REGULATIONS
Vol. 34 Iss. 24 - July 23, 2018

TITLE 2. AGRICULTURE
BOARD OF AGRICULTURE AND CONSUMER SERVICES
Proposed Regulation

Title of Regulation: 2VAC5-675. Regulations Governing Pesticide Fees Charged by the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (amending 2VAC5-675-20 through 2VAC5-675-50).

Statutory Authority: § 3.2-3906 of the Code Virginia.

Public Hearing Information:

July 24, 2018 - 3 p.m. - Rural Retreat Depot, 105 West Railroad Avenue, Rural Retreat, VA 24368

Public Comment Deadline: September 21, 2018.

Agency Contact: Liza Fleeson Trossbach, Program Manager, Office of Pesticide Services, Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, P.O. Box 1163, Richmond, VA 23218, telephone (804) 371-6559, FAX (804) 371-2283, TTY (800) 828-1120, or email liza.fleeson@vdacs.virginia.gov.

Basis: Section 3.2-109 of the Code of Virginia establishes the Board of Agriculture and Consumer Services as a policy board with the authority to adopt regulations in accordance with the provisions of Title 3.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Subdivision 7 of § 3.2-3906 of the Code of Virginia authorizes the board to adopt regulations establishing a fee structure for licensure, registration, and certification to defray the costs of implementing the Virginia Pesticide Control Act.

Purpose: The format and a large portion of the content of 2VAC5-675, Regulations Governing the Pesticide Fees Charged by the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, were first implemented in July 1990. The regulations were amended in September 1994 and March 2009 and renumbered in October 2012 following the merger of the former Pesticide Control Board with the Board of Agriculture and Consumer Services. The current certification fees for pesticide applicators and licensing fees for pesticide businesses have been in place since 1990. The current pesticide product registration fee has been in place since 1999.

The agency has determined that current fees do not provide adequate funding for pesticide-related services. The fees prescribed in 2VAC5-675 are utilized to operate the agency's pesticide programs, which protect human health and the environment by ensuring the proper use of pesticides used to control pests that adversely affect crops, structures, health, and domestic animals. Program activities include the certification of approximately 21,000 pesticide applicators, licensing of approximately 3,000 pesticide businesses, registration of approximately 15,000 pesticide products, and the conduct of routine inspections and investigations.  In order to ensure compliance with all applicable laws and regulations related to the use of pesticides, it is imperative that fees provide adequate funding for these services.

Substance: The substantive changes include an increase to certification fees for commercial pesticide applicators and registered technicians, an increase to licensure fees for pesticide businesses, and an increase in registration fees for pesticide products. The proposed amendments to the regulation will:

Increase the annual product registration fee from $160 per year to $225 per year;

Increase the certification fee for commercial applicators from $70 every two years to $100 every two years;

Increase the certification fee for registered technicians from $30 every two years to $50 every two years; and

Increase the annual pesticide business license fee from $50 per year to $150 per year.

Issues: The proposed regulatory action is advantageous to the public and the regulated industry, as the amended fee structure will ensure the continuation of program services, which protect human health and the environment by ensuring the proper use of pesticides used to control pests that adversely affect crops, structures, health, and domestic animals. While increasing fees, these actions do not add any additional regulatory requirements to pesticide applicators, pesticide businesses, or registrants of pesticide products. There are no disadvantages to the public or the Commonwealth.

Department of Planning and Budget's Economic Impact Analysis:

Summary of the Proposed Amendments to Regulation. The Board of Agriculture and Consumer Services (Board) proposes fee increases for commercial pesticide applicator certification, registered technician certification, pesticide business licensure, and pesticide product registration to reflect actual costs of program implementation.

Result of Analysis. The benefits likely exceed the costs for all proposed changes.

Estimated Economic Impact.

Background: Pesticides are used for the control of pests that adversely affect crops, structures, human health, and domestic animals. Given the risk associated with the application of pesticides to both human health and the environment, the use of pesticides is highly regulated at the federal and state level. The Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services' (VDACS) pesticide programs protect human health and the environment by ensuring the proper use of pesticides. These programs include the certification of pesticide applicators, the licensing of pesticide businesses, the registration of pesticide products, and inspections and investigations to ensure compliance with all applicable laws and regulations.

