally and in writing, and listen effectively. Teaching strategies include literal, interpretive, critical, and evaluative comprehension, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading for adolescent learners.

b. Special education - language acquisition and reading and writing. Skills listed for these endorsement areas represent the minimum competencies that a beginning teacher must be able to demonstrate. These skills are not intended to limit the scope of a beginning teacher's program. Additional knowledge and skills that add to a beginning teacher's competencies to deliver instruction and improve student achievement should be included as part of a quality learning experience.

(1) Language acquisition: Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning as well as the complex nature of language acquisition as a precursor to literacy. Language acquisition shall follow the typical development of linguistic competence in the areas of phonetics, semantics, syntax, morphology, phonology, and pragmatics.

(2) Reading and writing: Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning as well as the reciprocal nature of reading and writing. Reading shall include phonemic awareness, concept of print, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension strategies. Writing shall include writing strategies and conventions as supporting the composing and written expression and usage and mechanics domains. Additional skills shall include proficiency in understanding the stages of spelling development, the writing process, and the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading.

7. Supervised clinical experiences. The supervised clinical experiences shall be continuous and systematic and comprised of early field experiences with a minimum of 10 weeks of full-time student teaching under the supervision of a cooperating teacher with demonstrated effectiveness in the classroom. The summative supervised student teaching experience shall include at least 150 clock hours spent in direct teaching at the level of endorsement.

If a preK-12 endorsement is sought, teaching activities shall be at the elementary and middle or secondary levels. Individuals seeking the endorsement in library media shall complete the supervised school library media practicum in a school library media setting. Individuals seeking an endorsement in an area of special education shall complete the supervised student teaching experience requirement in the area of special education for which the endorsement is sought. One year of successful full-time teaching experience in the endorsement area in any public school or accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the supervised student teaching experience. A fully licensed, experienced teacher shall be available in the school building to assist a beginning teacher employed through the alternate route.

8VAC20-543-150. Adult education.

The program in adult education shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the nature or psychology of the adult learner or adult development;

2. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes needed for the selection, evaluation, and instructional applications of the methods and materials for adult basic skills including:

a. Curriculum development in adult basic education or general educational development (GED) instruction;

b. Beginning reading for adults;

c. Beginning mathematics for adults;

d. Reading comprehension for adult education;

e. Foundations of adult education; and

f. Other adult basic skills instruction.

3. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes; and

5. One semester of supervised successful full-time, or an equivalent number of hours of part-time, experience teaching adults.

8VAC20-543-160. Adult English as a second language (add-on endorsement).

The program in adult English as a second language shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge in the growth and development of the adult learner;

2. Knowledge of teaching methods and materials in adult English as a second language;

3. Knowledge in adult language acquisition;

4. Knowledge of assessment methods in adult English as a second language instruction;

5. Skills in teaching the adult learner;

6. Understanding of the effects of sociocultural variables in the instructional setting;

7. Skills in teaching a variety of adult learning styles;

8. Proficiency in cross-cultural communication;

9. Proficiency in speaking, listening, and reading;

10. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing; and

11. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-170. Career and technical education – agricultural education.

The program in agricultural education shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the importance and relationship of and contribution to the agricultural industry to the community, state, nation, and global economy including:

a. Knowledge of the fundamental historical foundation of the state and national agricultural industry;

b. Knowledge of contemporary components of the United States food and fiber system; and

c. Knowledge of the career opportunities in agriculture and related fields.

2. Applying the knowledge, skills, and processes involved in plant and soil sciences, including:

a. Production, use, and marketing of row crops, specialty crops, forage crops, fruits, small grains, vegetables, and cereal crops; and

b. Soil and water management.

3. Applying the knowledge, skills, and processes involved in the production, management, and marketing of animals, including:

a. Production of cattle, swine, poultry, dairy cows, sheep, aquaculture species, goats, and horses; and

b. Care and management of horses and small companion animals.

4. Applying knowledge, skills, and processes involved in agricultural mechanics and technology, including:

a. Set up safe operation, repair, and maintenance of equipment, tools, and measuring devices used in agriculture;

b. Knowledge of energy transfer systems used in agriculture;

c. Knowledge of properties of metals used in tools and equipment; and

d. Knowledge of alternative energy sources, fuels, and lubricants from agricultural and natural resources.

5. Understanding of agricultural economics, including the various markets, international trade, government policies, and the operation and management of various agricultural businesses.

6. Applying the knowledge, skills, and processes involved in natural resources, including:

a. Care, management, and conservation of soil, air, water, energy, and wildlife; and

b. Production and management of the forest.

7. Understanding the relationship of agriculture to community resource and partnership development, including:

a. Local agricultural program advisory committees;

b. Adult education programs;

c. Agricultural enterprises;

d. Student work-based learning opportunities;

e. Public and private programs and resources; and

f. Civic organizations.

8. Implementing classroom management techniques and pedagogical knowledge necessary to:

a. Understand the biological, physical, chemical, and applied sciences to practical solutions of agricultural problems;

b. Teach agricultural competencies needed by secondary students to be successful in continuing their education and entering a related career pathway;

c. Develop effective leadership skills through the Future Farmers of America (FFA) student organization as an integral part of instruction; and

d. Apply knowledge and skills for the administration of the agricultural program, including managing budgets, maintaining student performance records and equipment inventories.

9. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

10. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

11. Understanding of and proficiency in the use of instructional technologies.

12. Demonstrating and integrating workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities.

13. Ability to plan, deliver, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

8VAC20-543-180. Career and technical education – business and information technology.

The program in business and information technology shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge, skills, and principles of manual and automated accounting, including:

a. Accounting concepts, terminology, and applications;

b. Accounting systems;

c. The basic accounting cycle of source documents, verifications, analyzing, recording, posting, trial balances, and preparing financial statements; and

d. Use of accounting computer software to automate accounting tasks.

2. Knowledge and skills in economics, including:

a. Basic economic concepts and structures;

b. The role of producers and consumers in a market economy;

c. The price system;

d. The many factors that may affect income;

e. A nation's economic goals, including full employment, stable prices, and economic growth;

f. The nation's finance system;

g. How monetary and fiscal policy influence employment, output, and prices;

h. The role of government in a market economy;

i. The global economy; and

j. Distinguishing between trade deficit and trade surplus.

3. Knowledge of the foundations of business selected from the following areas:

a. Business law.

(1) Ability to recognize the legal requirements affecting business organization; and

(2) Ability to apply legal principles to business situations.

b. Business principles.

(1) Ability to identify, explain, and apply contemporary business principles;

(2) Ability to identify and explain the advantages and disadvantages of various business organizational structures; and

(3) Knowledge of the foundations of international business, the global business environment, international business communications, and global business ethics.

c. Management. Understanding and analyzing of basic management functions, tools, theories, and leadership styles to explore and solve problems in business organizations, economics, international business, and human relations issues.

d. Marketing and entrepreneurship.

(1) Understanding of basic marketing concepts in sales techniques, advertising, display, buying, wholesale and retail, distribution, service occupations, market analysis, warehousing, and inventory control; and

(2) Understanding of the unique characteristics of an entrepreneur and the knowledge and skills necessary for an entrepreneurial venture.

e. Finance.

(1) Knowledge about and skills in the areas of managing personal finance and budgeting, saving and investing, buying goods and services, banking and financial institutions, and earning and reporting income needed for sound financial decision making; and

(2) Understanding of the basic concepts of economics, insurance, credit, consumer skills, and other related topics.

4. Knowledge and skills in all of the following communications and information technologies:

a. Communications.

(1) Ability to communicate in a clear, courteous, concise, and correct manner for personal and professional purposes through the foundations of listening, writing, reading, speaking, nonverbal cues, and following written and oral directions;

(2) Ability to use information systems and technology to expedite and enhance the effectiveness of communications and telecommunications; and

(3) Ability to gather, evaluate, use, and cite information from information technology sources.

b. Impact of technology on society and the individual (digital citizenship). Knowledge to assess the impact of information technology on society.

c. Computer architecture. Ability to describe current and emerging computer architecture; configure, install, and upgrade hardware; and diagnose and repair hardware problems.

d. Operating systems, environments, and utilities. Ability to identify, evaluate, select, install, use, upgrade, customize, and diagnose and solve problems with various types of operating systems, environments, and utilities.

e. Application software (e.g., word processing; database; spreadsheet; graphics; web design; desktop, presentation, multimedia, and imaging; and emerging technologies).

(1) Ability to identify, evaluate, select, install, use, upgrade, and customize application software; and

(2) Ability to diagnose and solve problems resulting from an application software's installation and use.

f. Input technologies. Ability to use input devices and technologies (e.g., touch keyboarding, speech recognition, handwriting recognition, hand-held devices, touch screen or mouse, scanning, and other emerging input technologies) to enter, manipulate, and format text and data.

g. Database management systems. Ability to use, plan, develop, and maintain database management systems. Ability to diagnose and solve problems using database management systems.

h. Programming and application development. Ability to help students design, develop, test, and implement multi-platform (e.g., mobile, different operating systems) programs that solve business problems.

i. Networking and communications infrastructures.

(1) Facilitate students' development in the skills to design, deploy, and administer networks and communications systems;

(2) Facilitate students' ability to use, evaluate, and deploy communications and networking applications; and

(3) Facilitate students' ability to analyze networks for security vulnerabilities and develop and deploy appropriate security plans and applications.

j. Information management.

(1) Ability to plan the selection and acquisition of information technologies (hardware and software);

(2) Ability to instruct students in the development of technical and interpersonal skills and knowledge to support the user community; and

(3) Ability to describe, analyze, develop, and follow policies for managing privacy and ethical issues in organizations and in a technology-based society.

k. Web development and multimedia;

(1) Ability to instruct students in the design and development of web applications based on industry standards and principles of good design;

(2) Ability to instruct students in the design and development of multimedia applications; and

(3) Ability to design and develop multimedia and web-based applications for multiple operating systems and environments (mobile, desktop, cloud).

l. Project management.

(1) Understand the components of project management and its importance to business and information technology.

(2) Use project management tools to coordinate information technology, business, or related projects and manage teamwork.

5. Knowledge and skills necessary to teach leadership skills, organize and manage an effective co-curricular student organization, and implement the organization's activities as an integral part of instruction.

6. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8. Knowledge and skills necessary to apply basic mathematical operations to solve business problems.

9. Demonstration and integration of workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities.

10. Ability to plan, deliver, evaluate, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

8VAC20-543-190. Career and technical education – family and consumer sciences.

The program in family and consumer sciences shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge of the human growth and developmental processes throughout the lifespan, including infancy, childhood, preadolescence, adolescence, adulthood and aging, and in creating and maintaining an environment in which family members develop and interact as individuals and as members of a group;

2. Knowledge of the decision-making processes related to housing, furnishings, and equipment for individuals and families with attention given to special needs and the diversity of individuals;

3. The ability to plan, purchase, and prepare food choices that promote nutrition and wellness and safety and sanitation;

4. Knowledge of the management of resources to achieve individual and family goals at different stages of the life span and the family life cycle;

5. Knowledge of the sociological, psychological, and physiological aspects of apparel and textiles for individuals and families;

6. Knowledge of the management of families, community, work, and their interrelationships;

7. Knowledge of occupational skill development and career planning;

8. Knowledge of the use of critical science and creative skills to address problems in diverse family, community, and work environments;

9. Knowledge and skills necessary to teach leadership, communication, interpersonal problem-solving, and ethical decision-making skills;

10. The ability to plan, develop, teach, supervise, and evaluate programs in occupational programs at the secondary, postsecondary, and adult levels;

11. The ability to organize and implement Family, Career, and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA) programs as an integral part of classroom instruction;

12. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

13. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes;

14. Demonstrate and integrate workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities; and

15. Ability to plan, deliver, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

8VAC20-543-200. Career and technical education – health and medical sciences.

The program in health and medical sciences shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge of teaching methods.

a. Instructional planning - ability to determine the needs and interests of students;

b. Organizing instruction - ability to prepare teacher-made instructional materials for clinical laboratory experience;

c. Instructional execution - ability to use techniques for simulating patient care and demonstrating manipulative skills;

d. Application of technology in the classroom; and

e. Instructional evaluation - ability to determine grades for students in classroom and clinical settings.

2. Knowledge of program management.

a. Planning - ability to organize an occupational advisory committee;

b. Curriculum development - ability to keep informed of current curriculum content and patient care practices;

c. Planning and organizing teaching and occupational laboratory for laboratory simulations and demonstrations;

d. Understanding of the process for issuing credentials for health workers;

e. Understanding of the health care industry; and

f. Evaluation - ability to conduct a student follow-up study.

3. Knowledge and skills necessary to teach leadership skills, organize and manage an effective co-curricular student organization, and implement the organization's activities as an integral part of instruction.

4. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

5. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

6. Demonstrate and integrate workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities.

7. Ability to plan, deliver, evaluate, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

8VAC20-543-210. Career and technical education – marketing education.

The program in marketing shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge of marketing processes and the environment; management and supervision; economics; merchandising and operations; advertising and promotion; sales and selling; communication theory and techniques; consumer behavior; international (global) marketing; finance; accounting or marketing mathematics; and technology applications through a variety of educational and work experiences;

2. Knowledge of skills and principles common across the marketing pathways: channel management; marketing-information management; market planning; pricing; product and service management promotion; and selling;

3. Ability to plan, develop, and administer a comprehensive marketing program for high school students and adults;

4. Ability to organize and use a variety of instructional methods and techniques for teaching youths and adults;

5. Ability to conduct learning programs that include a variety of career objectives and recognize and respond to individual differences in students;

6. Ability to assist learners of different abilities in developing skills needed to qualify for further education and employment;

7. Knowledge of occupational skill development and career planning for opportunities in marketing, merchandising, hospitality, and management;

8. Knowledge and skills necessary to teach leadership skills, organize and manage an effective co-curricular student organization (DECA) and implement the organization's activities as an integral part of instruction;

9. Application of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

10. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes;

11. Application of and proficiency in instructional technology and current technological applications as these relate to marketing functions;

12. Demonstration and integration of workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities;

13. Ability to plan, deliver, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction, such as: internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship; and

14. Ability to apply mathematical operations to solve marketing problems.

8VAC20-543-220. Career and technical education – technology education.

The program in technology education shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding the nature of technology, including knowledge of the:

a. Characteristics and scope of technology;

b. Core concepts of physical, biological, and informational technologies; and

c. Relationships among technologies, including the natural intersects between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and other fields.

2. Understanding the relationships between technology and society, including the:

a. Sociocultural, political, and economic influences of technology;

b. Local and global effects of technological products and systems on the environment; and

c. Role that society plays in the use and development of technology; and

d. Influence of technology on human history.

3. Comprehension and utilization of engineering design, including the:

a. Attributes of technological design;

b. Role of constraints, optimization, and predictive analysis in engineering design;

c. Requirement of problem-solving, critical thinking, and technical writing skills; and

d. Intentional integration of mathematics and science concepts and practices.

4. Ability to succeed in a technological world, including a capacity to:

a. Employ the design process in the engineering of technological products and systems;

b. Determine and control the behavior of technological products and systems;

c. Use and maintain technological products and systems; and

d. Assess the impacts and consequences of technological products and systems.

5. Ability to select and use the major physical, biological, and informational technologies of the designed world, including the:

a. Principles and processes characteristic of contemporary and emerging transportation, manufacturing, and construction technologies, inclusive of research, engineering design and testing, planning, organization, resources, and modes of distribution;

b. Range of enabling technologies that utilize fundamental biological principles and cellular processes characteristic of traditional and modern biotechnical technologies, including research, design-based engineering and testing of agricultural products, biotechnical systems, and associated medical technologies;

c. Purpose, processes, and resources involved with creating, encoding, transmitting, receiving, decoding, storage, retrieval, and understanding of information data using communication systems in a global information society; and

d. Concept, laws, forms, and characteristics of energy as a fundamental requirement of the technological world, inclusive of the resultant power and work requisites, both renewable and nonrenewable, of the tools, machines, products, and systems within.

6. Knowledge, skills, and processes required for teaching in a STEM laboratory environment, including:

a. Laboratory safety rules, regulations, processes, and procedures;

b. Ability to organize content and practices into effective instructional units;

c. Ability to deliver instruction to diverse learners;

d. Ability to evaluate student achievement, curriculum materials, instructional strategies, and teaching practices;

e. Ability to incorporate new and emerging instructional technologies to enhance student performance across the varied domains of knowledge - cognitive, affective, and psychomotor; and

f. Ability to convey the concepts and procedures for developing a learner's technological literacy specifically and integrative STEM literacy in general.

7. Demonstration of the knowledge, abilities, and capacity necessary to teach leadership skills, organize and manage an effective co-curricular student organization, and implement the organization's activities as an integral part of instruction.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in formal technical writing.

9. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

10. Demonstrate and integrate workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities.

11. Ability to plan, deliver, evaluate, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

8VAC20-543-230. Career and technical education – trade and industrial education.

The program in trade and industrial education shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of industrial education and its role in the development of technically competent, socially responsible, and culturally sensitive individuals with potential for leadership in skilled technical work and professional studies;

2. Understanding of and the ability to relate experiences designed to develop skills in the interpretation and implementation of industrial education philosophy in accordance with changing demand;

3. The knowledge and experience of systematically planning, executing, and evaluating individual and group instruction;

4. Knowledge of the competencies necessary for effective organization and management of laboratory instruction;

5. Knowledge of the competencies necessary for making physical, social, and emotional adjustments in multicultural student-teacher relationships;

6. Knowledge of the competencies necessary for developing and utilizing systematic methods and instruments for appraising and recording student progress in the career and technical educational classroom;

7. Knowledge of the ability to provide technical work experience through cooperative education or provide a method of evaluating previous occupational experience commensurate with the minimum required standard;

8. Knowledge of the competencies and industry credentials necessary to assist students in job placement and in otherwise bridging the gap between education and work;

9. Understanding of the awareness of the human relations factor in industry, with emphasis on the area of cooperation among labor, management, and the schools;

10. Knowledge of the teacher's role in the school and community;

11. Understanding of the content, skills, and techniques necessary to teach a particular trade area;

12. Knowledge of the competencies necessary to organize and manage an effective student organization;

13. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

14. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes;

15. Demonstration and integration of work place readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities; and

16. Understanding of the planning, delivery, and management of work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

8VAC20-543-240. Career and technical education – transition and special needs (add-on endorsement).

The transition and special needs (add-on endorsement) shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge of special needs and transition programs and services, characteristics of students who are disadvantaged, disabled, gifted, and individuals with barriers to educational achievement and employment, including individuals with limited English proficiency.