Proposed Fee Increases: VDACS collects fees to fund its activities. The current certification fees for pesticide applicators and licensing fees for pesticide businesses have not been updated since 1990. The current pesticide product registration fee has not been updated since 1999. Given inflation, particularly for personal services and information technology, current fees do not provide adequate funding for the pesticide programs. Consequently, the Board proposes to raise registration, certification, and licensing fees as described in the following table.

 

Current Fee

Proposed Fee

Pesticide product registration fee

$160

$225

Commercial applicator certificate fee (initial)

$70

$100

Commercial applicator certificate fee (biennial renewal)

$70

$100

Commercial applicator reexamination fee

$70

$100

Registered technician certificate fee (initial)

$30

$50

Registered technician certificate fee (biennial renewal)

$30

$50

Registered technician reexamination fee

$30

$50

Pesticide business licensing fee (annual)

$50

$150

The fee increases for the affected firms and individuals are relatively moderate. Given the likely benefit of protection of human health and the environment through the continuance of the pesticide programs, the benefit of the proposed amendments likely exceeds the cost.

Businesses and Entities Affected. The proposed amendments affect the approximate 3,000 licensed pesticide businesses, 18,000 certified applicators, including commercial applicators and registered technicians, and 1,550 registrants of pesticide products. The vast majority of the licensed pesticide businesses and employers of certified applicators are likely small businesses.1

Localities Particularly Affected. The proposed amendments do not disproportionately affect particular localities.

Projected Impact on Employment. The proposed amendments do not significantly affect employment.

Effects on the Use and Value of Private Property. The proposed amendments do not significantly affect the use and value of private property.

Real Estate Development Costs. The proposed amendments do not significantly affect real estate development costs.

Small Businesses:

Definition. Pursuant to § 2.2-4007.04 of the Code of Virginia, small business is defined as "a business entity, including its affiliates, that (i) is independently owned and operated and (ii) employs fewer than 500 full-time employees or has gross annual sales of less than $6 million."

Costs and Other Effects. The proposed amendments moderately increase costs for small firms that distribute, store, sell, recommend for use, mix, or apply pesticides.

Alternative Method that Minimizes Adverse Impact. Not raising fees could potentially put the pesticide programs in jeopardy. There are no clear alternatives that minimize the adverse impact on small firms while maintaining the pesticide programs.

Adverse Impacts: 

Businesses. The proposed amendments moderately increase costs for firms that distribute, store, sell, recommend for use, mix, or apply pesticides.

Localities. The proposed amendments do not adversely affect localities.

Other Entities. The proposed amendment does not adversely affect other entities.

__________________

1Data sources: Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services

Agency's Response to Economic Impact Analysis: The agency concurs with the analysis of the Department of Planning and Budget.

Summary:

The proposed amendments adjust the current fee structure for licensure, registration, and certification to reflect actual costs of program implementation and include a fee increase for commercial pesticide applicator certification, registered technician certification, pesticide business licensure, and pesticide product registration.

Part II
Fees

2VAC5-675-20. Pesticide product registration fee; registration of new pesticide products; renewal of pesticide product registration.

A. Every pesticide product which is to be manufactured, distributed, sold, offered for sale, used, or offered for use within the Commonwealth shall be registered with the commissioner. The fee for registering each brand shall be $160 $225. If a brand has more than one grade, each grade shall be registered, not the brand at the registration fee then in effect. The registration for a new pesticide product shall be effective upon receipt by the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services of the application form accompanied by the required registration fee.

B. All pesticide product registrations shall expire on December 31 of each year unless canceled or otherwise terminated for cause. A registration not canceled or otherwise terminated for cause will be renewed upon receipt of the annual registration fee as set forth in subsection A of this section accompanied by the application renewal form. A registration that has been canceled or otherwise terminated for cause prior to December 31 may be resubmitted as a new registration when the conditions resulting in the cancellation or termination have been resolved. The registration of each brand or grade shall be renewed with the commissioner prior to December 31 of each year. If the registration is not renewed prior to December 31 of each year, the commissioner shall assess a late fee of 20% that shall be added to the registration fee. The late fee shall apply to all renewal registrations submitted to the department any time during the 12-month period following the expiration of the registration. Registrants who permit a registration to lapse for more than one year shall thereafter register the product as a new product. The applicant shall pay the total fee prior to the issuance of the registration by the commissioner.