2. Knowledge of program development, implementation, and evaluation.

3. Basic understanding of cultural issues pertaining to employment and postsecondary education and training.

4. Understanding of the federal and state laws and regulations pertaining to special education, rehabilitation, and the American with Disabilities Act (42 USC § 12101 et seq.).

5. Understanding and demonstration of the integration of instructional methods, resources, and transition programs for targeted populations in career and technical education, including:

a. Use of learning and teaching styles to plan and deliver differentiated instruction and differentiated assessment;

b. Knowledge of age appropriate assessments;

c. Use of assessment results to plan individual instruction strategies and assist with long-range and short-term planning;

d. Understanding of required skills that demonstrate college and career readiness;

e. Ability to plan and manage a competency-based education system;

f. Ability to adapt and modify curriculum materials and utilize Universal Design for Learning Principles to meet special student needs;

g. Use of a variety of classroom and behavior management techniques to develop an enhanced learning environment, behavior change techniques, and individual and group instruction;

h. Use of different processes to improve collaboration and develop partnerships with colleagues, parents, and the community to include service agencies and businesses; and

i. Ability to plan learning experiences that prepare individuals for transition to more advanced education and career development options.

6. Ability to develop, plan, deliver, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction such as community-based instruction, internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

7. Understanding and application of strategies for enabling students to learn all aspects of particular industries - planning, management, finances, technical and production skills, labor and community issues, health and safety, environmental issues, and the technology associated with the specific industry.

8. Ability to articulate career and life planning procedures, transitioning processes and procedures, and career-search techniques.

9. Application of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

10. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

11. Ability to use a variety of technologies to deliver instruction and media to students, parents, teachers, and community partners.

12. Demonstration and integration of workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities.

13. Demonstrate person-centered planning skills.

8VAC20-543-250. Computer science.

The program in computer science shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of mathematical principles that are the basis of many computer applications;

2. Knowledge of the functions, capabilities, and limitations of computers and computer systems;

3. Knowledge of the ethical, moral, and legal issues associated with applications in programming and computer science;

4. Knowledge of programming in at least two widely used programming languages, including definition, structure, and comparison;

5. Knowledge of programming languages including definition, design, comparison, and evaluation;

6. Knowledge of computers and computer systems and their applications;

7. Knowledge of data structures and algorithms;

8. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing; and

9. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-260. Dance arts preK-12.

The program in dance arts shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the dance arts discipline as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning and how they provide a foundation needed to teach dance arts.

2. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching dance arts to meet the developmental levels and academic needs of students in preK-12, including the following:

a. Knowledge of and experience in planning, developing, administering, and evaluating a program of dance arts education;

b. Knowledge and understanding for teaching dance arts, including performance, creation, and production; dance history and cultural context; analysis, evaluation, and critique; and aesthetics;

c. Ballet, folk, jazz, and modern dance with an area of concentration in one of these areas;

d. Scientific foundations, including human anatomy, kinesiology, and injury prevention and care for dance arts;

e. The relationship of dance arts and culture and the influence of dance on past and present cultures;

f. Knowledge and understanding of technological and artistic copyright laws;

g. Knowledge and understanding of classroom management and safety, including performance and studio;

h. Knowledge of a variety of instructional and assessment strategies to foster, support, and enhance student dance arts learning;

i. Knowledge and understanding of technology, with applications for instruction, resources, artistic expression, administration, assessment, and communication;

j. Knowledge and understanding of appropriate and sensitive attention to diversity and cultural understanding;

k. Knowledge of related areas of the fine arts, such as music, theatre arts, and the visual arts; and

l. Observation and student teaching experiences at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels.

3. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-270. Driver education (add-on endorsement).

The program in driver education shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Basic understanding of the administration of a driver education program as required by § 22.1-205 of the Code of Virginia and the Administrative Guide for Driver Education in Virginia 2010 (http://www.doe.virginia.gov/instruction/driver_education/curriculum_admin_guide/index.shtml) including:

a. Coordination and scheduling of classroom and in-car instruction;

b. The Board of Education and the Department of Motor Vehicle's regulations governing driver education programs;

c. Student safety and other legal liability issues;

d. The juvenile licensing process;

e. Highway traffic safety and the driver licensing laws in the Code of Virginia;

f. Vehicle procurement maintenance and safety equipment requirements;

g. The Department of Education's and the Department of Motor Vehicle's juvenile licensing forms;

h. Monitoring and oversight procedures that ensure the approved program meets state curriculum objectives, goals, and learning outcomes; the classroom and in-car hour requirements; and teachers have valid Virginia driver's licenses, acceptable driving records, and meet teacher licensure and/or in-car instructor training requirements;

i. Promoting parent involvement;

j. Providing opportunities for ongoing professional development; and

k. Integrating classroom and in-car instruction when possible to maximize transfer of skills.

2. Understanding of knowledge, skills, and processes of classroom driver education instruction including:

a. Traffic laws, signs, signals, pavement markings, and right-of-way rules;

b. Licensing procedures and other legal responsibilities associated with the driving privilege and vehicle ownership;

c. The effect of speed and steering on vehicle balance and control;

d. Communicating and interacting with other highway users (pedestrians, animals, motorcycles, bicycles, trucks, buses, trains, trailers, motor homes, ATVs, and other recreational users) in a positive manner;

e. Managing of time, space, and visibility, and using perceptual skills in the risk management process;

f. Alcohol and other drug use;

g. Passive protective devices and active restraint systems;

h. Vehicle controls, vehicle maintenance, vehicle functions, and vehicle malfunctions;

i. Consequences of aggressive driving, road rage, fatigue, distracted driving, and other physical, social, and psychological influences that affect the driver;

j. Natural laws and environmental factors that influence the decision-making process;

k. Adverse driving conditions and handling emergencies;

l. Planning a safe trip;

m. Differentiating instruction based on a continuous learning cycle;

n. Using assessments that foster student learning to inform decisions about instruction; and

o. Using new and emerging instructional technology and media effectively to enhance learning.

3. Understanding of knowledge, skills, and processes of the laboratory phase of instruction including:

a. Simulation and other instructional technologies;

b. Multiple-car range;

c. Route planning and preparing for sequential instructional performances that lead to effective habit formation;

d. Providing clear, concise instructions when describing the critical elements of a driving skill;

e. Correctly using occupant restraints and protective devices;

f. The role of the driver and the observer;

g. Using commentary driving to determine visual search skills needed to identify and make risk-reducing decisions for safe speed and position;

h. Using reference points to gauge vehicle position and execute maneuvers with precision;

i. Selecting vehicle position to communicate or establish line of sight to targets;

j. Balancing vehicle movement through precise and timely steering, braking, and accelerating to manage vehicle weight transfer;

k. Applying visual search skills to manage risks in low, moderate, and high-risk driving environments;

l. Adjusting speed and space to communicate and reduce risks to avoid conflicts;

m. Preventing, detecting, and managing vehicle traction loss in simulated and adverse driving conditions;

n. Using vehicle braking, traction, and stability technologies;

o. Recognizing environmental factors that influence vehicle control;

p. Applying space management strategies to the front and sides and monitoring space to the rear;

q. Understanding the consequences of speed selection;

r. Dividing mental attention between intended path of travel and other tasks;

s. Demonstrating basic and evasive maneuvers and off-road recovery;

t. Recognizing understeer and oversteer, and the effects of traction, gravity, inertia and momentum on vehicle handling and control;

u. Controlling vehicle from instructor's seat;

v. Interacting with other roadway users in a positive manner;

w. Using manual transmission;

x. Developing precision in the use of skills, processes, and habits for approach to intersection, curves, turns, parking, turnabouts, backing, lane change, passing and being passed, getting on and off highways, and responding to emergencies;

y. Administering the driver's license road skills test and issuing the six-month temporary provisional license; and

z. Completing a debriefing with a parent or guardian that includes a reminder that the parent must ultimately determine readiness for a driver's license.

4. Guiding parents to provide meaningful guided practice including:

a. Understanding the juvenile licensing laws and the parents' role in the juvenile licensing process;

b. Determining the readiness of the child to begin learning how to drive in a car;

c. Planning and supervising the learner's permit experience;

d. Keeping a record of the meaningful supervised driving hours; and

e. Adopting a written agreement with the child that reflects expectations, defines rules and consequences, and allows the parents to progressively grant broader driving privileges.

5. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

6. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-280. Engineering.

The program in engineering shall ensure that the candidate demonstrates the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the engineering discipline as defined in Virginia's high school engineering courses and how these provide a sound foundation for teaching engineering.

2. Understanding the nature of engineering design and analysis, including the:

a. Function of the engineering design process;

b. Methods used by engineers to generate, develop, and test ideas to meet design requirements;

c. Role of failure in the engineering design process.

3. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching engineering, including the ability to:

a. Formulate instruction reflecting the goals of the engineering courses that are taught in Virginia high schools;

b. Design, prototype, test, analyze, and operate solutions to engineering challenges;

c. Implement laboratory and field safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

d. Organize key engineering content and skills into meaningful units of instruction;

e. Adapt instruction to diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

f. Evaluate student achievement, instructional materials, and teaching materials; and

g. Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance.

4. Understanding of content, processes, and skills of engineering, equivalent to an undergraduate degree in engineering, with course work in principles of engineering, engineering design, statics and dynamics, circuits, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, materials, ordinary differential equations, and linear algebra.

5. Understanding of basic chemistry, biology, Earth and space sciences, physics, and mathematics, including statistics and calculus, to ensure:

a. The placement of engineering in an appropriate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and interdisciplinary context;

b. The ability to teach the processes and organizing concepts of the natural and physical sciences to analyze successful and failed engineering designs; and

c. Student achievement in engineering.

6. Understanding of the contributions and significance of engineering, including:

a. Its social and cultural significance;

b. The relationship of engineering and its sub-fields (e.g., electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, bio-engineering, etc.) to the sciences, mathematics and technology; and

c. The historical development of engineering concepts and reasoning.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing, oral, and multi-media presentations.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-290. English.

The program in English shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of English as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning;

2. Skills necessary to teach the writing process and the different modes of writing (narrative, descriptive, expository, persuasive, and analytical) and to employ available technology;

3. Knowledge of grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes;

5. Understanding of the nature and development of language including vocabulary appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose;

6. Knowledge of reading strategies and techniques used to enhance reading comprehension skills in both fiction and nonfiction texts;

7. Knowledge of communication skills including speaking and listening skills and media literacy;

8. Knowledge of varied fiction and nonfiction from young adult, British, American, world, and ethnic and minority texts appropriate for English instruction;

9. The ability to provide experiences in communication arts, such as journalism, dramatics, debate, forensics, radio, television, films, and other media production;

10. Skills necessary to teach the analysis and production of media literacy;

11. Skills necessary to teach research including ethical accessing, evaluating, organizing, crediting, and synthesizing information; and

12. Knowledge of the Computer Technology Standards of Learning and their integration into English Language Arts.

8VAC20-543-300. English as a second language preK-12.

The program in English as a second language shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Skills in methods of teaching English as a second language to include the understanding of the World-Class Instructional and Design Assessment (WIDA) English Language Development (ELD) Standards;

2. Skills in student assessment for English as a second language to include the Assessing Comprehension and Communication in English State-to-State for English Language Learners (Access for ELLs®) test;

3. Skills in the teaching of reading and writing to include (i) the five areas of reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and text comprehension; (ii) similarities and differences between reading in a first language and reading in a second language; and (iii) a balanced literacy approach;

4. Knowledge of the effects of sociocultural variables in the instructional setting;

5. Proficiency in spoken and written English;

6. Understanding of second language acquisition;

7. Knowledge of another language and its structure;

8. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

9. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes; and

10. Knowledge of English linguistics.

8VAC20-543-310. Foreign language preK-12.

A. The specific language of the endorsement shall be noted on the license.

B. Foreign language preK-12 - languages other than Latin. The program in the foreign language shall ensure that the candidate has:

1. Demonstrated the following competencies:

a. Understanding of authentic speech at a normal tempo;

b. Ability to speak with a command of vocabulary, pronunciation, and syntax adequate for expressing thoughts to a native speaker not used to dealing with foreigners;

c. Ability to read and comprehend authentic texts of average difficulty and of mature content;

d. Ability to write a variety of texts including description and narration with clarity and correctness in vocabulary and syntax;

e. Knowledge of geography, history, social structure, and artistic and literary contributions of the target societies;

f. Ability to interpret contemporary lifestyles, customs, and cultural patterns of the target societies;

g. Understanding of the application of basic concepts of phonology, syntax, and morphology to the teaching of the foreign language;

h. Knowledge of the national standards for foreign language learning, current proficiency-based and performance-based objectives of the teaching of foreign languages at the elementary and secondary levels, elementary and secondary methods and techniques for attaining these objectives, the use of technology and media in teaching languages, current curricular developments, the relationship of language study to other areas of the curriculum, and the professional literature of foreign language teaching;

i. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

j. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes;

k. Knowledge of the assessment of foreign language skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing, and the differing types of assessments and their uses, including portfolio-based assessments, integrated performance assessments, and oral proficiency interviews; and

l. Knowledge of the characteristics of effective foreign language teaching, including the standards and key elements related to foreign language teaching as outlined in the Virginia Standards for the Professional Practice of Teachers.

2. Participated in opportunities for significant foreign language study or living experiences in this country or abroad, or both.

C. Foreign language preK-12 - Latin. The program in Latin shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Ability to read and comprehend Latin in the original;

2. Ability to pronounce Latin with consistent classical, or ecclesiastical, pronunciation;

3. Knowledge of the vocabulary, phonetics, morphology, and syntax of Latin and the etymological impact of Latin;

4. Ability to discuss the culture and civilization of Greco-Roman society, including history, daily life, art, architecture, and geography;

5. Ability to explain the relationship of Greco-Roman culture and civilization to subsequent cultures and civilizations;

6. Knowledge of major literary masterpieces and their relationship to the historical and social context of the society;

7. Competency in current methodologies for teaching Latin at the elementary and secondary levels; lesson planning; scope and sequencing of material; instructional strategies and assessment under the guidance of an experienced Latin teacher;

8. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

9. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes; and

10. Knowledge of the characteristics of effective foreign language teaching, including the standards and key elements related to foreign language teaching as outlined in the Virginia Standards for the Professional Practice of Teachers.

D. Foreign language preK-12 - American Sign Language. The program in American Sign Language shall ensure that the candidate has:

1. Demonstrated the following competencies:

a. Understanding of native users of American Sign Language at a normal tempo;

b. Ability to sign with a command of vocabulary, nominal behaviors, and syntax adequate for expressing thoughts to an American Sign Language user not accustomed to dealing with individuals who do not use American Sign Language;

c. Knowledge of history, social structure, and artistic and literary contributions of the deaf culture;

d. Ability to interpret contemporary lifestyles, customs, and cultural patterns of the deaf culture;

e. Understanding of the application of basic concepts of phonology (e.g., hand shapes, location, palm orientation, and sign movements), syntax, and morphology to the teaching of the American Sign Language;

f. Knowledge of the national standards for foreign language learning, current proficiency-based and performance-based objectives of the teaching of foreign languages at the elementary and secondary levels, elementary and secondary methods and techniques for attaining these objectives, the assessment of foreign language skills, the use of technology and media in teaching languages, current curricular developments, the relationship of language study to other areas of the curriculum, and the professional literature of foreign language teaching;

g. Understanding of and proficiency in English grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

h. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes; and

i. Knowledge of the characteristics of effective foreign language teaching, including the standards and key elements related to foreign language teaching as outlined in the Virginia Standards for the Professional Practice of Teachers.

2. Participated in opportunities for significant study of the linguistics of American Sign Language and immersion experiences in the deaf culture.

8VAC20-543-320. Gifted education (add-on endorsement).

The program in gifted education shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of principles of the integration of gifted education and general education, including:

a. Strategies to facilitate the interaction of gifted students with students of similar and differing intellectual and academic abilities;

b. Development of activities to encourage parental and community involvement in the education of the gifted;

c. Strategies to encourage collaboration among professional colleagues, especially in the areas of curriculum and professional development; and

d. Strategies to collaborate and consult with general education teachers and other resource specialists on behalf of gifted students.

2. Understanding of the characteristics of gifted students, including:

a. Varied expressions of advanced aptitudes, skills, creativity, and conceptual understandings;

b. Varied expressions of the affective (social-emotional) needs of gifted students; and

c. Gifted behaviors in special populations (i.e., those who are culturally and linguistically diverse, economically disadvantaged, highly gifted, or have special needs or disabilities, including twice-exceptional students).

3. Understanding of specific techniques to identify gifted students using diagnostic and prescriptive approaches to assessment, including:

a. The selection, use, and interpretation of multiple standardized, norm-referenced aptitude and achievement assessment instruments;

b. The selection, use, and evaluation of multiple identification criteria and strategies;

c. The use of both formal and informal nonbiased measures to provide relevant information regarding the aptitude and ability or achievement of potentially gifted students;

d. The use of authentic assessment tools such as portfolios to determine performance, motivation, interest, and other characteristics of potentially gifted students;

e. The use and interpretation of reliable rating scales, checklists, and questionnaires by parents, teachers, and others;

f. The evaluation of data collected from student records such as grades, honors, and awards;

g. The use of case study reports providing information concerning exceptional conditions; and

h. The roles and responsibilities of the identification and placement committee.

4. Understanding and application of a variety of curricular and instructional models, methodologies, and strategies that ensure:

a. The use of the Virginia Standards of Learning as a foundation to develop a high level of proficiency, academic rigor, and complexity for gifted learners in all curricular academic areas;

b. The acquisition of knowledge and development of products that demonstrate creative and critical thinking as applied to student learning both in and out of the classroom, including inquiry-based instruction, questioning strategies, and problem-solving skills;

c. The development of learning environments that guide students to become self-directed, reflective, independent learners;

d. The acquisition of tools to enable students to contribute to a multicultural, diverse society, including preparation for college and careers; and

e. The development of learning environments that recognize and support the affective needs of the gifted students.

5. Understanding and application of theories and principles of appropriately differentiating curriculum specifically designed to accommodate the accelerated learning aptitudes of gifted students, including:

a. Accelerated and enrichment opportunities that recognize gifted students' needs for advanced content and pacing of instruction, original research or production, problem-finding and problem-solving, higher level thinking that leads to the generation of products, and a focus on issues, themes, and ideas integrated within and across disciplines;

b. Opportunities for students to explore, develop, and research their areas of interest, talent, or strength using varied modes of expression;

c. Emphasis on advanced and complex content that is paced and sequenced to respond to gifted students' persistent intellectual, artistic, or technical curiosity; exceptional problem-solving abilities; rapid acquisition and mastery of information; conceptual thinking processes; and imaginative expression across a broad range of disciplines;

d. Evaluation of student academic growth and learner outcomes through appropriate multiple criteria, including a variety of pre-assessments and post-assessments; and

e. Use of current and advanced technologies to enhance student performance and academic growth.