2VAC5-675-30. Commercial applicator certificate fee.

Any person applying for a certificate as a commercial applicator shall pay to the department an initial nonrefundable certificate fee of $70 $100 and a biennial nonrefundable renewal fee of $70 $100 thereafter. All certificates shall expire at midnight on June 30 in the second year after issuance unless suspended or revoked for cause. All certificates not suspended or revoked for cause will be renewed upon receipt of the biennial renewal fee. If the applicator does not file an application for renewal of his certificate prior to COB June 30, the commissioner shall assess a late filing fee of 20% that shall be added to the renewal fee. The applicant shall pay the total fee prior to the commissioner's issuance of the renewal. However, if the certificate is not renewed within 60 days following the expiration of the certificate, then such certificate holder shall be required to take another examination. The fee for this reexamination or for any commercial applicator reexamination pursuant to subsection C of § 3.2-3930 of the Code of Virginia shall be $70 $100 and shall be nonrefundable. Any person applying to add a category or subcategory to his certificate shall pay to the department a nonrefundable fee of $35. Federal, state, and local government employees certified to use, or supervise the use of, pesticides in government programs shall be exempt from any certification fees.

2VAC5-675-40. Registered technician certificate fee.

Any person applying for a certificate as a registered technician shall pay to the department an initial nonrefundable certificate fee of $30 $50 and a biennial nonrefundable renewal fee of $30 $50 thereafter. All certificates shall expire at midnight on June 30 in the second year after issuance unless suspended or revoked for cause. A certificate not suspended or revoked for cause will be renewed upon receipt of the biennial renewal fee. If the application for renewal of any certificate is not filed prior to COB June 30, a late filing fee of 20% shall be assessed and added to the renewal fee and shall be paid by the applicant before the renewal shall be issued. If the certificate is not renewed within 60 days following the expiration of the certificate, then such certificate holder shall be required to take another examination. The fee for this reexamination pursuant to subsection C of § 3.2-3930 of the Code of Virginia shall be $30 $50 and shall be nonrefundable. Federal, state, and local government employees certified to use pesticides in government programs shall be exempt from any certification fees.

2VAC5-675-50. Business license fee.

Any pesticide business that distributes, stores, sells, recommends for use, mixes, or applies pesticides shall pay a nonrefundable annual pesticide business licensing fee of $50 $150 for each location or outlet that he or it operates. All business licenses will expire at midnight on March 3l of each year unless suspended or revoked for cause. If a business license is not suspended or revoked for cause, it will be renewed upon payment of the annual fee. If any person operating as a pesticide business fails to apply for renewal of a pesticide business license by COB March 31 the applicant, as a condition of renewal, shall pay a late license fee of 20% of the licensing fee in addition to that fee. Merchants of limited quantities of nonrestricted use pesticides including grocery stores, convenience stores, drug stores, veterinarians, and other businesses who sell pesticides primarily for limited household use shall be exempt from the business license requirement.

FORMS (2VAC5-675)

Application for New Pesticide Product Registration/Additional Information and Instructions, VDACS—07208 (rev. 7/12).

Application for Virginia Pesticide Business License to sell, distribute, store, apply, or recommend pesticides for use, VDACS—07209 (eff. 9/06).

Application for Reciprocal Pesticide Applicator Certificate/Commercial Pesticide Applicator Categories, VDACS—07210 (eff. 5/09).

Commercial Pesticide Applicator Certification Application/Eligibility Requirements for Commercial Applicator Certification, VDACS—07211 (rev. 7/12).

Pesticide Registered Technician Application/General Training Requirements for Registered Technicians, VDACS—07212 (eff. 1/09).

Commercial Pesticide Applicator Request for Authorization to Take Pesticide Applicator Examination/Commercial Pesticide Applicator Categories, VDACS—07218 (eff. 1/09).

Application for New Pesticide Product Registration/Additional Information and Instructions, VDACS-07208 (rev. 7/2017)

Application for Virginia Pesticide Business License to sell, distribute, store, apply, or recommend pesticides for use, VDACS-07209 (rev. 7/2017)

Application for Reciprocal Pesticide Applicator Certificate/Commercial Pesticide Applicator Categories, VDACS-07210 (rev. 7/2017)

Commercial Pesticide Applicator Certification Application/Eligibility Requirements for Commercial Applicator Certification, VDACS-07211 (rev. 7/2017)

Pesticide Registered Technician Application/General Training Requirements for Registered Technicians, VDACS-07212 (rev. 7/2017)

Commercial Pesticide Applicator Request for Authorization to Take Pesticide Applicator Examination/Commercial Pesticide Applicator Categories, VDACS-07218 (rev. 7/2017)

VA.R. Doc. No. R17-5041; Filed July 3, 2018, 10:51 a.m.
TITLE 3. ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES
ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE CONTROL AUTHORITY
Fast-Track Regulation

Title of Regulation: 3VAC5-10. Procedural Rules for the Conduct of Hearings Before the Board and Its Hearing Officers (amending 3VAC5-10-240).

Statutory Authority: §§ 4.1-103 and 4.1-111 of the Code of Virginia.

Public Hearing Information: No public hearings are scheduled.

Public Comment Deadline: August 22, 2018.

Effective Date: September 10, 2018.

Agency Contact: LaTonya D. Hucks, Legal Liaison, Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control, 2901 Hermitage Road, Richmond, VA 23220, telephone (804) 213-4698, FAX (804) 213-4574, or email latonya.hucks@abc.virginia.gov.

Basis: Sections 4.1-103 and 4.1-111 of the Code of Virginia enumerate the powers of the Board of Directors of the Virginia Alcoholic Beverage Control Authority, which includes the authority to adopt regulations, and to amend and repeal such regulations, and to do all acts necessary or advisable to carry out the purposes of Alcoholic Beverage Control Act (Title 4.1 of the Code of Virginia) in accordance with the Administrative Process Act.

Purpose: The purpose of this amendment is to adjust the appeals process so that it requires the interested party to identify some type of error in the initial decision in the request for an appeal instead of merely expressing a desire for an appeal. This regulation has little impact on public health, safety, or welfare; however, the general welfare of the public is benefited in that the regulation helps ensure agency resources are allocated to legitimate appeals that warrant immediate agency attention and action.

Rationale for Using Fast-Track Rulemaking Process: The amendments are expected to be noncontroversial because as the Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control transitions into an Authority, it is expected that certain regulations will have to be amended in order to accommodate a part-time board. Requiring an interested party to identify error in the request for an appeal will eliminate many meritless appeals and avoid overburdening the board.

Substance: Requests for appeals will have to identify the error in the decision.

Issues: The primary advantage of the amendment to the agency is that it will make the appeal process more efficient because requiring the interested party to identify the error in the decision will help to reduce or even eliminate meritless appeals to the board. The advantage to the public with the change to this regulation is that licensees with valid appeals will have their appeals cases heard more efficiently because time and resources will not have to be expended on meritless appeals. The disadvantage is that it will require the licensee to engage in more critical thinking when filing an appeal, which could prove difficult for some less sophisticated licensees, or require licensees to hire an attorney to handle their appeal, which could be expensive for some. There are no disadvantages to the agency or the Commonwealth. The pertinent matter to the regulated community, government officials, and the public is that no longer will an interested party be able to request an appeal without identifying an error in the initial decision.

Department of Planning and Budget's Economic Impact Analysis:

Summary of the Proposed Amendments to Regulation. The Alcoholic Beverage Control Board (Board) proposes to specify that in appealing an adverse initial decision, the interested party must identify any alleged errors in the decision of the Board.

Result of Analysis. The benefits likely exceed the costs for all proposed changes.