6. Understanding of contemporary issues and research in gifted education, including:

a. The systematic gathering, analyzing, and reporting of formative and summative data from local, state, and national perspectives; and

b. Current local, state, and national policies, trends, and issues.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in all forms of communication.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

9. The program shall include a practicum that shall include a minimum of 45 instructional hours of successful teaching experiences with gifted students.

8VAC20-543-330. Health and physical education preK-12.

The program in health and physical education preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of health and physical education as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning.

2. Understanding basic human anatomy, physiology, and kinesiology needed to apply discipline-specific biomechanical concepts critical to the development of physically educated individuals.

3. Understanding of the basic scientific principles of human movement as they apply to:

a. Health-related fitness (flexibility, muscular strength and endurance, cardio respiratory endurance, and body composition);

b. Skill-related fitness (coordination, agility, power, balance, speed, and reaction time); and

c. Analyzing and correcting critical elements of motor skills and performance concepts related to skillful movement and fitness.

4. Basic understanding of the administration and planning for a health and physical education program, including:

a. Differentiated instruction based on a continuous learning cycle;

b. Student safety, classroom management, injury prevention, and liability issues;

c. Standards-based curriculum and assessments that foster student learning and inform decisions about instruction;

d. The role of coordinated school and community health.

e. Utilizing school health advisory boards, local health departments, and other representative stakeholders for support for best practice; and

f. Increasing physical activity behaviors before, during, and after school.

5. Understanding of the essential health knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching developmentally and culturally appropriate health education content standards, including:

a. Health promotion and chronic disease prevention;

b. Mental, social, and emotional health;

c. Nutrition, body image, eating disorders, energy balance, and weight management;

d. Tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use prevention;

e. Safety and emergency care (first aid, CPR, AED, universal precautions);

f. Injury and violence prevention;

g. Consumer health and information access;

h. Communicable and noncommunicable diseases prevention and treatment;

i. Environmental health;

j. Personal, family, and community health;

k. Bullying prevention, resistance skills, and conflict mediation; and

l. Theories and models of behavior change and goal-setting.

6. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching physical education, including:

a. Articulated, sequential preK-12 instruction in a variety of movement forms that include:

(1) Functional fitness;

(2) Developmentally appropriate movement skills; and

(3) Movement principles and concepts.

b. Activities that meet the needs of the diverse learner;

c. Design learning activities to help students understand, develop, value and achieve personal fitness;

d. Knowledge of human growth, development, and motor learning;

e. The relationship between a physically active lifestyle and health;

f. Knowledge of the cognitive, social, and emotional development through physical activity;

g. Incorporate strategies that promote effective physical activity learning environments;

h. Use of authentic, traditional, psychomotor, and fitness assessment methods;

i. The cultural significance of dance, leisure, competition, and sportsmanship; and

j. Demonstrate personal competence in motor skill performance for a variety of movement patterns, modeling healthy behaviors, and maintaining health-enhancing level of fitness.

7. Understanding of and ability to design developmentally appropriate curriculum, instruction, and performance-based assessment that is aligned with the Virginia Standards of Learning for Health and Physical Education:

a. Develop a developmentally appropriate scope and sequence plan of essential health and physical education concepts, information, and skills based on the Virginia Standards of Learning;

b. Use the scope and sequence plan to develop performance indicators that describe the essential concepts and skills;

c. Use new and emerging instructional technology and media effectively to enhance learning;

d. Use research-based educational strategies to meet diverse learning styles and needs;

e. Adapt and create strategies best suited for delivering instruction in diverse settings;

f. Employ individual and cooperative group learning strategies;

g. Connect instruction to prior student learning, and to other curricular areas; and

h. Use evaluation to plan a continuous cycle of learning strategies that reinforce mastery of performance indicators.

8. Obtaining, analyzing and applying health-related and fitness-related data to meet the cultural, social, growth, and development needs of the students and community:

a. Select valid and current sources of information and data;

b. Use computerized sources of information and appropriate data-gathering instruments; and

c. Analyze and interpret data and determine priority areas of focused instruction.

9. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

10. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-340. History and social sciences.

The program in history and social sciences shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of history and the social science disciplines as defined by the Virginia History and Social Sciences Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching history and the social sciences, including in:

a. United States history.

(1) The evolution of the American constitutional republic and its ideas, institutions, and practices from the philosophical origins in the Enlightenment through the debates of the colonial period to the present; the American Revolution, including ideas and principles preserved in significant Virginia and United States historical documents as required by § 22.1-201 of the Code of Virginia (the Declaration of American Independence; the general principles of the Constitution of the United States; the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom; the charters of The Virginia Company of April 10, 1606, May 23, 1609, and March 12, 1612; and the Virginia Declaration of Rights); Articles of Confederation; and historical challenges to the American political system;

(2) The influence of religious traditions on American heritage and contemporary American society;

(3) The influence of immigration on American political, social, cultural, and economic life;

(4) The origins, effects, aftermath, and significance of the two world wars, the Korean and Vietnam conflicts, and the post-Cold War era;

(5) The social, political, and economic transformations in American life during the 20th century;

(6) The tensions between liberty and equality, liberty and order, region and nation, individualism and the common welfare, and cultural diversity and national unity; and

(7) The difference between a democracy and a republic and other types of economic and political systems.

b. World history.

(1) The political, philosophical, and cultural legacies of ancient American, Asian, African, and European civilizations;

(2) The origins, ideas, and institutions of Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, Confucianism and Taoism, and Shinto, Buddhist, and Islamic religious traditions;

(3) Medieval society, institutions, and civilizations; feudalism; and the evolution of representative government;

(4) The social, political, cultural, and economic innovations of selected civilizations in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas;

(5) The ideas of the Renaissance and the Reformation, European exploration, and the origins of capitalism and colonization;

(6) The cultural ideas of the Enlightenment and the intellectual and political revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries;

(7) The sources, results, and influences of the American, French, and Latin American revolutions;

(8) The social and economic consequences of the Industrial Revolution and its impact on politics, culture, and the lives of everyday people;

(9) The influence of global ideologies of the 19th and 20th centuries (liberalism, republicanism, social democracy, Marxism, nationalism, Communism, Fascism, Nazism, and post-colonialism);

(10) The origins, effects, aftermath, and significance of the two world wars, the Korean and Vietnam conflicts, and the post-Cold War era; and

(11) The development of globalization and the growing interdependence and inter-relationship among countries and cultures in the world.

c. Civics, government, and economics.

(1) The essential characteristics of governments;

(2) The importance of the rule of law for the protection of individual rights and the common good;

(3) The rights and responsibilities of American citizenship;

(4) The nature and purposes of constitutions and alternative ways of organizing constitutional governments;

(5) American political culture;

(6) Principles of the American constitutional republic;

(7) The idea of federalism and states' rights;

(8) The structures, functions, and powers of local and state government;

(9) Importance of citizen participation in the political process in local and state government;

(10) Local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia;

(11) The structures, functions, and powers of the national government;

(12) The role of the United States government in foreign policy and national security;

(13) The structure of the federal judiciary;

(14) The structure and function of the United States market economy as compared with other economies;

(15) Knowledge of the impact of the government role in the economy and individual economic and political freedoms;

(16) Knowledge of economic systems in the areas of productivity and key economic indicators;

(17) The analysis of global economic trends; and

(18) Knowledge of international organizations, both political and economic, such as the United Nations, International Court in the Hague, and the International Monetary Fund.

d. Geography.

(1) Relationship between human activity and the physical environment, the ways in which geography governs human activity, and the effects of human activity on geographic features;

(2) Use of maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information;

(3) Physical and human characteristics of places;

(4) Physical processes that shape the surface of the earth;

(5) Characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations;

(6) Patterns and networks of economic interdependence;

(7) Processes, patterns, and functions of human settlement;

(8) How the forces of conflict and cooperation influence the division and control of the earth's surface;

(9) Changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources;

(10) Applying geography to interpret the past and the present and to plan for the future; and

(11) Impact of geospatial technologies on the study of geography, physical and human.

2. Understanding of history and social sciences to appreciate the significance of:

a. Diverse cultures and shared humanity;

b. How things happen, how they change, and how human intervention matters;

c. The interplay of change and continuity;

d. How people in other times and places have struggled with fundamental questions of truth, justice, and personal responsibility;

e. The importance of individuals and groups who have made a difference in history and the significance of personal character to the future of society;

f. The relationship among history, geography, civics, and economics;

g. The difference between fact and conjecture, evidence and assertion, and the importance of framing useful questions;

h. How ideas have real consequences; and

i. The importance of primary documents and the potential problems with second-hand accounts.

3. Understanding of the use of the content and processes of history and social sciences instruction, including:

a. Fluency in historical thinking and geographic analysis skills;

b. Skill in debate, discussion, and persuasive writing;

c. The ability to organize key social science content into meaningful units of instruction based on historical thinking skills;

d. The ability to provide instruction using a variety of instructional techniques;

e. The ability to evaluate primary and secondary instructional resources, instruction, and student achievement;

f. The ability to incorporate appropriate technologies into social science instruction; and

g. The development of digital literacy skills while recognizing the influence of the media.

4. Understanding of the content, processes, and skills of one of the social sciences disciplines at a level equivalent to an undergraduate major, along with proficient understanding of the three supporting disciplines to ensure:

a. The ability to teach the processes and organizing concepts of social science;

b. An understanding of the significance of the social sciences; and

c. Student achievement in the social sciences.

5. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing and communications.

6. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

7. Skills necessary to teach research including use of primary and secondary sources, ethical accessing, evaluating, organizing, crediting, and synthesizing information.

8VAC20-543-350. Journalism (add-on endorsement).

The program in journalism (add-on endorsement) shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding the history and functions of journalism in American culture including the value of freedom of speech and of the press and the complexity of legal and ethical issues;

2. Understanding press law and ethics as it applies to scholastic media, including First Amendment-related rights and responsibilities;

3. Understanding of and experience in theory and practice of both print and nonprint media including design and layout production and the use of technology;

4. Possession of skills in teaching journalistic writing, interviewing, and editing for a variety of purposes, audiences, and formats;

5. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing and communications;

6. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes; and

7. Skills to lead student media and production, including an understanding of fiscal responsibility, conflict resolution, and time management.

8VAC20-543-360. Keyboarding (add-on endorsement).

The program in keyboarding (add-on endorsement) shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Possession of skills in fingering and keyboard manipulation techniques to model and provide touch keyboarding instruction;

2. Ability to provide instruction that allows students to develop touch fingering techniques in a kinesthetic response to the keyboard required for rapid, accurate entry of data and information;

3. Ability to provide instruction for current procedures in formatting documents;

4. Ability to provide instruction that allows students to develop proper keyboarding techniques based on ergonomics research to minimize future repetitive strain injuries;

5. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing and communications; and

6. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-370. Library media preK-12.

The program in library media preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Proficiency in teaching for learning, including knowledge of learners and learning; effective and knowledgeable teaching; collaborative instructional partners; integration of 21st century skills, learning standards, and technologies; assessment of and for student learning; and the design and implementation of instruction that engages students' interests and develops their ability to inquire, think critically, and gain and share knowledge.

2. Proficiency in literacy and reading, including familiarity with children's, young adult, and professional literature in multiple formats; use of a variety of strategies to promote reading for enjoyment and information; collection development to support diverse learning needs; and collaboration to reinforce reading instructional strategies.

3. Proficiency in information and knowledge, including efficient and ethical information-seeking behavior, ethical and equitable access to information, design and delivery of authentic learning through current and emerging technology, and the use of evidence-based action research to create and share knowledge.

4. Proficiency in advocacy and leadership, including networking with the library community, commitment to professional development, leadership in articulating the role of the school library program in the educational community and in student learning, and advocacy for school library programs, resources, and services.

5. Proficiency in program management and administration, including planning, developing, implementing, and evaluating library programs, collections, and facilities; personnel; funding; organization of materials; professional ethics; and strategic planning and program assessment.

6. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing in multiple formats.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-380. Mathematics.

The program in mathematics shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the Virginia Mathematics Standards of Learning and how curriculum may be organized to teach these standards to diverse learners;

2. Understanding of a core knowledge base of concepts and procedures within the discipline of mathematics, including the following strands: number systems and number theory, geometry and measurement, analytic geometry, statistics and probability, functions and algebra, multivariate calculus, discrete mathematics, and linear and abstract algebra;

3. Understanding of the sequential and interrelated nature of mathematics, the vertical progression of mathematical standards, and the mathematical structures inherent in the content strands;

4. Understanding of the connections among mathematical concepts and procedures and their practical applications;

5. Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - becoming mathematical problem-solvers, reasoning mathematically, communicating mathematically, making mathematical connections, and using mathematical models and representations - at different levels of complexity;

6. Understanding of the history of mathematics, including the contributions of different individuals and cultures toward the development of mathematics and the role of mathematics in culture and society;

7. Understanding of major current curriculum studies and trends in mathematics;

8. Understanding how to utilize appropriate technologies for teaching and learning mathematics, including graphing utilities, dynamic software, spreadsheets, and virtual manipulatives;

9. Understanding of and the ability to select, adapt, differentiate, evaluate, and use instructional materials and resources, including professional journals and technology;

10. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies for managing, assessing, and monitoring student learning, including diagnosing student errors;

11. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies to teach mathematics to diverse learners;

12. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing; and

13. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-390. Mathematics – Algebra I (add-on endorsement).

The program in Algebra I shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the mathematics relevant to the content identified in the Mathematics Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching middle level mathematics through Algebra I, including:

a. The structure of real numbers and subsets, basic operations, and properties;

b. Elementary number theory, ratio, proportion, and percent;

c. Algebra, trigonometry, and analytic geometry: operations with monomials and polynomials; rational expressions; linear, quadratic, and higher degree equations and inequalities; linear systems of equations and inequalities; nonlinear systems of equations; radicals and exponents; complex numbers; arithmetic and geometric sequences and series; algebraic, trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, absolute value, and step functions; domain and range of functions; composite and inverse functions; one-to-one mapping; transformations between graphical, tabular, and symbolic forms of functions; direct and inverse variation; line and curve of best fit; conics; and recognition and application of trigonometric identities;

d. Calculus: applications of limits, differentiation, and integration;

e. Linear algebra: matrices, vectors, and linear transformations;

f. Geometry: geometric figures, their properties, relationships, and application of the Pythagorean Theorem; using deductive axiomatic methods of proof and inductive reasoning; perimeter, area, and surface area of two-dimensional and three-dimensional figures; coordinate and transformational geometry; constructions and applications of algebra in geometry;

g. Probability and statistics: experimental and theoretical probability; prediction; graphical representations, including box-and-whisker plots; and measures of center, range, standard deviation, z-scores, and simple and normal distributions; and

h. Discrete mathematics: symbolic logic, sets, permutations and combinations, functions that are defined recursively, and linear programming.

2. Understanding of varied pedagogical approaches to teaching algebraic concepts and their connected procedures.

3. Understanding of the connections among algebraic concepts, procedures, models, and practical applications.

4. Understanding of the sequential and interrelated nature of mathematics and the mathematical structures inherent in algebra.

5. Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - becoming mathematical problem-solvers, reasoning mathematically, communicating mathematically, making mathematical connections, and using mathematical models and representations - at different levels of complexity.

6. Understanding how to utilize appropriate technologies for teaching and learning algebra, including graphing utilities, dynamic software, spreadsheets, and virtual manipulatives.

7. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies for managing, assessing, and monitoring student learning, including diagnosing student errors.

8. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies to teach algebra to diverse learners.

9. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

10. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-400. Music education – instrumental preK-12.

The program in music education - instrumental preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the music discipline as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning and how they provide a necessary foundation integral to teaching instrumental music.

2. Understanding of the common elements of music - rhythm, melody, harmony, timbre, texture, dynamics, and form - and their relationship with each other and student academic needs and employing this understanding in the analysis of music.

3. Effective musicianship through the development of:

a. Basic skills in conducting, score reading, teaching musical courses, and rehearsal techniques for choral and instrumental music;

b. Skills in composing, arranging, and adapting music to meet the classroom needs and ability levels of school performing groups;

c. Skills in providing and directing creative experiences and improvising when necessary;

d. Proficiency, sufficient for classroom instruction, on keyboard or other accompanying instrument; and

e. The ability to perform in ensembles.

4. Knowledge and understanding of teaching music, including music theory; performance; music history and cultural context; analysis, evaluation, and critique; and aesthetics.

5. Knowledge of music history and literature with emphasis on the relationship of music to culture and the ability to place compositions in historical and stylistic perspective.

6. Knowledge of a comprehensive program of music education based upon sound philosophy, content, and methodology for teaching in elementary, middle, and secondary schools.

7. Specialization on a musical instrument and functional teaching knowledge on each of the string, brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments.

8. Competency in teaching rehearsing and conducting combined instrumental and vocal groups. In addition, the program shall provide instruction in business procedures, organization, and management of large and small instrumental ensembles.

9. Knowledge of vocal techniques in teaching, rehearsing, and conducting combined instrumental and vocal groups.

10. Knowledge and understanding of technological and artistic copyright laws.

11. Knowledge and understanding of classroom management and safety, including performance and studio.

12. Knowledge of a variety of instructional and assessment strategies to foster, support, and enhance student music learning.

13. Knowledge and understanding of technology, with applications for instruction, resources, artistic expression, administration, business procedures, assessment, and communication.

14. Knowledge and understanding of appropriate and sensitive attention to diversity and cultural understanding.

15. Knowledge of related areas of the fine arts, such as dance arts, theatre arts, and the visual arts.

16. Observation and professional laboratory experiences with pupils in elementary, middle, and secondary schools, including instruction of instrumental groups.

17. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

18. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-410. Music education – vocal/choral preK-12.

A. The program in music education - vocal/choral preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the music discipline as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning and how they provide a necessary foundation integral to teaching instrumental music.

2. Understanding of the common elements of music - rhythm, melody, harmony, timbre, texture, dynamics, and form - and their relationship with each other and student academic needs and to employ this understanding in the analysis of music.

3. Effective musicianship through the development of:

a. Basic skills in conducting, score reading, teaching musical courses, and rehearsal techniques for choral and instrumental music;

b. Skills in composing, arranging, and adapting music to meet the classroom needs and ability levels of school performing groups;

c. Skills in providing and directing creative experiences and improvising when necessary;

d. Proficiency, sufficient for classroom instruction, on keyboard or other accompanying instrument; and

e. The ability to perform in ensembles.