Estimated Economic Impact. The current regulation governing appeals to the Board does not require the interested party to identify any grounds for an appeal. Consequently, it is common for licensees to file an appeal effectively stating no more than "I appeal." In calendar year 2017, 70% of the appeals were of this category.1 Appeals are costly in that they require significant staff time. In order to limit the wasting of resources where the licensee has no specified grounds for appeal, the Board proposes to require that the filed appeal include identifying any alleged errors in the initial decision. This is consistent with Code of Virginia § 2.2-4027, which requires that a party complaining of an agency action designate and demonstrate an error of law subject to review by the court.

It is expected that this would discourage the filing of appeals where the interested party has no specified grounds beyond unhappiness with the initial decision. Based on the estimated time saved and rate of compensation of the chief hearing officer, the Board's clerk, the appeals clerk, a court reporter, and the record backup clerk, on a per case avoided basis the proposed amendment would save approximately $540 to $935 in staff time.2

Businesses and Entities Affected. All 13,000 plus licensees could potentially be subject to disciplinary proceedings, and thus could be affected by the proposed amendments.3 The Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control issues licenses for manufacturers, wholesalers and shippers of alcoholic beverages; retail licenses for the sale of alcohol at restaurants, hotels, convenience stores, grocery stores, etc.; and banquet licenses to allow persons or groups to host events such as wedding receptions, tastings, or fundraisers, where alcohol is served in an unlicensed location or club premise.

Localities Particularly Affected. The proposed amendments do not disproportionately affect particular localities.

Projected Impact on Employment. The proposed amendments do not significantly affect employment.

Effects on the Use and Value of Private Property. The proposed amendments do not significantly affect the use and value of private property.

Real Estate Development Costs. The proposed amendments do not affect real estate development costs.

Small Businesses:

Definition. Pursuant to § 2.2-4007.04 of the Code of Virginia, small business is defined as "a business entity, including its affiliates, that (i) is independently owned and operated and (ii) employs fewer than 500 full-time employees or has gross annual sales of less than $6 million."

Costs and Other Effects. The proposed amendments do not affect costs for small businesses.

Alternative Method that Minimizes Adverse Impact. The proposed amendments do not adversely affect small businesses.

Adverse Impacts:

Businesses. The proposed amendments do not adversely affect businesses.

Localities. The proposed amendments do not adversely affect localities.

Other Entities. The proposed amendments do not adversely affect other entities.

____________________

1Data Source: Virginia Alcoholic Beverage Control Authority.

2Estimates of time saved and employee compensation provided by the Alcoholic Beverage Control Authority.

3Data source: Alcoholic Beverage Control Authority.

Agency's Response to Economic Impact Analysis: The Virginia Alcoholic Beverage Control Authority concurs with the Department of Planning and Budget's economic impact analysis.

Summary:

The amendment adds the requirement that the interested party identify the error in the decision being appealed in the written request to the board for an appeal.

3VAC5-10-240. Appeals.

A. An interested party may appeal to the board an adverse initial decision, including the findings of fact and the conclusions, of a hearing officer or a proposed decision, or any portion thereof, of the board provided a request therefor in writing identifying any alleged errors in the decision is received within 30 days after the date of mailing of the initial decision or the proposed decision, whichever is later.

B. At his option, an interested party may submit written exceptions to the initial or proposed decision within the 30-day period and waive further hearing proceedings.

C. If an interested party fails to appear at a hearing, the board may proceed in his absence and render a decision.

VA.R. Doc. No. R18-5368; Filed June 27, 2018, 8:44 a.m.
TITLE 3. ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES
ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE CONTROL AUTHORITY
Fast-Track Regulation

Title of Regulation: 3VAC5-10. Procedural Rules for the Conduct of Hearings Before the Board and Its Hearing Officers (amending 3VAC5-10-400).

Statutory Authority: §§ 4.1-103 and 4.1-111 of the Code of Virginia.

Public Hearing Information: No public hearings are scheduled.

Public Comment Deadline: August 22, 2018.

Effective Date: September 10, 2018.

Agency Contact: LaTonya D. Hucks, Legal Liaison, Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control, 2901 Hermitage Road, Richmond, VA 23220, telephone (804) 213-4698, FAX (804) 213-4574, or email latonya.hucks@abc.virginia.gov.