4. Knowledge and understanding of teaching music, including music theory; performance; music history and cultural context; analysis, evaluation, and critique; and aesthetics.

5. Knowledge of music history and literature with emphasis on the relationship of music to culture and the ability to place compositions in historical and stylistic perspective.

6. Knowledge of a comprehensive program of music education based upon sound philosophy, content, and methodology for teaching in elementary, middle, and secondary schools.

7. Specialization in the methods, materials, and media appropriate to the teaching of vocal/choral and general music at elementary, middle, and secondary levels.

8. Competency in teaching, rehearsing, and conducting choral ensembles and combined vocal and instrumental school groups. In addition, the program shall provide instruction in business procedures, organization, and management of large and small choral ensembles.

9. Knowledge of instrumental techniques in teaching, rehearsing, and conducting combined vocal and instrumental school groups.

10. Knowledge and understanding of technological and artistic copyright laws.

11. Knowledge and understanding of classroom management and safety, including performance and studio.

12. Knowledge of a variety of instructional and assessment strategies to foster, support, and enhance student music learning.

13. Knowledge and understanding of technology, with applications for instruction, resources, artistic expression, administration, business procedures, assessment, and communication.

14. Knowledge and understanding of appropriate and sensitive attention to diversity and cultural understanding.

15. Knowledge of related areas of the fine arts, such as dance arts, theatre arts, and the visual arts.

16. Observation and professional laboratory experiences with pupils at elementary, middle, and secondary levels, including instruction of choral groups.

17. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

18. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-420. Science – biology.

The program in biology shall ensure that the candidate demonstrates the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the four core science disciplines as defined in the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these provide a sound foundation for teaching biology.

2. Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, including the:

a. Function of research design and experimentation;

b. Role and nature of the theory in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

c. Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling, augmentation with evidence, and constructing explanations;

d. Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

e. Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity including peer review; and

f. Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

3. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching laboratory science, including the ability to:

a. Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

b. Implement laboratory safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

c. Conduct research projects and experiments including applications of the design process and technology;

d. Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

e. Organize key biological content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

f. Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

g. Evaluate instructional materials and teaching practices;

h. Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

i. Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance; and

j. Ensure student competence in biology.

4. Understanding of the content, processes, and skills of biology, equivalent to an undergraduate degree in biology, with course work in genetics, biochemistry/molecular biology, cell biology, botany, zoology, anatomy/physiology, ecology, and evolutionary biology.

5. Understanding of basic physics, chemistry (including organic chemistry), the Earth sciences, and mathematics (including statistics) to ensure:

a. The placement of biology in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

b. The ability to teach the processes and crosscutting concepts common to the natural and physical sciences;

c. The application of key principles in biology to solve practical problems; and

d. A "systems" understanding of the natural world.

6. Understanding of the contributions and significance of biology, including:

a. Its social, cultural, and economic significance;

b. The relationship of biology and other sciences to mathematics, the design process, and technology; and

c. The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-430. Science – chemistry.

The program in chemistry shall ensure that the candidate demonstrates the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the four core science disciplines as defined in the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how they provide a sound foundation for teaching chemistry.

2. Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry including the:

a. Function of research design and experimentation;

b. Role and nature of the theory in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

c. Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling, augmentation with evidence, and constructing explanations;

d. Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

e. Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity including peer review; and

f. Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

3. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching laboratory science, including the ability to:

a. Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

b. Implement laboratory safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

c. Conduct research projects and experiments including applications of the design process and technology;

d. Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

e. Organize key chemistry content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

f. Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

g. Evaluate instructional materials and teaching practices;

h. Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

i. Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance; and

j. Ensure student competence in chemistry.

4. Understanding of content, processes, and skills of chemistry, equivalent to an undergraduate degree in chemistry, with course work in biochemistry, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, and analytical chemistry.

5. Understanding of basic physics, Earth science, biology, and mathematics to ensure:

a. The placement of chemistry in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

b. The ability to teach the processes and crosscutting concepts common to the natural and physical sciences;

c. The application of key principles in chemistry to solve practical problems; and

d. A "systems" understanding of the natural world.

6. Understanding of the contributions and significance of chemistry, including:

a. Its social, cultural, and economic significance;

b. The relationship of chemistry and other sciences to mathematics, the design process and technology; and

c. The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-440. Science – Earth science.

The program in Earth science shall ensure that the candidate demonstrates the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the four core science disciplines as defined in the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these provide a sound foundation for teaching Earth science.

2. Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, including the:

a. Function of research design and experimentation;

b. Role and nature of the theory in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

c. Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling, augmentation with evidence, and constructing explanations;

d. Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

e. Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity including peer review; and

f. Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

3. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and practices for teaching laboratory science, including the ability to:

a. Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

b. Implement laboratory safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

c. Conduct research projects and experiments including applications of the design process and technology;

d. Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

e. Organize key Earth science content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

f. Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

g. Evaluate instructional materials and teaching practices;

h. Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

i. Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance; and

j. Ensure student competence in Earth science.

4. Understanding of the content, processes, and skills of Earth science, equivalent to an undergraduate degree in geology, or a related area, with course work in structural geology, paleontology, petrology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy/space science.

5. Understanding of basic physics, chemistry (including organic chemistry), biology, and mathematics to ensure:

a. The placement of Earth science in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

b. The ability to teach the processes and crosscutting concepts common to the natural and physical sciences;

c. The application of key principles in Earth science to solve practical problems; and

d. A "systems" understanding of the natural world.

6. Understanding of the contributions and significance of Earth science, including:

a. Its social, cultural, and economic significance;

b. The relationship of Earth science and other sciences to mathematics, the design process, and technology; and

c. The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-450. Science – physics.

The program in physics shall ensure that the candidate demonstrates the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the four core science disciplines as defined in the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these provide a sound foundation for teaching physics.

2. Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, including the

a. Function of research design and experimentation;

b. Role and nature of the theory in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

c. Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling, augmentation with evidence, and constructing explanations;

d. Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

e. Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity including peer review; and

f. Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

3. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching laboratory science, including the ability to:

a. Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

b. Implement laboratory safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

c. Conduct research projects and experiments including applications of the design process and technology;

d. Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

e. Organize key physics content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

f. Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

g. Evaluate instructional materials and teaching practices;

h. Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

i. Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance; and

j. Ensure student competence in physics.

4. Understanding of content, processes, and skills of physics, equivalent to an undergraduate degree in physics, with course work in mechanics, electricity and magnetism, optics, and modern physics.

5. Understanding of basic Earth science, chemistry (including organic chemistry), biology, and mathematics to ensure:

a. The placement of physics in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

b. The ability to teach the processes and crosscutting concepts common to the natural and physical sciences; and

c. A "systems" understanding of the natural world.

6. Understanding of the contributions and significance of physics, including:

a. Its social, cultural, and economic significance;

b. The relationship of physics and other sciences to mathematics, the design process, and technology; and

c. The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-460. Special education adapted curriculum K-12.

A. The program in special education is designed to ensure through coursework and field experiences in a variety of settings that the candidate has demonstrated the core competencies in this section to prepare children and youth for participation in the general education curriculum and within the community to the maximum extent possible. The candidate also shall complete the competencies in at least one of the endorsement areas of Special Education Adapted Curriculum K-12, in addition to those required under professional studies, including reading and language acquisition.

1. Foundations. Characteristics, legal, and medical aspects.

a. Knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities, including:

(1) Historical perspectives, models, theories, philosophies, and trends that provide the basis for special education practice;

(2) Characteristics of children and youth with disabilities relative to age, varying levels of severity, and developmental differences manifested in cognitive, linguistic, physical, psychomotor, social, or emotional functioning;

(3) Normal patterns of development (i.e., physical, psychomotor, cognitive, linguistic, social, and emotional development) and their relationship to the various disabilities;

(4) Medical aspects of disabilities;

(5) The dynamic influence of the family system and cultural and environmental milieu and related issues pertinent to the education of students with disabilities;

(6) Educational implications of the various disabilities; and

(7) Understanding of ethical issues and the practice of accepted standards of professional behavior.

b. An understanding and application of the legal aspects, regulatory requirements, and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities, including:

(1) Legislative and judicial mandates related to education and special education (e.g., the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the Americans with Disabilities Act, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, etc.);

(2) Current regulations governing special education (e.g., individualized education program (IEP) development; disciplinary practices, policies, and procedures; and alternative placements and programs in schools); and

(3) Rights and responsibilities of parents, students, teachers, and schools as they relate to individuals with disabilities and disability issues.

2. Assessments and evaluation.

An understanding and application of the foundation of assessment and evaluation related to best special education practice, including:

a. Ethical issues and responsibilities in the assessment of individuals with disabilities;

b. Procedures for screening, prereferral, referral, and eligibility determinations;

c. Factors that may influence assessment findings such as cultural, behavioral, and learning diversity;

d. A general knowledge of measurement theory and practice, including validity, reliability, norming, bias, sensitivity, and specificity;

e. Administration, scoring, and interpretation of commonly used individual and group instruments, including norm-referenced, criterion-referenced, and curriculum-based measures as well as task analysis, observation, portfolio, and environmental assessments;

f. Synthesis and interpretation of assessment findings for eligibility, program planning, and program evaluation decisions; and

g. Knowledge of the Virginia Accountability System, assessment options, and procedures for participation for students with disabilities.

3. Management of instruction and behavior.

An understanding and application of classroom and behavior management techniques and individual interventions, including techniques that:

a. Promote emotional well-being and teach and maintain behavioral conduct and skills consistent with norms, standards, and rules of the educational environment;

b. Address diverse approaches and classroom organization based upon behavioral, cognitive, affective, social, and ecological theory and practice;

c. Provide positive behavioral supports; and

d. Are based on functional assessment of behavior.

4. Collaboration.

a. Skills in consultation, case management, and collaboration, including:

Coordination of service delivery with related service providers, general educators, and other professions in collaborative work environments to include:

(1) Understanding the Standards of Learning (SOL), structure of the curriculum, and accountability systems across K-12;

(2) Understanding and assessing the organization and environment of general education classrooms across the K-12 setting;

(3) Implementation of collaborative models, including collaborative consultation, co-teaching with co-planning, and student intervention teams;

(4) Procedures to collaboratively develop, provide, and evaluate instructional and behavioral plans consistent with students' individual needs;

(5) Understanding of the roles and responsibilities of each member of the collaborative team; and

(6) Knowledge and application of effective communication strategies and culturally responsive strategies with a variety of stakeholders in the collaborative environment;

b. Training, managing, and monitoring paraprofessionals;

c. Involving of families in the education of their children with disabilities;

d. Understanding the standards of professionalism;

e. Cooperating with community agencies and other resource providers; and

f. Models and strategies for promoting students' self-advocacy skills.

B. The program in special education adapted curriculum K-12 shall ensure through coursework and field experiences in a variety of settings that the candidate seeking endorsement in special education adapted curriculum has the special education core competencies and the specific competency requirements specified in this section. The candidate shall demonstrate the following competencies to prepare children and youth to acquire the functional, academic, and community living skills necessary to reach an appropriate level of independence and be assessed in progress toward an aligned curriculum while participating in programs with nondisabled peers to the fullest extent possible:

1. Characteristics.

a. Demonstrate knowledge of the definitions; characteristics, including medical and health conditions; and learning and behavioral support needs of students with disabilities (K-12) whose cognitive impairments or adaptive skills require adaptations to the general curriculum and whose functional skills are significantly different from typically developing peers, and therefore require adaptations to the general curriculum for an appropriate education, including, but not limited to, students with:

(1) Autism spectrum disorders;

(2) Developmental delay;

(3) Intellectual disability;

(4) Traumatic brain injury; and

(5) Multiple disabilities, including sensory, deaf-blindness, speech-language, orthopedic and/or health impairments as an additional disability to those referenced in subdivision 1 a of this subsection.

b. Knowledge of characteristics shall include:

(1) Medical needs, sensory needs, and position and handling needs of children with multiple disabilities;

(2) Speech and language development and communication and impact on educational, behavioral, and social interactions;

(3) Impact of disability on self-determination and self-advocacy skills; and

(4) Historical and legal perspectives, models, theories, philosophies, and trends related to specific student populations.

2. Individualized education program (IEP) development and implementation.

a. Demonstrate knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements for IEP development including timelines, components, team composition, roles, and responsibilities.

b. Apply knowledge of content standards, assessment, and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to:

(1) Construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques, such as task analysis, observation, portfolio assessment, and other curriculum-based measures;

(2) Make decisions about student progress, instruction, program, modifications, adaptations, placement, teaching methodology, and transitional services and activities for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and the standards of learning through an aligned curriculum;

(3) Be able to write educationally relevant IEP goals and objectives that address self-care and self-management of student physical, sensory, and medical needs that also enhance academic success in the adapted curriculum.

3. Instructional methods and strategies for the adapted curriculum.

An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities, including:

a. Curriculum development that includes a scope and sequence, lesson plans, instructional methods, and assessments that are based on grade level content standards;

b. Foundational knowledge of reading and writing that includes an understanding of the complex nature of language acquisition and reading (reading competencies in professional studies requirements in 8VAC40-543-140). Skills in this area include phonemic awareness, an understanding of sound and symbol relationships, explicit phonics instruction, syllables, phonemes, morphemes, decoding skills, word attack skills, and knowledge of how phonics, syntax, and semantics interact. Additional skills shall include proficiency in a wide variety of comprehension strategies and writing, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of literature and independent reading; and reading and writing across the content areas;

c. Foundational knowledge of the complex nature of numeracy acquisition and the sequential nature of mathematics including mathematical concepts, mathematical thinking, calculation, and problem-solving;

d. Alternative ways to teach content material including curriculum adaptation and curriculum modifications;

e. Procedures to develop, provide, and evaluate instruction consistent with students' individual needs;

f. Strategies to promote successful integration of students with disabilities with their nondisabled peers;

g. Use of technology to promote student learning;

h. Structure and organization of general education classrooms and other instructional settings representing the continuum of special education services, to include field experiences;

i. Demonstrate the ability to implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and Standards of Learning through an aligned curriculum across the K-12 grade levels, including the ability to:

(1) Identify and apply differentiated instructional methodologies including systematic instruction, multisensory approaches, learning cognitive strategies, diverse learning styles, and technology use;

(2) Implement a blended curriculum that includes teaching academic skills using the aligned standards of learning and incorporating functional and essential life skills into instruction;

(3) Provide explicit instruction of reading, writing and mathematics at appropriate developmental and grade level in a cumulative manner to students with disabilities accessing the general education curriculum through an aligned curriculum;

(4) Conduct and analyze results of functional behavior assessment;

(5) Implement behavioral intervention plans incorporating positive behavioral supports;

(6) Promote the potential and capacity of individual students to meet high functional, academic, behavioral, and social expectations;

(7) Design alternative ways to teach content material including modifying and adapting the general education curriculum;

(8) Develop appropriate transition between grade levels, setting, and environments;

(9) Use assistive and instructional technology, including augmentative and alternative communication methods and systems;

(10) Implement and evaluate group management technique and individual interventions that teach and maintain emotional, behavioral, and social skills;

(11) Implement and monitor IEP specified modifications and adaptations within the general education classroom; and

(12) Integrate students in the community through collaboration with community service systems.

4. Individualized supports and specialized care of students with significant disabilities.

a. An understanding and application of service delivery for students with significant disabilities and their unique care needs, including the ability to identify the physical, sensory, and health and medical needs of students with significant disabilities and understand how these needs impact the educational program including:

(1) Understanding of typical physical development of children and application of this knowledge in developing learning experiences for students with significant disabilities;

(2) Basic understanding of the most common medical diagnoses associated with students with significant disabilities and the impact on their functioning in school and community settings;

(3) Understanding of the role muscle tone plays in the positioning and handling of students and familiarity with common positioning equipment used in the classroom; and

(4) Understanding of alternative and augmentative communication systems and the ability to identify an appropriate communication system based on the needs of the student.

b. Understanding of the roles and responsibilities of related and support staff working in a collaborative setting and the process and procedures related to initiating a related service request.

c. Ability to develop lesson plans that blend and incorporate the academic, functional, and behavioral goals and objectives, while integrating positioning, self-help, feeding, grooming, sensory, and toileting programs into the instructional delivery.

5. Transitioning.

Demonstrate the ability to prepare students and work with families to provide successful student transitions throughout the educational experience to include postsecondary education, training, employment, and independent living that addresses an understanding of long-term planning, age-appropriate transition assessments, career development, life skills, community experiences and resources, and self-determination to include goal setting, decision-making, problem-solving, self-awareness and self-advocacy, guardianship, and other legal considerations.

a. Skills in consultation, case management, and collaboration for students with varying degrees of disability severity.

(1) Coordinate service delivery with general educators including career and technical educators and school counselors, related services providers, and other providers;

(2) Awareness of community resources agencies and strategies to interface with community agencies when developing and planning IEPs;

(3) Knowledge of related services and accommodations that pertain to postsecondary transitions that increase student access to postsecondary education and community resources; and

(4) Ability to coordinate and facilitate meetings involving parents, students, outside agencies, and administrators to include the understanding of consent to share information, including confidentiality and disability disclosure.

b. Understand the difference between entitlement and eligibility for agency services as students move to the adult world, including a basic understanding of Social Security Income benefits planning, work incentive, Medicaid, community independent living, and waivers.

c. Recognize uses of technology and seek out technology at postsecondary settings that shall aid the student in their education, work, and independent living.

d. Recognize and plan for individual student potential and their capacity to meet high academic, behavioral, and social expectations and the impact of academic and social success on personal development.

e. Knowledge of person-centered planning strategies to promote student involvement in planning.

f. Knowledge of generic skills that lead to success in school, work, and community, including time management, preparedness, social interactions, and communication skills.

g. Understand social skill development and the unique social skills deficits and challenges associated with disabilities:

(1) Assesses social skill strengths and needs; and

(2) Plans and uses specialized social skills strategies.

h. Knowledge of use and implementation of vocational assessments to encourage and support students' advocacy and self-determination skills.

i. Knowledge of legal issues surrounding age of majority and guardianship.

j. Knowledge of graduation requirements, diploma options and legal issues surrounding age of majority, and guardianship.

6. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

C. Completion of supervised classroom experiences with students with disabilities and an adapted curriculum K-12.

8VAC20-543-470. Special education blindness and visual impairments preK-12.

The program in special education visual impairments preK-12 is designed to ensure through course work and field experiences in a variety of settings that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the characteristics of individuals with disabilities, including:

a. Developmental and cognitive characteristics of children and youth with disabilities, particularly blindness or visual impairment;

b. Language development and the effects of blindness, visual impairment, and other disabling conditions and cultural and linguistic diversity on language development;

c. Characteristics of individuals with visual impairments, including impact of visual impairment on children's social and emotional development, and family interaction patterns; and

d. Understanding of psychosocial aspects of visual impairment and cultural identity.

2. Understanding of the foundation of the legal aspects associated with students with disabilities and students with visual impairments, including:

a. Legislative and judicial mandates related to education and special education;

b. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Americans with Disabilities Act;

c. Legal decisions related to persons with disabilities;

d. Current regulations and procedures governing special education, including individualized education program (IEP) development, individualized family service plan (IFSP), and transition services; and

e. Disciplinary practices, policies, and procedures and alternative placementsand programs in schools.

3. Understanding of the foundation of assessment and evaluation with an emphasis on individuals with visual impairments, including:

a. Administering, scoring, and interpreting assessments, including norm-referenced, criterion-referenced, and curriculum-based individual and group assessments;

b. Administration and interpretation of a functional vision assessment (FVA), learning media assessment (LMA), and assistive technology assessment and assessment in the areas of the expanded core curriculum (ECC);

c. Interpreting assessments for eligibility, placement, and program decisions and to inform instruction;

d. Techniques to collect, record, and analyze information;

e. Diagnostic instruction using ongoing assessment data;

f. Techniques for recognizing capacity and diversity and its influence on student assessment and evaluation;

g. Using data from student program evaluation to inform curriculum development, instructional practice, and accommodations; and

h. Low vision practices and procedures, including assessment and instructional programming for functional vision.

4. Understanding of service delivery, classroom and behavior management, and instruction for students who are blind and visually impaired, including:

a. The application of current research and evidence-based practice;

b. Classroom organization and curriculum development;

c. Curriculum adaptations and accommodations;

d. The development of language and literacy skills;

e. The use of technology in teaching and instructing students to use assistive technologies to promote learning and provide access to the general education curriculum;

f. Classroom management, including behavior support systems and individual planning;

g. Methods and procedures for teaching students with visual impairments;

h. Instructional programming and modifications of curriculum to facilitate inclusion of students with blindness and visual impairment in programs and services with sighted and typically developing peers;

i. Individual and group behavior management techniques;

j. Career and vocational aspects of individuals with disabilities, including persons with visual impairments, including knowledge of careers, vocational opportunities, and transition from school to work; and

k. Social and recreational skills and resources for individuals with visual impairments, including methods and materials for assessing and teaching activities of daily living.

5. Understanding of consultation, case management, and collaboration including:

a. Coordinating service delivery with other professionals in collaborative work environments;

b. Training, managing, and monitoring paraprofessionals;

c. Involving families in the education of their children with blindness or visual impairment;

d. Implementation of collaborative models, including collaborative consultation, co-teaching, and student intervention teams; and

e. Interfacing with community agencies and resources.

6. Understanding of the foundations of Braille reading and writing, including:

a. Teaching reading and writing of grade 2 Braille on both a Braille writer and a "slate and stylus"; and

b. Knowledge of other codes, including Nemeth, foreign language code, music code, and computer Braille.

7. Understanding of anatomy, physiology, and diseases of the eye and the educational implications.

8. Understanding principles and how to instruct in human guide techniques and pre-cane orientation and mobility instruction.

9. Understanding of the standards of professionalism, including ethical and professional practice.

10. Completion of supervised classroom experiences at the elementary and secondary levels with students who have visual impairments, to include those with blindness and low vision, and with individuals who may have additional disabilities.

11. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

12. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-480. Special education deaf and hard of hearing preK-12.

The program in special education deaf and hard of hearing preK-12 is designed to ensure through course work and field experiences in a variety of settings that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the characteristics of individuals with disabilities, including the following:

a. Developmental and cognitive characteristics of children and youth with disabilities;

b. Characteristics of individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing, including sociocultural influences and possible health-related or genetically-related problems; and

c. Foundations of the education and culture of persons who are deaf or hard of hearing.

2. Understanding of the foundation of the legal aspects associated with students with disabilities and students who are deaf or hard of hearing including:

a. Legislative and judicial mandates related to education and special education;

b. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Americans with Disabilities Act;

c. Legal decisions related to persons with disabilities;

d. Current regulations and procedures governing special education, including individualized education program (IEP) development, individualized family service plan (IFSP), and transition services; and

e. Disciplinary practices, policies, and procedures and alternative placements and programs in schools.

3. Understanding of the foundation of assessment and evaluation with an emphasis on individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing, including:

a. Administering, scoring, and interpreting assessments, including norm-referenced, criterion-referenced, and curriculum-based individual and group assessments;

b. Interpreting assessment results for eligibility, placement, and to inform instruction (i.e., linking assessment results to classroom interventions);

c. Techniques to collect, record, and analyze information from observing students;

d. Data-based decision-making skills using assessment data to inform diagnostic instruction;

e. Techniques for recognizing capacity and diversity and its influence on student assessment and evaluation.

4. Understanding of service delivery, classroom and behavior management, and instruction, including:

a. The application of current research in practice;

b. Classroom organization and curriculum development;

c. Curriculum adaptations and accommodations;

d. The development of language and literacy skills;

e. The use of technology to promote student learning;

f. Classroom and behavior management, including behavior support systems and individual planning;

g. Evidence-based strategies and procedures for teaching persons who are deaf or hard of hearing;

h. Instructional programming and modifications of curriculum to facilitate inclusion of students with disabilities into the continuum of programs and services with peers without disabilities;

i. Strategies to promote successful socialization of students who are deaf or hard of hearing with their hearing peers; and

j. Career and vocational skill development of individuals with disabilities, including persons who are deaf or hard of hearing and who may have additional needs.

5. Skills in consultation, case management, and collaboration, including:

a. Coordinating service delivery with other professionals in collaborative work environments;

b. Training, managing, and monitoring paraprofessionals;

c. Implementation of collaborative models, including collaborative consultation, co-teaching, and student intervention teams;

d. Involving families in the education of their children with disabilities; and

e. Cooperating with community agencies and resources.

6. Understanding of speech, hearing, and language development, including:

a. Speech, hearing, and language development and the effects of sensory loss and cultural diversity on typical language development;

b. How to promote development of listening and spoken language skills in children who are deaf or hard of hearing: how to promote development of American Sign Language skills in children who are deaf or hard of hearing;

c. Anatomy of speech structures, auditory and visual mechanisms, production, transmission, and psychophysical characteristics of sound; and

d. General and specific effects of having partial or no hearing on production and reception of speech and on English language development.

7. Understanding of audiology, including:

a. Diagnostic evaluation, testing procedures, and interpreting audiology reports to inform instruction in and expectations for development of listening and spoken language skills; and

b. Characteristics of individual, group amplification and assistive listening devices (e.g., cochlear implant systems, hearing aids, FM systems, sound field systems, etc.) with emphasis on utilization in educational environments.

8. Understanding of communication modalities to include various modalities of communication, including cued speech, speech reading, listening, signed language, and spoken language.

9. Demonstrated proficiency in expressive and receptive sign language, to include American Sign Language and contact varieties.

10. Understanding of the standards for professionalism.

11. Completion of supervised classroom experiences at the elementary and secondary levels with students who are deaf or hard of hearing, including those with additional disabilities.

12. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

13. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-490. Special education early childhood (birth through age five).

The program in special education early childhood (birth through age five) is designed to ensure through course work and field experiences in a variety of settings that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the nature and characteristics of major disabling and at-risk conditions, including:

a. Trends for service delivery to the birth-through-age-five population;

b. An overview of early intervention and early childhood special education;

c. Historical perspective of special education; and

d. Awareness of the issues surrounding cultural and linguistic diversity.

2. Understanding of the foundation of the legal aspects associated with students with disabilities, including:

a. Legislative and judicial mandates related to education and special education;

b. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Americans with Disabilities Act;

c. Legal decisions related to persons with disabilities;

d. Current regulations and procedures governing special education to include individualized education program (IEP) development and individualized family service plan (IFSP); and

e. Disciplinary practices, policies, and procedures and alternative placements and programs in schools.

3. Knowledge of the selection, administration, and interpretation of formal and informal assessment techniques for young children with disabling and at-risk conditions and their families, including:

a. Eligibility and diagnosis of disabling and at-risk conditions;

b. Progress monitoring for growth compared to same age, typically developing peers and functioning in environments where same age peers would normally attend (to include, but not be limited to, settings that the families choose);

c. Program development and improvement; and

d. Curriculum-based assessments for instructional planning.

4. Understanding of the methods for providing instructional programs for early intervention, including:

a. Service delivery options;

b. Development of individualized education programs (IEPs) and individualized family service plans (IFSPs);

c. Curriculum development and implementation to ensure developmentally appropriate intervention techniques in the areas of self-help, motor, cognitive, social and emotional, and language; and

d. Service delivery to support success and functionality in all settings where same age, typically developing peers would be located.

5. Understanding of teaching social and emotional skills to assist with behavior management and the application of principles of learning and child development to individual and group management using a variety of techniques that are appropriate to the age of that child.

6. Understanding of speech and language development and intervention methods, including the effects of disabling and at-risk conditions on young children, including:

a. Developmental stages of language acquisition;

b. Cultural and linguistic diversity;

c. English language learner language acquisition; and

d. Use of language to get needs and wants met and for social interaction.

7. Understanding of and experiences with the medical aspects of young children with disabling and at-risk conditions and the management of neuro-developmental and motor disabilities, including:

a. Emergency care and the role of health care professionals in the lives of individuals with disabilities; and

b. Use and effects of medications.

8. Skills in consultation, case management, collaboration, coaching, mentoring, and co-teaching, including techniques in working with children, families, educators, related service providers, and other human service professionals that include:

a. Service coordination;

b. Interagency coordination;

c. Inclusive practices;

d. Transition facilitation; and

e. Training, managing, and monitoring paraprofessionals.

9. Understanding of the theories and techniques of family-centered intervention, including:

a. Cultural and linguistic differences influences; and

b. Family issues.

10. Understanding of the standards of professionalism.

11. Completion of supervised experiences at the early childhood level in a variety of settings, including but not limited to early intervention, home-based, school-based, and community-based settings.

12. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

13. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-500. Special education general curriculum K-12.

A. The program in special education is designed to ensure through course work and field experiences in a variety of settings that the candidate has demonstrated the core competencies in this section to prepare children and youth for participation in the general education curriculum and within the community to the maximum extent possible. The candidate also shall complete the competencies in at least one of the endorsement areas of Special Education General Curriculum K-12, in addition to those required under professional studies in 8VAC40-543-140, including reading and language acquisition.

1. Foundations - Characteristics, legal, and medical aspects.

a. Knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities, including:

(1) Historical perspectives, models, theories, philosophies, and trends that provide the basis for special education practice;

(2) Characteristics of children and youth with disabilities relative to age, varying levels of severity, and developmental differences manifested in cognitive, linguistic, physical, psychomotor, social, or emotional functioning;

(3) Normal patterns of development (i.e., physical, psychomotor, cognitive, linguistic, social, or emotional development) and their relationship to the various disabilities;

(4) Medical aspects of disabilities;

(5) The dynamic influence of the family system and cultural and environmental milieu and related issues pertinent to the education of students with disabilities;

(6) Educational implications of the various disabilities; and

(7) Understanding of ethical issues and the practice of accepted standards of professional behavior.

b. An understanding and application of the legal aspects, regulatory requirements, and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities, including:

(1) Legislative and judicial mandates related to education and special education (e.g., the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the Americans with Disabilities Act, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, etc.);

(2) Current regulations governing special education (e.g., individualized education program (IEP) development; disciplinary practices, policies, and procedures; and alternative placements and programs in schools); and

(3) Rights and responsibilities of parents, students, teachers, and schools as they relate to individuals with disabilities and disability issues.

2. Assessments and evaluation.

An understanding and application of the foundation of assessment and evaluation related to best special education practice, including:

a. Ethical issues and responsibilities in the assessment of individuals with disabilities;

b. Procedures for screening, pre-referral, referral, and eligibility determinations;

c. Factors that may influence assessment findings such as cultural, behavioral, and learning diversity;

d. A general knowledge of measurement theory and practice, including validity, reliability, norming, bias, sensitivity, and specificity;

e. Administration, scoring, and interpretation of commonly used individual and group instruments, including norm-referenced, criterion-referenced, and curriculum-based measures as well as task analysis, observation, portfolio, and environmental assessments;

f. Synthesis and interpretation of assessment findings for eligibility, program planning, and program evaluation decisions; and

g. Knowledge of the Virginia Accountability System, assessment options, and procedures for participation for students with disabilities.

3. Management of instruction and behavior.

An understanding and application of classroom and behavior management techniques and individual interventions, including techniques that:

a. Promote emotional well-being and teach and maintain behavioral conduct and skills consistent with norms, standards, and rules of the educational environment;

b. Address diverse approaches to classroom organization and set-up based upon behavioral, cognitive, affective, social, and ecological theory and practice;

c. Provide positive behavioral supports; and

d. Are based on functional assessment of behavior.

4. Collaboration.

a. Skills in consultation, case management, and collaboration, including coordination of service delivery with related service providers, general educators, and other professions in collaborative work environments to include:

(1) Understanding the Standards of Learning, the structure of the curriculum, and accountability systems across K-12;

(2) Understanding and assessing the organization and environment of general education classrooms across the K-12 setting;

(3) Implementation of collaborative models, including collaborative consultation, co-teaching with co-planning, and student intervention teams;

(4) Procedures to collaboratively develop, provide, and evaluate instructional and behavioral plans consistent with students' individual needs;

(5) Understanding the roles and responsibilities of each member of the collaborative team; and

(6) Knowledge and application of effective communication strategies and culturally responsive strategies with a variety of stakeholders in the collaborative environment;

b. Training, managing, and monitoring paraprofessionals;

c. Involvement of families in the education of their children with disabilities;

d. Understanding the standards of professionalism;

e. Cooperating with community agencies and other resource providers; and

f. Models and strategies for promoting students' self-advocacy skills.

B. The program in special education general curriculum K-12 shall ensure through coursework and field experiences in a variety of settings that the candidate seeking endorsement in special education general curriculum K-12 has the special education core competencies and the specific competency requirements specified in this section.

1. Characteristics.

a. Demonstrate knowledge of definitions, characteristics, and learning and behavioral support needs of students with disabilities whose cognitive and functional skills are not significantly different from typically developing peers and therefore require access to the general education curriculum for an appropriate education, including but not limited to, students with:

(1) Autism spectrum disorder;

(2) Deaf-blindness;

(3) Developmental delay;

(4) Emotional disability;

(5) Hearing impairment (or deaf and hard of hearing);

(6) Intellectual disability;

(7) Learning disability;

(8) Multiple disabilities;

(9) Orthopedic impairment;

(10) Other health impairment;

(11) Speech-language impairment;

(12) Traumatic brain injury; and/or

(13) Visual impairment (including blindness).

b. Knowledge of characteristics shall include:

(1) Age-span and developmental issues;

(2) Levels of severity;

(3) Cognitive functioning;

(4) Language development;

(5) Emotional and behavioral adjustment;

(6) Social development;

(7) Medical aspects; and

(8) Cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic factors.

2. Individualized education program development and implementation.

a. Demonstrate knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements for IEP development, including timelines, components, team composition, roles, and responsibilities.

b. Apply knowledge of content standards, assessment, and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to:

(1) Construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques, such as task analysis, observation, portfolio assessment, and other curriculum-based measures;

(2) Make decisions about student progress, instruction, program, accommodations, placement, teaching methodology, and transition services and activities for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and the Virginia Standards of Learning; and

(3) Develop an individualized education program (IEP) that addresses the academic and functional needs of the student with disabilities in the general education curriculum and meets regulatory requirements.

3. Instructional strategies for reading and writing.

An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities, including:

a. Curriculum development that includes a scope and sequence, lesson plans, instructional methods, and assessments that are based on the general education curriculum standards of learning at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels;

b. Foundational knowledge of reading and writing that includes an understanding of the complex nature of language acquisition and reading (reading competencies in professional studies requirements). Skills in this area include: phonemic awareness, an understanding of sound and symbol relationships, explicit phonics instruction, syllables, phonemes, morphemes, decoding skills, word attack skills, and knowledge of how phonics, syntax, and semantics interact. Additional skills shall include proficiency in a wide variety of comprehension, vocabulary, and writing strategies, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of literature, independent reading, and reading and writing across content areas;

c. Alternative ways to teach content material including curriculum adaptation and curriculum modifications;

d. Procedures to develop, provide, and evaluate instruction consistent with students' individual needs;

e. Strategies to promote successful integration of students with disabilities with their nondisabled peers;

f. Use of technology to promote student learning;

g. Structure and organization of general education classrooms and other instructional settings representing the continuum of special education services, to include field experiences; and

h. Demonstrate the ability to implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels, including the ability to:

(1) Identify and apply differentiated instructional methodologies including systematic instruction, multisensory approaches, learning cognitive strategies, study skills, diverse learning styles, and technology use;

(2) Teach skills and remediate deficits in academic areas at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels;

(3) Provide explicit instruction of reading and writing at appropriate developmental and grade level in a systematic and cumulative manner to students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum;

(4) Promote the potential and capacity of individual students to meet high academic, behavioral, and social expectations;

(5) Design alternative ways to teach content material including modifying curriculum in both directive and nondirective methodologies;

(6) Use assistive and instructional technology in order to access the general education curriculum;

(7) Implement and evaluate group management techniques and individual interventions that teach and maintain emotional, behavioral, and social skills; and

(8) Implement and monitor IEP specified accommodations within the general education classroom.

4. Instructional strategies for mathematics.

An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities, including:

a. Curriculum development that includes a scope and sequence, lesson plans, instructional methods, and assessments that are based on the general education curriculum standards of learning at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels;

b. Foundational knowledge of the complex nature of numeracy acquisition and nature of mathematics including mathematical concepts, mathematical thinking, mathematics vocabulary, calculation, and problem-solving;

c. Alternative ways to teach content material including curriculum adaptation and curriculum modifications;

d. Procedures to develop, provide, and evaluate instruction consistent with students' individual needs;

e. Strategies to promote successful integration of students with disabilities with their nondisabled peers;

f. Use of technology to promote student learning;

g. Structure and organization of general education classrooms and other instructional settings representing the continuum of special education services, to include field experiences;

h. Demonstrate the ability to implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels, including the ability to:

(1) Identify and apply differentiated instructional methodologies including systematic instruction, multisensory approaches, learning cognitive strategies, study skills, diverse learning styles, and technology use;

(2) Teach skills and remediate deficits in academic areas at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels;

(3) Provide explicit instruction in mathematics at appropriate developmental and grade level in a systematic and cumulative manner to students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum;

(4) Promote the potential and capacity of individual students to meet high academic, behavioral, and social expectations;

(5) Design alternative ways to teach content material including modifying curriculum in both directive and nondirective methodologies;

(6) Use assistive and instructional technology in order to access the general education curriculum;

(7) Implement and evaluate group management techniques and individual interventions that teach and maintain emotional, behavioral, and social skills; and

(8) Implement and monitor IEP specified accommodations within the general education classroom.