Basis: Sections 4.1-103 and 4.1-111 of the Code of Virginia enumerate the powers of the Board of Directors of the Virginia Alcoholic Beverage Control Authority, which includes the authority to adopt regulations, and to amend and repeal such regulations, and to do all acts necessary or advisable to carry out the purposes of Alcoholic Beverage Control Act (Title 4.1 of the Code of Virginia) in accordance with the Administrative Process Act.

Purpose: The purpose of this regulation change is to clarify that the Rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia relating to the general rules applicable to all proceedings, foreign attorneys, the Virginia Rules of Evidence, appeals pursuant to the Administrative Process Act, and practices and procedures in civil actions are all applicable to all proceedings under the Wine and Beer Franchise Acts. The additional rules have always been applied in practice by virtue of the Administrative Process Act, even though they were not mentioned in the regulations. The purpose of the change is to make it abundantly clear that the mentioned portions of the Rules of the Supreme Court are applicable and not just Part Four. Also since mediation will be one of the proceedings that will be subject to these rules, it is necessary to include it in the regulation. This regulation has no significant impact on the health and safety of the public; however, general public welfare is benefited when the agency and the licensees are in compliance with the prevailing laws of the Commonwealth and when all parties are well informed of the applicable laws.

Rationale for Using Fast-Track Rulemaking Process: The amendments are expected to be noncontroversial because they provide further clarification as to which Rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia apply to proceedings under the Wine and Beer Franchise Acts. The additional parts incorporated specifically in the amendment have been applied in practice; however, the regulation only cited Part Four and for the sake of clarification, the other portions are being incorporated by reference into the regulation.

Substance: The proposed regulation changes will amend the regulation to include Parts One, One A, Two, Two A, and Three of the Rules of Supreme Court of Virginia as applying to all proceedings under the Wine and Beer Franchise Acts. The additional parts mentioned specifically in the amendment have been applied in practice; however, the regulation currently only cites Part Four, and for the sake of clarification, the other portions are being added to the regulation. The amendments also add mediation as one of the proceedings subject to the aforementioned Rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia.

Issues: The primary advantage for the agency of this regulation amendment is that it clarifies that the Rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia relating to the general rules applicable to all proceedings, foreign attorneys, the Virginia Rules of Evidence, appeals pursuant to the Administrative Process Act, and practices and procedures in civil actions are all applicable to all proceedings under the Wine and Beer Franchise Acts. Advantages to the regulated community, government officials, and the public are that certain rules of the Virginia Supreme Court that were not initially applicable under the regulation will now apply and mediation is one of the proceedings subject to these rule. There are no disadvantages to the public, the agency, or the Commonwealth.

Department of Planning and Budget's Economic Impact Analysis:

Summary of the Proposed Amendments to Regulation. The Alcoholic Beverage Control Board (Board) proposes to clarify: 1) that specific Rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia apply in all proceedings under the Wine and Beer Franchise Acts, and 2) that mediation is one of the proceedings subject to the aforementioned Rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia.

Result of Analysis. The benefits likely exceed the costs for all proposed changes.

Estimated Economic Impact. The current regulation specifies that:

The Rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia, Part Four, shall apply in all proceedings under the Wine and Beer Franchise Acts, Chapters 4 (§ 4.1-400 et seq.) and 5 (§ 4.1-500 et seq.) of Title 4.1 of the Code of Virginia, including arbitration proceedings when necessary pursuant to §§ 4.1-409 and 4.1-508 of the Code of Virginia.

The Board proposes to amend the text to specify that Rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia, Parts One, One A, Two, Two A, Three, and Four all apply. This is a clarification that the Rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia (Rules) relating to the general rules applicable to all proceedings, foreign attorneys, the Virginia Rules of Evidence, appeals pursuant to the Administrative Process Act, and practices and procedures in civil actions are all applicable to all proceedings under the Wine and Beer Franchise Acts.

The Board also proposes to specify that mediation is subject to the Rules. This is also a clarification of current law. The proposed clarifying amendments do not change applicable requirements but are beneficial in that they may reduce potential misunderstandings.