5. Transitioning.

Demonstrate the ability to prepare students and work with families to provide successful student transitions throughout the educational experience to include postsecondary education, training, employment, and independent living that addresses an understanding of long-term planning, transition assessments, career development, life skills, community experiences and resources, self-advocacy, and self-determination, guardianship, and legal considerations.

a. Skills in consultation, case management, and collaboration for students with varying degrees of disability severity;

(1) Coordinate service delivery with general educators, related service providers, and other providers;

(2) Awareness of community resources agencies and strategies to interface with community agencies when developing and planning IEPs;

(3) Knowledge of related services and accommodations that pertain to postsecondary transitions that increase student access to postsecondary education and community resources;

(4) Ability to coordinate and facilitate meetings involving parents, students, outside agencies, and administrators.

b. Understand the difference between entitlement and eligibility for agency services as students move to the adult world including a basic understanding of Social Security Income benefits planning, work incentive, Medicaid, and community independent living.

c. Recognize uses of technology and seek out technology at postsecondary settings that shall aid the student in their education, work, and independent living.

d. Recognize and plan for individual student potential and their capacity to meet high academic, behavioral, and social expectations and the impact of academic and social success on personal development:

(1) Knowledge of person-centered planning strategies to promote student involvement in planning; and

(2) Knowledge of generic skills that lead to success in school, work, and community, including time management, preparedness, social interactions, and communication skills.

e. Understand social skill development and the unique social skills deficits and challenges associated with disabilities:

(1) Assess social skill strengths and needs; and

(2) Plan and use specialized social skills strategies.

f. Knowledge of use and implementation of vocational assessments to encourage and support students' self-advocacy and self-determination skills.

g. Knowledge of graduation requirements, diploma options, and legal issues surrounding age of majority and guardianship.

6. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

C. Completion of supervised classroom experiences with students with disabilities and the general curriculum K-12.

8VAC20-543-510. Special education – general curriculum elementary education K-6 (add-on endorsement).

The program in special education - general curriculum elementary education K-6 (add-on endorsement) shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with an endorsement in elementary education (early/primary education preK-3/elementary education preK-6) issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies. The candidate must:

1. Hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with an endorsement in elementary education (early/primary education preK-3/elementary education preK-6);

2. Have completed competencies in the education of students with disabilities distributed in each of the following areas:

a. Foundations. Characteristics that include knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include an understanding and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

b. Individualized education program (IEP) development and implementation.

(1) Knowledge of the eligibility process, legal, and regulatory requirements of IEP development including timelines, components, team composition, roles, and responsibilities.

(2) Skills in this area include the ability to apply knowledge of assessment and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques; to make decisions about student progress, instructional, program, goal development, accommodations, placement, and teaching methodology for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and the standards of learning; and to demonstrate the use of assessment, evaluation, and other information to develop and implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels.

c. Assessment and evaluation.

(1) Understanding and application of the foundation of assessment and evaluation related to best practice in special education; including types and characteristics of assessment, introduction to formal and informal assessment, and use of assessments and other information to determine special education eligibility, service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities.

(2) Understanding of the current legal and ethical issues related to assessment selection and use, including comprehensive evaluation requirements, students with disabilities participation in the state and local accountability systems, assessment options, appropriate grading and testing accommodations, and assessment of students from diverse backgrounds.

d. Instructional strategies in reading and writing.

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in reading and writing.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum, English requirements, and expectations, and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified reading needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in reading and writing instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge and ability to utilize current assistive and instructional reading and writing technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized reading and writing assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as it relates to the curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach reading and writing instructional strategies in a variety of settings and collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the general curriculum and monitor student progress.

e. Instructional strategies in mathematics.

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in mathematics.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum mathematics requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address calculations, reasoning, and problem-solving skills. Skills in this area include the ability to understand and use a range of specialized mathematics instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in mathematics instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge of and ability to utilize current mathematics related assistive and instructional technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized mathematics assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as related to the mathematics curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach mathematics instructional strategies in a variety of settings and collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the mathematics general curriculum and monitor student progress.

3. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-520. Special education – general curriculum middle education grades 6-8 (add-on endorsement).

The program in special education - general curriculum middle education grades 6-8 (add-on endorsement) shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with an endorsement in middle education (middle education 6-8 English, middle education 6-8 history and social sciences, middle education 6-8 mathematics, or middle education 6-8 sciences) issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies. The candidate must:

1. Hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with an endorsement in middle education (middle education 6-8 English, middle education 6-8 history and social sciences, middle education 6-8 mathematics, or middle education 6-8 sciences).

2. Have completed competencies in the education of students with disabilities distributed in each of the following areas:

a. Foundations. Characteristics that include knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include an understanding and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

b. Individualized education program (IEP) development and implementation. Knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements of IEP development including timelines, components, team composition, roles, and responsibilities. Skills in this area include the ability to apply knowledge of assessment and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques; to make decisions about student progress, instructional, program, goal development, accommodations, placement, and teaching methodology for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and the standards of learning; and to demonstrate the use of assessment, evaluation, and other information to develop and implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels.

c. Transitioning. Skills in this area include the ability to prepare students and work with families and community agencies to provide successful student transitions throughout the educational experience to include postsecondary education training, employment, and independent living which addresses an understanding of long-term planning, career development, life skills, community experiences and resources, self-advocacy, and self-determination, guardianship, and legal considerations.

d. Instructional strategies in reading and writing.

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in reading and writing.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum, English requirements and expectations, and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified reading needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in reading and writing instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge and ability to utilize current assistive and instructional reading and writing technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized reading and writing assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as related to the curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach reading and writing instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

e. Instructional strategies in mathematics.

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in mathematics.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum mathematics requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address calculations, reasoning, and problem-solving skills. Skills in this area include the ability to understand and use a range of specialized mathematics instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in mathematics instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge of and ability to utilize current mathematics related assistive and instructional technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized mathematics assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as it relates to the mathematics curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach mathematics instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the mathematics general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

3. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-530. Special education – general curriculum secondary education grades 6-12 (add-on endorsement).

The program in special education - general curriculum secondary education grades 6-12 (add-on endorsement) shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with an endorsement in English, history and social sciences, mathematics, biology, chemistry, Earth science, or physics issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies. The candidate must:

1. Hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with an endorsement in English, history and social sciences, mathematics, biology, chemistry, Earth science, or physics.

2. Have completed competencies in the education of students with disabilities distributed in each of the following areas:

a. Foundations. Characteristics that include knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include an understanding and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

b. Individualized education program development and implementation. Knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements of IEP development including timelines, components, team composition, roles, and responsibilities. Skills in this area include the ability to apply knowledge of assessment and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques; to make decisions about student progress, instructional, program, goal development, accommodations, placement, and teaching methodology for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and the standards of learning; and to demonstrate the use of assessment, evaluation, and other information to develop and implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels.

c. Transitioning. Skills in this area include the ability to prepare students and work with families and community agencies to provide successful student transitions throughout the educational experience to include postsecondary education training, employment, and independent living which addresses an understanding of long-term planning, career development, life skills, community experiences and resources, self-advocacy, and self-determination, guardianship, and legal considerations.

d. Instructional strategies in reading and writing.

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in reading and writing.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum, English requirements and expectations, and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified reading needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in reading and writing instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge and ability to utilize current assistive and instructional reading and writing technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized reading and writing assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as related to the curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach reading and writing instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

e. Instructional strategies in mathematics.

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in mathematics.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum mathematics requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address calculations, reasoning, and problem-solving skills. Skills in this area include the ability to understand and use a range of specialized mathematics instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in mathematics instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge of and ability to utilize current mathematics related assistive and instructional technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized mathematics assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as it relates to the mathematics curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach mathematics instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the mathematics general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

3. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-540. Speech communication (add-on endorsement).

The program in speech communication shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding and knowledge of oral communication, including language acquisition involving the processes of expressive and receptive language and voice production involving the aesthetics of speech;

2. Understanding and knowledge of common speech production patterns, including articulation, pronunciation, and dialectical variances as these relate to standard English patterns;

3. Understanding the components of effective messages, including appropriate use of language, voice and diction, and nonverbal elements;

4. Understanding of and proficiency in effective communication, including interpersonal communication, small group communication, skills contributing to effective listening, the art of persuasion, oral interpretation, group discussion, mass communication, public speaking, and debate, verbal and nonverbal messages, and the ability to critique such communication interactions;

5. Understanding media, digital, and visual literacy and the skills to evaluate and utilize these literacies in presentations;

6. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

7. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes;

8. Skills necessary to teach research including ethical accessing, evaluating, organizing, crediting, and synthesizing information as needed for speech communication; and

9. Knowledge of the Computer Technology Standards of Learning and their integration into Speech Communication.

8VAC20-543-550. Theatre arts preK-12.

The program in theatre arts preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the theatre arts discipline as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning and how these provide a necessary foundation integral to teaching theatre arts.

2. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching theatre arts to the developmental levels and academic needs of students in preK-12, including the following:

a. Experience in planning, developing, administering, and evaluating a program of theatre arts education;

b. Knowledge and understanding for teaching theatre arts, including performance and production; theatre history and cultural context; analysis, evaluation, and critique; and aesthetics;

c. Directing;

d. Technical theatre, including lighting, set design, stage craft, costuming, makeup, and safety;

e. Performance, including acting and acting styles;

f. Dramatic literature;

g. The relationship of theatre and culture and the influence of theatre on past and present culture;

h. Knowledge and understanding of technological and artistic copyright laws;

i. Knowledge and understanding of classroom management and safety, including performance and studio;

k. Knowledge of instructional and assessment strategies to foster, support, and enhance student theatre arts learning;

l. Knowledge of related areas of theatre arts, such as art, dance arts, music, and the visual arts;

m. Knowledge and understanding of technology, with applications for instruction, resources, artistic expression, administration, assessment, and communication;

n. Knowledge and understanding of appropriate and sensitive attention to diversity and cultural understanding; and

o. Observation and student teaching experiences at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels.

3. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-560. Visual arts preK-12.

The program in visual arts preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the visual arts discipline as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning, and how they provide a necessary foundation for teaching the visual arts;

2. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching art appropriate to the developmental levels and academic needs of students in preK-12 including the following areas:

a. Knowledge and experience in planning, developing, administering, and evaluating a program of visual arts education;

b. Two-dimensional media and concepts: basic and complex techniques and concepts in two-dimensional design, drawing, painting, printmaking, computer graphics, and other electronic imagery;

c. Three-dimensional media and concepts: basic and complex techniques and concepts in three-dimensional design, sculpture, ceramics, fiber arts, crafts, and computer and other electronic imagery;

d. Knowledge and understanding for teaching the visual arts, including visual communication and production, art history and cultural context, analysis, evaluation and critique, and aesthetics;

e. The relationship of visual arts and culture and the influence of visual arts on past and present cultures;

f. Related areas of visual arts, such as architecture, dance arts, music, theatre arts, photography, and other expressive arts;

g. Knowledge and understanding of technological and artistic copyright laws;

h. Knowledge and understanding of classroom management and safety, including use of toxic art material in various aspects of studio and classroom work;

i. Knowledge of a variety of instructional and assessment strategies to foster, support, and enhance student visual arts learning;

j. Knowledge and understanding of technology, with applications for instruction, resources, artistic expression, administration, assessment, and communication;

k. Knowledge and understanding of appropriate and sensitive attention to diversity and cultural understanding; and

l. Observation and student teaching experiences at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels.

3. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

Article 4
Administration and Supervision and Support Personnel

8VAC20-543-570. Administration and supervision preK-12.

A. The program in administration and supervision preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge, understanding, and application of planning, assessment, and instructional leadership that builds collective professional capacity, including;

a. Principles of student motivation, growth, and development as a foundation for age-appropriate and grade-appropriate curriculum, instruction, and assessment;

b. Collaborative leadership in gathering and analyzing data to identify needs to develop and implement a school improvement plan that results in increased student learning;

c. Planning, implementation, and refinement of standards-based curriculum aligned with instruction and assessment;

d. Collaborative planning and implementation of a variety of assessment techniques, including examination of student work, that yield individual, class, grade level, and school level data as a foundation for identifying existing competencies and targeting areas in need of further attention;

e. Incorporation of differentiated and effective instruction that responds to individual learner needs including appropriate response to cultural, ethnic, and linguistic diversity;

f. Knowledge, understanding, and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements, and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities;

g. Collaboratively working with parents and school personnel to ensure that students with disabilities are included as a valued part of the school community, and that they receive effective and appropriately intensive instruction to assist them in meeting the standards set for all students as well as individual goals outlined in their individualized education plans (IEPs);

h. Integration of technology in curriculum and instruction to enhance learner understanding;

i. Identification, analysis, and resolution of problems using effective problem-solving techniques; and

j. Development, articulation, implementation, and stewardship of a vision of excellence linked to mission and core beliefs that promote continuous improvement consistent with the goals of the school division.

2. Knowledge, understanding, and application of leadership and organizations, including;

a. The change process of systems, organizations, and individuals using appropriate and effective adult learning models;

b. Aligning organizational practice, division mission, and core beliefs for developing and implementing strategic plans;

c. Information sources and processing, including data collection and data analysis strategies;

d. Using data as a part of ongoing program evaluation to inform and lead change;

e. Developing a change management strategy for improved student outcomes;

f. Developing distributed leadership strategies to create personalized learning environments for diverse schools; and

g. Effective two-way communication skills including consensus building, negotiation, and mediation skills.

3. Knowledge, understanding, and application of management and leadership skills that achieve effective and efficient organizational operations and sustain an instructional program conducive to student academic progress, including;

a. Alignment of curriculum and instruction and assessment of the educational program to achieve high academic success at the school and division or district level;

b. Principles and issues of supervising and leading others to ensure a working and learning climate that is safe, secure, and respectful of a diverse school community;

c. Management decisions that ensure successful teaching and learning including human resources management and development, theories of motivation, change in school culture, innovation and creativity, conflict resolution, adult learning, and professional development models;

d. Knowledge, understanding, and application of Virginia's Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachers and the Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Principals;

e. Principles and issues related to fiscal operations of school management;

f. Principles and issues related to school facilities and use of space and time for supporting high-quality school instruction and student learning;

g. Legal issues impacting school operations and management;

h. Technologies that support management functions; and

i. Application of data-driven decision-making to initiate and continue improvement in school and classroom practices and student achievement.

4. Knowledge, understanding, and application of the conditions and dynamics impacting a diverse school community, including:

a. Emerging issues and trends within school and community relations;

b. Working collaboratively with staff, families, and community members to secure resources and to support the success of a diverse population;

c. Developing appropriate public relations and public engagement strategies and processes for building and sustaining positive relationships with families, caregivers, and community partners; and

d. Integration of technology to support communication efforts.

5. Knowledge, understanding, and application of the purpose of education and the role of professionalism in advancing educational goals, including:

a. Philosophy of education that reflects commitment to principles of honesty, fairness, caring, and equity in day-to-day professional behavior;

b. Integration of high quality, content rich, job-embedded professional learning that respects the contribution of all faculty and staff members in building a diverse professional learning community;

c. Reflective understanding of potential moral and legal consequences of decision-making in the school setting;

d. Intentional and purposeful effort to model professional, moral, and ethical standards as well as personal integrity in all interactions; and

e. Intentional and purposeful effort to model continuous professional learning and to work collegially and collaboratively with all members of the school community to support the school's goals and enhance its collective capacity.

6. Knowledge, understanding, and application of basic leadership theories and influences that impact schools including:

a. Concepts of leadership including systems theory, change theory, learning organizations, and current leadership theory;

b. Identify and respond to internal and external forces and influences on a school;

c. Identify and apply the processes of educational policy development at the state, local, and school level; and

d. Identify and demonstrate ways to influence educational policy development at the state, local, and school level.

B. Complete a deliberately structured and supervised internship that is focused on student academic progress for all students and

1. Provides significant experiences within a school environment for candidates to synthesize and apply the content knowledge and develop professional skills through school-based leadership experiences;

2. Shall occur in a public or accredited nonpublic school;

3. Provides exposure to five different multiple sites (elementary, middle, high, central office, and agency) with diverse student populations; and

4. Documents a minimum of 320 clock hours, of which at least 120 clock hours are embedded as experiential field-based opportunities experienced during coursework.

C. Satisfy the requirements for the school leaders licensure assessment prescribed by the Board of Education. Individuals seeking an initial administration and supervision endorsement who are interested in serving as central office instructional personnel are not required to take and pass the school leaders assessment prescribed by the Board of Education.

8VAC20-543-580. Mathematics specialist for elementary education.

A. A mathematics specialist is a teacher in the elementary grades who has interest and special preparation in mathematics content, scientifically based research in the teaching and learning of mathematics, diagnostic and assessment methods, and leadership skills. The school-based mathematics specialist shall serve as a resource in professional development, instructing children who have learning difficulties in mathematics, curriculum development and implementation, mentoring new teachers, and parent and community education.

B. The mathematics specialist program shall ensure that the candidate has completed at least three years of successful classroom teaching experience in which the teaching of mathematics was an important responsibility and demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the Virginia Mathematics Standards of Learning and how curriculum may be organized to teach these standards to diverse learners;

2. Understanding of a core knowledge base of concepts and procedures within the discipline of mathematics, including the following strands: number systems and number theory; geometry and measurement; statistics and probability; and functions and algebra;

3. Understanding of the sequential nature of mathematics, the vertical progression of mathematical standards, and the mathematical structures inherent in the content strands;

4. Understanding of the connections among mathematical concepts and procedures and their practical applications;

5. Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - becoming mathematical problem-solvers, reasoning mathematically, communicating mathematically, making mathematical connections, and using mathematical models and representations - at different levels of complexity;

6. Understanding of major current curriculum studies and trends in mathematics;

7. Understanding how to utilize appropriate technologies for teaching and learning mathematics including virtual manipulatives;

8. Understanding of and the ability to select, adapt, evaluate, and use instructional materials and resources, including professional journals and technology;

9. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies for managing, assessing, and monitoring student learning, including diagnosing student errors;

10. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies to teach mathematics to diverse learners;

11. Understanding of leadership skills needed to improve mathematics programs at the school and division levels, including the needs of high-achieving and low-achieving students and of strategies to challenge them at appropriate levels; child psychology, including personality and learning behaviors; educational measurement and evaluation; and effective professional development approaches;

12. Understanding of how to develop and lead appropriate professional development based on the needs of students and the school community;

13. Understanding of how to work with school-based administration for the improvement of mathematics teaching and learning;

14. Understanding of how to effectively mentor teachers for the improvement of mathematics teaching and learning;

15. Understanding of how to effectively work with parents and the at-large community to improve mathematics teaching and learning;

16. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing; and

17. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-590. Mathematics specialist for middle education.

A. A mathematics specialist is a teacher in the middle grades who has interest and special preparation in mathematics content, scientifically-based research in the teaching and learning of mathematics, diagnostic and assessment methods, and leadership skills. The school-based mathematics specialist shall serve as a resource in professional development, instructing children who have learning difficulties in mathematics, curriculum development and implementation, mentoring new teachers, and parent and community education.

B. The mathematics specialist program shall ensure that the candidate has completed at least three years of successful classroom teaching experience in which the teaching of mathematics was an important responsibility and demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the Virginia Mathematics Standards of Learning and how curriculum may be organized to teach these standards to diverse learners;

2. Understanding of a core knowledge base of concepts and procedures within the discipline of mathematics, including the following strands: number systems and number theory; geometry and measurement; statistics and probability; and functions and algebra;

3. Understanding of the sequential nature of mathematics, the vertical progression of mathematical standards, and the mathematical structures inherent in the content strands;

4. Understanding of the connections among mathematical concepts and procedures and their practical applications;

5. Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - becoming mathematical problem-solvers, reasoning mathematically, communicating mathematically, making mathematical connections, and using mathematical models and representations - at different levels of complexity;

6. Understanding of major current curriculum studies and trends in mathematics;

7. Understanding how to utilize appropriate technologies for teaching and learning mathematics, including graphing utilities, dynamic software, spreadsheets, and virtual manipulatives;

8. Understanding of and the ability to select, adapt, evaluate, and use instructional materials and resources, including professional journals and technology;

9. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies for managing, assessing, and monitoring student learning, including diagnosing student errors;

10. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies to teach mathematics to diverse learners;

11. Understanding of leadership skills needed to improve mathematics programs at the school and division levels, including the needs of high-achieving and low-achieving students and of strategies to challenge them at appropriate levels; child psychology, including personality and learning behaviors; educational measurement and evaluation; and effective professional development approaches;

12. Understanding of how to develop and lead appropriate professional development based on the needs of students and the school community;

13. Understanding of how to work with school-based administration for the improvement of mathematics teaching and learning;

14. Understanding of how to effectively mentor teachers for the improvement of mathematics teaching and learning;

15. Understanding of how to effectively work with parents and the at-large community to improve mathematics teaching and learning;

16. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing; and

17. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-600. Reading specialist.

The reading specialist program shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Assessment and diagnostic teaching. The candidate shall:

a. Demonstrate expertise in the use of formal and informal screening, diagnostic, and progress monitoring assessment for language proficiency, concepts of print, phonemic awareness, letter recognition, decoding, fluency, vocabulary, reading levels, and comprehension; and

b. Demonstrate expertise in the ability to use diagnostic data to inform instruction for acceleration, intervention, remediation, and differentiation.

2. Communication: speaking, listening, media literacy. The candidate shall:

a. Demonstrate expertise in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching communication, (speaking, listening, and media literacy);

b. Demonstrate expertise in developing students' phonological awareness skills;

c. Demonstrate effective strategies for facilitating the learning of standard English by speakers of other languages and dialects;

d. Demonstrate an understanding of the unique needs of students with language differences and delays;

e. Demonstrate the ability to promote creative thinking and expression, such as through storytelling, drama, and choral and oral reading, etc.; and

f. Demonstrate the ability to teach students to identify the characteristics of, and apply critical thinking to, media messages and to facilitate their proficiency in using various forms of media to collaborate and communicate.

3. Reading. The candidate shall:

a. Demonstrate expertise in explicit and systematic phonics instruction, including an understanding of sound and symbol relationships, syllables, phonemes, morphemes, decoding skills, word analysis, and word attack skills;

b. Demonstrate expertise in the morphology of English including inflections, prefixes, suffixes, roots, and word relationships;

c. Demonstrate expertise in strategies to increase vocabulary;

d. Demonstrate expertise in the structure of the English language, including and understanding of syntax, semantics, and vocabulary development;

e. Demonstrate expertise in reading comprehension strategies, including a repertoire of questioning strategies, understanding the dimensions of word meanings, teaching predicting, inferencing, summarizing, clarifying, evaluating, and making connections;

f. Demonstrate expertise in the ability to teach strategies in literal, interpretive, critical, and evaluative comprehension;

g. Demonstrate the ability to develop comprehension skills in all content areas;

h. Demonstrate the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of literature; and

i. Understand the importance of promoting independent reading and reading strategically through a variety of means including by selecting fiction and nonfiction texts of appropriate yet engaging topics and reading levels; and

j. Demonstrate effective strategies for teaching students to view, interpret, analyze, and represent information and concepts in visual form with or without the spoken or written word.

4. Writing. The candidate shall:

a. Demonstrate expertise in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching writing, including the domains of composing and written expression and usage and mechanics and the writing process of planning, drafting, revising, editing, and sharing;

b. Demonstrate expertise in systematic spelling instruction, including awareness of the purpose and limitations of "invented spelling," orthographic patterns, and strategies for promoting generalization of spelling study to writing; and

c. Demonstrate expertise to teach the writing process: plan, draft, revise, edit, and share in the narrative, descriptive, and explanative modes.

5. Technology. The candidate shall demonstrate expertise in their use of technology for both process and product as they work to guide students with reading, writing, and research.

6. Leadership, coaching, and specialization. The candidate shall:

a. Demonstrate an understanding of developmental psychology, including personality and learning behaviors;

b. Demonstrate an understanding of the needs of high achieving students and of strategies to challenge them at appropriate levels;

c. Demonstrate an understanding of the significance of cultural contexts upon language;

d. Demonstrate an understanding of varying degrees of learning disabilities;

e. Demonstrate expertise with educational measurement and evaluation including validity, reliability, and normative comparisons in test design and selections;

f. Demonstrate expertise to interpret grade equivalents, percentile ranks, normal curve equivalents, and standards scores;

g. Demonstrate the ability to instruct and advise teachers in the skills necessary to differentiate reading instruction for both low and high achieving readers;

h. Demonstrate the ability to coach and support teachers through classroom observations, demonstrations, co-teaching, and other forms of job-embedded professional development;

i. Demonstrate the ability to organize and supervise the reading program within the classroom, school, or division;

j. Demonstrate effective communication skills in working with a variety of groups, including parents, teachers, administrators, community leaders, etc.;

k. Demonstrate knowledge of current research and exemplary practices in English and reading;

l. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing; and

m. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-610. School counselor preK-12.

The school counselor preK-12 program shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. The ability to support students by cooperatively working with parents and guardians and teachers.

2. Understanding of the principles and theories of human growth and development throughout the lifespan and their implications for school counseling.

3. Understanding of the social and cultural foundations of education and their implications for school counseling programs.

4. Understanding of lifespan career development.

5. Understanding of the skills and processes for counseling students to include:

a. Individual and group counseling for academic development;

b. Individual and group counseling for career development; and

c. Individual and group counseling for personal and social development.

6. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for providing developmental group guidance, including:

a. Academic development;

b. Career development; and

c. Personal and social development.

7. Understanding of the skills and processes related to the school counseling program at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels, including:

a. Characteristics of learners at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels;

b. Program planning;

c. Coordination; and

d. Consultation.

8. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of student appraisal and assessment relative to school guidance and counseling programs, including:

a. Individual assessment; and

b. Group assessment.

9. Understanding of the school counseling professional, including:

a. Legal considerations;

b. Ethical considerations; and

c. Professional issues and standards.

10. Understanding of the skills and processes of research and evaluation aimed at improving school counseling programs.

11. Understanding work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship,

12. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

13. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

14. The program shall include at least 100 clock hours of internship and practicum experience in the preK-6 setting and 100 clock hours of internship and practicum experience in the grades 7-12 setting.

8VAC20-543-620. School psychology.

The school psychology program shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge of basic teaching and learning principles and the conditions under which they operate maximally (academic environment and instructional match).

2. Knowledge and application of psychological foundations of human functioning including biological bases of behavior; cultural diversity; infant, child, and adolescent development; effects of poverty and lack of opportunity on learning; interplay between behavior, learning and motivation; personality theory; human learning; and social bases of behavior and mental health, to ensure student academic achievement, student growth and development, and mental health.

3. Knowledge of and skill at applying educational foundations of schooling, including education of exceptional learners; evidence-based instructional and remedial interventions, techniques, and strategies; formative and summative evaluation; evidence-based behavioral interventions; and organization and operations of schools, to ensure effective collaboration with other school professionals toward implementing school practices that promote learning and mental health.

4. Knowledge of various methods for assessing students' cognitive processes and abilities and skill in administering a variety of such methods; knowledge of various methods for assessing student academic strengths and weaknesses and skill in administering a variety of such methods; knowledge of various methods for assessing student interpersonal emotional and social and behavioral functioning and skill in administering a variety of such methods; and knowledge of universal screening measures designed for early and tiered academic and behavioral intervention. Knowledge of a variety of progress monitoring tools, especially student growth percentiles and skill in implementing at least two such tools.

5. Understanding and knowledge of direct and indirect methods of academic and behavioral intervention, and proficiency in delivering such interventions including:

a. Counseling on an individual, group, and family basis;

b. Consulting with administrators, teachers, parents, and other professionals about student problems and appropriate change strategies;

c. Designing and implementing individual and group behavior change programs; designing, implementing, and evaluating crisis intervention and threat (self-directed and other-directed) assessment programs; and

d. Designing and implementing academic and instructional interventions.

6. Statistics and research design, measurement, and program evaluation.

7. The profession of psychology applied to schools, including:

a. Basic knowledge of the standards of practice promoted by the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP);

b. Knowledge of and skill with several basic problem-solving schemes;

c. Knowledge of and ability to identify the variety of mental health problems exhibited by infants, children, and adolescents through age 21, including the ability to collaborate with other community-based professionals and private practitioners in providing wraparound services to the extent possible (systems of care philosophy);

d. History and foundations of school psychology;

e. Legal and ethical issues of practicing in schools;

f. Professional issues and standards related to practicing as a psychologist in a public school setting; and

g. Knowledge of the roles of all individuals practicing and working in a public school setting.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

9. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

10. The candidate shall have earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 60 graduate hours, 54 of which are academic coursework, exclusive of field-based experiences, that culminate in at least a master's degree.

11. The candidate shall complete an internship that is documented by the degree granting institution. The internship experience shall occur on a full-time basis over a period of one year or on a half-time basis over a period of two consecutive years. The internship shall occur under conditions of appropriate supervision (i.e., the school-based supervisor shall be licensed as either a school or clinical psychologist). The internship shall include experiences at multiple age levels, at least one half of which shall be in an accredited schooling setting.

8VAC20-543-630. School social worker.

The school social worker program shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for direct and indirect intervention, including:

a. Facilitating integrated intervention efforts that emphasize primary prevention, early screening, and multi-tiered interventions that target multiple risk factors in various settings;

b. Identifying approaches that seek to improve individual and system factors contributing to academic success and data-informed decision making and intervention fidelity;

c. Counseling on an individual, group, or family basis;

d. Consulting with administrators, teachers, parents, and other professionals about student problems and appropriate change strategies;

e. Networking and brokering with school programs and community agencies to provide essential services for families and children; and

f. Skills in collaborating with and facilitating collaboration among students, parents, members, administrators, teachers, and staff to identify ways to intervene early, reduce barriers to learning, and improve student outcomes.

2. Understanding of child development, psychopathology, social and environmental conditioning, cultural diversity, and family systems including:

a. Acknowledgment of the interrelatedness of various ecological systems such as education, juvenile justice, family and children's health, mental health, and child protective services; and

b. Knowledge of social problem impact on student performance and behaviors.

3. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for effective casework practice:

a. Examine factors in home, school, and community that impact students' educational performance and success; and

b. Assist in reducing identified barriers to learning.

4. Specialized knowledge and understanding of the organization and operations of school systems including:

a. Historical and current perspectives of public school education at the local, state, and national levels, including educational reform and legislation; and

b. Identifying and conveying the impact social problems, within ecological systems of home, school, and community, have on student performance in the educational setting.

5. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes involved with assessing and programming for exceptional students including:

a. Skills in implementing systematic assessment, data gathering and interpretation at multiple levels, and developing action plans to address the areas of need;

b. Identifying and utilizing research-based interventions to enhance the educational opportunities and school performance of vulnerable and at-risk populations;

c. Providing leadership in developing prevention programs and policies with administrators that impact school climate, student learning, and academic success; and

d. Ability to facilitate team decision-making and problem-solving strategies.

6. Understanding of the school social work profession, including:

a. History and foundations of school social work;

b. Legal and ethical issues;

c. Professional issues and standards; and

d. The role and function of the school social worker to include contextual variables influencing school social work roles and functions (e.g., political, legal, ethical, and value-based issues) that confront schools.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

9. The candidate shall have earned a master's of social work degree from a regionally accredited college or university school of social work with a minimum of 60 graduate semester hours.

10. The candidate shall complete a minimum of six graduate semester hours in education to include six semester hours from two of the following courses:

a. The teaching profession (3 semester hours);

b. Characteristics of special education (3 semester hours);

c. Human development and learning (3 semester hours); or

d. Classroom and behavior management (3 semester hours).

11. The candidate shall complete a supervised practicum or field experience of a minimum of 400 clock hours in a public or accredited nonpublic school discharging the duties of a school social worker. One year of successful, full-time experience as a school social worker in a public or accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the school social work practicum.

8VAC20-543-640. Vocational evaluator.

The vocational evaluator program shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the foundations of vocational evaluation and career assessment, including philosophy and process of vocational evaluation and assessment, use of occupational and labor market information, and functional aspects of physical, mental and intellectual disabilities.

2. Understanding of the basic concepts and skills of planning for and delivering vocational evaluation and career assessment services, including the use of vocational interviewing, individualized service planning, report development and communication, and use of modifications and accommodations.

3. Ability to modify standard instruments and to develop new instruments to respond to labor markets or individual needs.

4. Understanding of the federal and state laws and regulations pertaining to special education (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), rehabilitation (Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act.)

5. Understanding of the content, processes, and skills necessary to administer and report findings of standardized testing, including knowledge of tests and measurements and selection and use of appropriate instruments.

6. Above average communication skills in order to explain assessment information to school personnel, parents, students, and other service providers

7. Understanding of natural supports and assistive technology.

8. Ability to select, administer, and interpret a wide assortment of evaluation instruments which includes commercial work sample systems, and situational assessments.

9. Understanding and knowledge of specific assessment techniques and skills and the processes for conducting vocational evaluation and career assessment, including:

a. Job and training analysis;

b. Work samples and systems;

c. Situational and community-based assessment;

d. Behavioral observation;

e. Learning and functional skills assessment; and

f. Work site assessment (ecological assessment).

10. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

11. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

NOTICE: The following form used in administering the regulation was filed by the agency. The form is not being published; however, online users of this issue of the Virginia Register of Regulations may click on the name of the form with a hyperlink to access it. The form is also available from the agency contact or may be viewed at the Office of the Registrar of Regulations, General Assembly Building, 2nd Floor, Richmond, Virginia 23219.

FORMS (8VAC20-543)

Request for New Education Program Endorsement Area (undated)

VA.R. Doc. No. R13-3477; Filed July 27, 2015, 12:31 p.m.
TITLE 9. ENVIRONMENT
STATE WATER CONTROL BOARD
Final Regulation

Title of Regulation: 9VAC25-91. Facility and Aboveground Storage Tank (AST) Regulation (amending 9VAC25-91-10 through 9VAC25-91-70, 9VAC25-91-100, 9VAC25-91-120 through 9VAC25-91-180, 9VAC25-91-200, 9VAC25-91-220; adding 9VAC25-91-145; repealing 9VAC25-91-90).

Statutory Authority: §§ 62.1-44.15, 62.1-44.34:15, 62.1-44.34:15.1, and 62.1-44.34:19.1 of the Code of Virginia.

Effective Date: November 1, 2015.

Agency Contact: Melissa Porterfield, Department of Environmental Quality, 629 East Main Street, P.O. Box 1105, Richmond, VA 23218, telephone (804) 698-4238, FAX (804) 698-4346, or email melissa.porterfield@deq.virginia.gov.

Summary:

The amendments (i) incorporate new performance standards for certain aboveground storage tanks located in the City of Fairfax as mandated by Chapter 884 of the 2011 Acts of Assembly, (ii) clarify the applicability of the regulations, (iii) remove the requirement for the payment of registration fees, and (iv) reorganize 9VAC25-91-130 to make the pollution prevention regulations easier to understand.

Summary of Public Comments and Agency's Response: A summary of comments made by the public and the agency's response may be obtained from the promulgating agency or viewed at the office of the Registrar of Regulations.

Part I
Program Administration

9VAC25-91-10. Definitions.

The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the following meanings, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Aboveground storage tank" or "AST" means any one or combination of tanks, including pipes, used to contain an accumulation of oil at atmospheric pressure, and the volume of which, including the volume of the pipes, is more than 90% above the surface of the ground. This term does not include line pipe and breakout tanks of an interstate pipeline regulated under the federal Accountable Pipeline Safety and Partnership Act of 1996 (49 USC § 60101 et seq.).

"Board" means the State Water Control Board.

"Containment and cleanup" means abatement, containment, removal and disposal of oil and, to the extent possible, the restoration of the environment to its existing state prior to an oil discharge.

"Corrosion professional" means a person who by reason of thorough knowledge of the physical sciences and the principles of engineering and mathematics acquired by a professional education and related practical experience is qualified to engage in the practice of corrosion control on buried or submerged metal piping systems and metal tanks. Such a person shall be accredited or certified as being qualified by the National Association of Corrosion Engineers or be a registered professional engineer who has certification or licensing that includes education and experience in corrosion control of buried or submerged metal piping systems and metal tanks.

"Department" means the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ).

"Discharge" means any spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, or dumping.

"Elevated tank" means an AST that is not in contact with the ground and that is raised above the surface of the ground.

"Facility" means any development or installation within the Commonwealth that deals in, stores or handles oil and includes a pipeline.

"Flow-through process tank" means (as defined in 40 CFR Part 280) a tank that forms an integral part of a production process through which there is a steady, variable, recurring, or intermittent flow of materials during the operation of the process. Flow-through process tanks do not include tanks used for the storage of materials prior to their introduction into the production process or for the storage of finished products or by-products from the production process.

"Local building official" means the person authorized by the Commonwealth to enforce the provisions of the Uniform Statewide Building Code (USBC).

"Local director or coordinator of emergency services" means any person appointed pursuant to § 44-146.19 of the Code of Virginia.

"Major repair" means alterations that refer to operations that require cutting, additions, removal or replacement of the annular plate ring, the shell-to-bottom weld or a sizable portion of the AST shell.

"Oil" means oil of any kind and in any form, including, but not limited to, petroleum and petroleum by-products, fuel oil, lubricating oils, sludge, oil refuse, oil mixed with other wastes, crude oils, and all other liquid hydrocarbons regardless of specific gravity.

"Operator" means any person who owns, operates, charters by demise, rents, or otherwise exercises control over or responsibility for a facility or a vehicle or a vessel.

"Person" means an individual; trust; firm; joint stock company; corporation, including a government corporation; partnership; association; any state or agency thereof; municipality; county; town; commission; political subdivision of a state; any interstate body; consortium; joint venture; commercial entity; the government of the United States or any unit or agency thereof.

"Pipes" or "piping" means a pressure-tight cylinder used to convey a fluid or to transmit a fluid pressure and is ordinarily designated "pipe" in applicable material specifications. Materials designated "tube" or "tubing" in the specifications are treated as pipe when intended for pressure service. This term includes piping and associated piping which is utilized in the operation of an AST, or emanating from or feeding ASTs or transfers oil from or to an AST (e.g., dispensing systems, including airport hydrant fueling systems, supply systems, gauging systems, auxiliary systems, etc.). This term does not include line pipe and breakout tanks of an interstate pipeline regulated under the federal Accountable Pipeline Safety and Partnership Act of 1996 (49 USC § 60101 et seq.).

"Pipeline" means all new and existing pipe, rights of way, and any equipment, facility, or building used in the transportation of oil, including, but not limited to, line pipe, valves, and other appurtenances connected to line pipe; pumping units; fabricated assemblies associated with pumping units; metering and delivery stations and fabricated assemblies therein; and breakout tanks.

"Release prevention barrier (RPB)" means a nonearthen barrier that is impermeable; is composed of material compatible with oil stored in the AST; meets proper engineering strength and elasticity standards; and functions to prevent the discharge of stored oil to state lands, waters and storm drains. It must contain and channel any leaked oil in a manner that provides for early release detection through the required daily and weekly inspections.

"State waters" means all water, on the surface and under the ground, wholly or partially within or bordering the Commonwealth or within its jurisdiction.

"Storage capacity" means the total capacity of an AST or a container, whether filled in whole or in part with oil, a mixture of oil, or mixtures of oil with nonhazardous substances, or empty. An AST that has been permanently closed in accordance with this chapter has no storage capacity.

"Tank" means a device designed to contain an accumulation of oil and constructed of nonearthen materials, such as concrete, steel, or plastic, that provides structural support. This term does not include flow-through process tanks as defined in 40 CFR Part 280.

"Tank vessel" means any vessel used in the transportation of oil as bulk cargo.

"Upgrade" means an alteration of the performance, design, equipment or appurtenances of an AST or facility to meet a higher, new, or current standard.

"Vaulted tank" means any tank situated upon or above the surface of the floor in an underground area (such as an underground room, basement, cellar, mine-working, drift, shaft, tunnel or vault) providing enough space for physical inspection of the exterior of the tank.

"Vehicle" means any motor vehicle, rolling stock, or other artificial contrivance for transport whether self-propelled or otherwise, except vessels.

"Vessel" includes every description of watercraft or other contrivance used as a means of transporting on water, whether self-propelled or otherwise, and shall include barges and tugs.

9VAC25-91-20. Applicability.

A. The operator shall comply with all applicable requirements pursuant to this chapter. The operator as defined in this chapter can be more than one person and each operator shares joint responsibility for compliance.

B. The requirements of this chapter may vary in their applicability to any given AST or facility depending on the part in which the requirement appears. The applicability of Parts II, III, IV, and V are differentiated apply as follows:

1. The provisions of Part II (9VAC25-91-100 et seq., Registration, Notification and Closure Requirements) of this chapter apply to: (i) an individual AST located within the Commonwealth of Virginia with an aboveground storage capacity greater than 660 gallons of oil, unless otherwise specified within this chapter; and (ii) all facilities in the Commonwealth of Virginia with an aggregate aboveground storage capacity greater than 1,320 gallons of oil, unless otherwise specified within this chapter. Storage of oil that is excluded from regulation in 9VAC25-91-30 A is not included when calculating the aggregate aboveground storage capacity.

2. The provisions of Part III (9VAC25-91-130 et seq., Pollution Prevention Requirements) of this chapter apply to: (i) an individual AST located within the Commonwealth of Virginia with an aboveground storage capacity of 25,000 gallons or greater of oil, unless otherwise specified within this chapter; and (ii) all facilities in the Commonwealth of Virginia with an aggregate aboveground storage capacity of 25,000 gallons or greater of oil, unless otherwise specified within this chapter. Storage of oil that is excluded from regulation in 9VAC25-91-30 A is not included when calculating the aggregate aboveground storage capacity.

3. The provisions of Part IV (9VAC25-91-170, Oil Discharge Contingency Plan (ODCP) Requirements) of this chapter apply to: (i) an individual AST located within the Commonwealth of Virginia with an aboveground storage capacity of 25,000 gallons or greater of oil, unless otherwise specified within this chapter; and (ii) all facilities in the Commonwealth of Virginia with an aggregate aboveground storage capacity of 25,000 gallons or greater of oil, unless otherwise specified within this chapter. Storage of oil that is excluded from regulation in 9VAC25-91-30 A is not included when calculating the aggregate aboveground storage capacity.

4. The provisions of Part V (9VAC25-91-180 et seq., Groundwater Characterization Study (GCS) and GCS Well Monitoring Requirements) of this chapter apply to: (i) an individual AST located within the Commonwealth of Virginia with an aboveground storage capacity of one million gallons or greater of oil, unless otherwise specified within this regulation; and (ii) all facilities in the Commonwealth of Virginia with an aggregate aboveground storage capacity of one million gallons or greater of oil, unless otherwise specified within this chapter. Storage of oil that is excluded from regulation in 9VAC25-91-30 A is not included when calculating the aggregate aboveground storage capacity.

9VAC25-91-30. Exclusions.

A. The requirements of this chapter do not apply to:

1. Vessels;

2. Licensed motor vehicles, unless used solely for the storage of oil [ (e.g., airport refueling trucks and mobile refueling vehicles) ];

3. An AST with a storage capacity of 660 gallons or less of oil;

4. An AST containing petroleum, including crude oil or any fraction thereof, which is liquid at standard temperature and pressure (60°F at 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute) subject to and specifically listed or designated as a hazardous substance under subparagraphs (A) through (F) of § 101(14) of the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (42 USC § 9601 et seq.);

5. A wastewater treatment tank system that is part of a wastewater treatment facility regulated under § 402 or § 307(b) of the federal Clean Water Act (33 USC § 1251 et seq.);

6. An AST that is regulated by the Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy under Chapter 22.1 (§ 45.1-361.1 et seq.) of Title 45.1 of the Code of Virginia;

7. An AST used for the storage of products that are regulated pursuant to the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 USC § 301 et seq.);

8. An AST that is used to store hazardous wastes listed or identified under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Solid Waste Disposal Act) (42 USC § 6901 et seq.), or a mixture of such hazardous wastes and other regulated substances;

9. An AST that is used to store propane gas, butane gas or other liquid petroleum gases;

10. An AST used to store nonpetroleum hydrocarbon-based animal and vegetable oils;

11. A liquid trap or associated gathering lines directly related to oil or gas production, or gathering operations;

12. A surface impoundment, pit, pond, or lagoon;

13. A stormwater or wastewater collection system;

14. Equipment or machinery that contains oil for operational purposes, including but not limited to lubricating systems, hydraulic systems, and heat transfer systems;

15. An AST that forms an integral part (cannot be readily detached or removed) of the equipment or machinery and the contents of the AST are solely used by the attached equipment or machinery (e.g., fuel tank affixed into the frame of an emergency generator);

15. 16. An AST used to contain oil for less than 120 days when: (i) used in connection with activities related to the containment and cleanup of oil; (ii) used by a federal, state or local entity in responding to an emergency; emergency, including response related drills; or (iii) used temporarily on-site to replace permanent capacity storage;

16. 17. Oil-filled electrical equipment, including, but not limited to, transformers, circuit breakers or capacitors;

17. 18. A flow-through process tank;

18. 19. Oily water separators;

19. 20. An AST containing dredge spoils;

20. 21. An AST located on a farm or residence used for storing motor fuel for noncommercial purposes with an aggregate a storage capacity of 1,100 gallons or less; or

21. 22. Pipes or piping beyond the first valve from the AST that connects an AST with production process tanks or production process equipment.

B. In addition to the complete exclusions listed in subsection A of this section, the following are partially excluded from this chapter in that they need not comply with the requirements contained in Part III (9VAC25-91-130 et seq., Pollution Prevention Requirements) of this chapter:

1. An AST with a capacity of 5,000 gallons or less used for storing heating oil for consumptive use on the premises where stored;

2. An AST storing asphalt and asphalt compounds which are not liquid at standard conditions of temperature and pressure (60°F at 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute); and

3. Line pipe and breakout tanks of an interstate pipeline regulated under the federal Accountable Pipeline Safety and Partnership Act of 1996 (49 USC § 60101 et seq.).

C. In addition to the exclusions listed in subsections A and B of this section, asphalt Asphalt and asphalt compounds which that are not liquid at standard conditions of temperature and pressure (60°F at 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute) are excluded for the purposes of from any requirement to install groundwater monitoring wells or groundwater protection devices or to conduct groundwater characterization studies under Part IV (9VAC25-91-170, Oil Discharge Contingency Plan (ODCP) Requirements) and Part V (9VAC25-91-180 et seq., Groundwater Characterization Study (GCS) and GCS Well Monitoring Requirements) of this chapter.

9VAC25-91-40. Compliance dates.

A. Every operator shall comply with this chapter on its effective date unless a later date is otherwise specified.

B. Operators of facilities existing on June 24, 1998, and exempted under § 62.1-44.34:17 D of the Code of Virginia (i.e., facilities not engaged in the resale of oil) having an aboveground storage capacity of 25,000 gallons or greater of oil shall comply must have complied with Part III (9VAC25-91-130 et seq., Pollution Prevention Requirements) of this chapter within 120 days after the effective date of this chapter on or before October 22, 1998, unless otherwise specified in this chapter. If compliance with Part III of this chapter necessitates extensive upgrades to the existing facility design, these exempted operators may submit shall have submitted a proposed extended compliance schedule and supporting explanation to the board no later than 90 days after the effective date of this chapter. The board may approve an extended compliance schedule where the circumstances so warrant September 22, 1998, or such date approved by the board.

C. Operators of existing ASTs and facilities existing prior to June 24, 1998, and previously registered in accordance with the requirements of § 62.1-44.34:19.1 of the Code of Virginia shall not have to resubmit the registration form until five years from the date of the initial registration unless title to that AST or facility is transferred (i.e., change of ownership) or the AST is converted or brought back into use after permanent closure, whichever occurs first.

D. Operators of facilities subject to Part IV (9VAC25-91-170, Oil Discharge Contingency Plan (ODCP) Requirements) of this chapter that are were brought into use on or after the effective date of this chapter June 24, 1998, shall submit a complete application meeting all applicable requirements of this chapter no later than 90 days prior to commencement of operations.

1. The operator must receive approval of the ODCP by DEQ the board prior to commencement of facility operations.

2. The operators of facilities that have previously met the provisions of § 62.1-44.34:15 of the Code of Virginia for ODCP submittal shall not be required to resubmit the ODCP until 90 days prior to the date that plan's approval expires. Ninety days prior to the expiration of approval of the ODCP, the facility operator shall submit an updated plan or certification of renewal of an existing plan according to 9VAC25-91-170 F.

E. As of July 1, 1997, an An operator having obtained approval of the ODCP shall operate, maintain, monitor, and keep records pertaining to 9VAC25-91-170 A 18 of Part IV (9VAC25-91-170, Oil Discharge Contingency Plan (ODCP) Requirements) of this chapter and under the provisions of Part III (9VAC25-91-130 et seq., Pollution Prevention Requirements) of this chapter.

9VAC25-91-50. Statement of purpose.

The purpose of this chapter is to: (i) establish requirements for registration of facilities and individual ASTs located within the Commonwealth; (ii) provide the board with the information necessary to identify and inventory facilities with an aggregate storage capacity of greater than 1,320 gallons of oil or an individual ASTs AST with a storage capacity of greater than 660 gallons of oil; (iii) develop standards and procedures for operators of facilities with an aggregate aboveground storage capacity of 25,000 gallons or greater of oil relating to the prevention of pollution from new and existing aboveground storage tanks; (iv) provide requirements for the development of facility oil discharge contingency plans for facilities with an aggregate aboveground storage capacity of 25,000 gallons or greater of oil that will ensure that the applicant can take such steps as are necessary to protect environmentally sensitive areas, to respond to the threat of an oil discharge, and to contain, clean up and mitigate an oil discharge within the shortest feasible time, where plans must address concerns for the effect of oil discharges on the environment as well as considerations of public health and safety; and (v) provide requirements for facilities and individual ASTs with an aggregate aboveground storage capacity of one million gallons or greater of oil to conduct a groundwater characterization study (GCS) within the geographic boundaries of a facility; to submit the GCS as part of the oil discharge contingency plan; to conduct a monthly gauging and inspection of GCS monitoring wells, monitoring of well headspace and sampling and laboratory analysis of GCS monitoring wells; and to gather all observations and data maintained at the facility and compile and submit them as an annual report to the board department.

9VAC25-91-60. Administrative fees.

A. Fees are assessed for review of oil discharge contingency plans and for registration of an AST or a facility according to the schedules contained in subsections B and C of this section. A registration form or an (ODCP). An application for review of a contingency plan will not be accepted unless the required fee has been received by the department.

1. Fees shall be paid in United States currency by check, draft, or postal money order made payable to the Treasurer of Virginia. When the department is able to accept electronic payments, payments may be submitted electronically.

2. The fee, together with the form or application and oil discharge contingency plan, shall be sent to the department at the following mailing address:

Department of Environmental Quality

Office of Financial Management

P.O. Box 10150 1104

Richmond, VA 23240 23218

3. Notifications and correspondence for which a fee is not applicable should be mailed to the department as specified in 9VAC25-91-70.

B. Facility and AST registration.

1. Registration fees shall be submitted for the following:

a. Initial registration;

b. New installations;

c. Conversion (i.e., UST to an AST, storing a nonoil to an oil product, etc.);

d. AST brought back into use after permanent closure;

e. Registration renewal (every five years); or

f. When title to a facility or AST is transferred (change of ownership).

2. Registration fees are as follows:

a. An individual AST (new, existing, replaced or brought back into use after permanent closure) = $25;

b. One facility with one AST = $25;

c. One facility with two or more ASTs = $50;

d. Two facilities with one AST at each facility = $50;

e. Two facilities with one AST at the first facility and two or more at the other = $75;

f. Two or more facilities with two or more ASTs each = $100;

g. Three facilities with one AST each = $75; or

h. Three facilities with two or more ASTs at the first facility and one AST at each other facility = $100.

3. An operator of an AST subject to the registration requirements of this chapter shall submit a fee of $25 to the board for each such AST up to a maximum of $50 per facility. An operator of a single facility shall submit a maximum of $50 for the facility and all ASTs. An operator of multiple facilities shall submit a maximum fee of $100 to the board to register all of their facilities and ASTs.

4. Registration forms will not be accepted by the board as complete unless the applicable fee has been paid. No fee is required for a "notification" of an AST replacement (i.e., relocation of existing AST), upgrade, repair, or closure.

C. B. ODCP application.

1. ODCP application fees are as follows:

a. For a facility with an aggregate aboveground maximum storage or handling capacity from 25,000 gallons up to and including 100,000 gallons of oil the fee is $718;

b. For a facility with an aggregate aboveground maximum storage or handling capacity from 100,001 greater than 100,000 gallons up to one million gallons of oil the fee is $2,155;

c. For a facility with an aggregate aboveground maximum storage or handling capacity of one million gallons or greater of oil the fee is $3,353; or

d. For a pipeline, the ODCP application fee shall be based on the average daily throughput of oil. Once that volume is determined, the ODCP application fee will be calculated per subdivisions a, b and c of this subdivision.

2. The fee for approval of a contingency plan encompassing more than one facility as described in 9VAC25-91-170 D shall be based on the aggregate aboveground storage capacity of the facilities.

3. Fees shall only be paid upon initial submittal of an oil discharge contingency plan by an operator. Renewals, additions, deletions or changes to the plan are not subject to the administrative fee.

4. Application fees are refundable upon receipt of a written request to withdraw the ODCP application provided the request is received no later than 30 days after submittal and prior to the department's review of the contingency plan.

5. Overpayments of application fees are refundable upon written request.

9VAC25-91-70. Notices Correspondence to the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ).

A. Correspondence that contains fees must be submitted to the department as specified in 9VAC25-91-60 A.

B. All other written correspondence and notifications to the Department of Environmental Quality department related to the requirements of this chapter, with the exceptions of (i) the correspondence which contains fees and therefore must be paid directly to the Treasurer of Virginia as specified in 9VAC25-91-60 A and (ii) variance petitions as specified in 9VAC25-91-160 shall be addressed to the cognizant DEQ regional office servicing the facility that is the subject of the correspondence. A list of regional offices and their addresses are available from the central office at the following address:

Mailing Address:

Department of Environmental Quality

Office of Spill Response and Remediation

P.O. Box 10009 1105

Richmond, VA 23240-0009 23218

Street Address:

Department of Environmental Quality

Office of Spill Response and Remediation

629 E. Main Street

Richmond, VA 23219

9VAC25-91-90. Evaluation of chapter. (Repealed.)

A. Within three years after the effective date of this chapter, the department shall perform an analysis on this chapter and provide the board with a report on the results. The analysis shall include (i) the purpose and need for the chapter; (ii) alternatives which would achieve the stated purpose of this chapter in a less burdensome and less intrusive manner; (iii) an assessment of the effectiveness of this chapter; (iv) the results of a review of current state and federal statutory and regulatory requirements, including identification and justification of requirements of this chapter which are more stringent than federal requirements; and (v) the results of a review as to whether this chapter is clearly written and easily understandable by affected entities.

B. Upon review of the department's analysis, the board shall confirm the need to (i) continue this chapter with