Businesses and Entities Affected. All 13,000 plus licensees could potentially be subject to disciplinary proceedings, and thus could be affected by the proposed amendments.1 ABC issues: licenses for manufacturers, wholesalers, and shippers of alcoholic beverages; retail licenses for the sale of alcohol at restaurants, hotels, convenience stores, grocery stores, etc.; and banquet licenses to allow persons or groups to host events such as wedding receptions, tastings, or fundraisers, where alcohol is served in an unlicensed location or club premise.

Localities Particularly Affected. The proposed amendments do not disproportionately affect particular localities.

Projected Impact on Employment. The proposed amendments do not affect employment.

Effects on the Use and Value of Private Property. The proposed amendments do not affect the use and value of private property.

Real Estate Development Costs. The proposed amendments do not affect real estate development costs.

Small Businesses:

Definition. Pursuant to § 2.2-4007.04 of the Code of Virginia, small business is defined as "a business entity, including its affiliates, that (i) is independently owned and operated and (ii) employs fewer than 500 full-time employees or has gross annual sales of less than $6 million."

Costs and Other Effects. The proposed amendments do not affect costs for small businesses.

Alternative Method that Minimizes Adverse Impact. The proposed amendments do not adversely affect small businesses.

Adverse Impacts:

Businesses. The proposed amendments do not adversely affect businesses.

Localities. The proposed amendments do not adversely affect localities.

Other Entities. The proposed amendments do not adversely affect other entities.

__________________________________

1 Data source: Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control.

Agency's Response to Economic Impact Analysis: The Virginia Alcoholic Beverage Control Authority concurs with the Department of Planning and Budget's economic impact analysis.

Summary:

The amendments (i) incorporate by reference Parts One, One A, Two, Two A, and Three of the Rules of Supreme Court of Virginia (Rules) as applying to all proceedings under the Wine and Beer Franchise Acts and (ii) add mediation as one of the proceedings subject to the Rules, in addition to the currently incorporated Part Four of the Rules. Currently, arbitration is the one proceeding to which the Rules apply under the Wine and Beer Franchise Acts.

3VAC5-10-400. Discovery, prehearing procedures and production at hearings; definitions.

The Rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia, Part Parts One, One A, Two, Two A, Three, and Four, shall apply in all proceedings under the Wine and Beer Franchise Acts, Chapters 4 (§ 4.1-400 et seq.) and 5 (§ 4.1-500 et seq.) of Title 4.1 of the Code of Virginia, including mediation and arbitration proceedings when necessary pursuant to §§ 4.1-409 and 4.1-508 of the Code of Virginia. Any references to a "court" contained in the rules shall be deemed to mean the hearing officer or officers of the board conducting the proceeding.

No provision of this section shall affect the practice of taking evidence at a hearing, but such practice, including that of generally taking evidence ore tenus only at hearings before hearing officers, shall continue unaffected hereby.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE (3VAC5-10)

Rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia, Part One: General Rules Applicable to All Proceedings

Rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia, Part One A: Foreign Attorneys

Rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia, Part Two: Virginia Rules of Evidence

Rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia, Part Two A: Appeals Pursuant to the Administrative Process Act

Rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia, Part Three: Practice and Procedures in Civil Actions

Rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia, Part Four: Pretrial Procedures, Depositions, and Production at Trial.

VA.R. Doc. No. R18-5369; Filed June 27, 2018, 8:48 a.m.
TITLE 8. EDUCATION
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION
Final Regulation

Titles of Regulations: 8VAC20-22. Licensure Regulations for School Personnel (repealing 8VAC20-22-10 through 8VAC20-22-760).

8VAC20-23. Licensure Regulations for School Personnel (adding 8VAC20-23-10 through 8VAC20-23-800).

Statutory Authority: §§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Effective Date: August 23, 2018.

Agency Contact: Patty S. Pitts, Assistant Superintendent for Teacher Education and Licensure, Department of Education, P.O. Box 2120, Richmond, VA 23218, telephone (804) 371-2522, or email patty.pitts@doe.virginia.gov.

Summary:

The regulatory action repeals the existing regulation (8VAC20-22) and adopts a new regulation (8VAC20-23) regarding licensure for school personnel to align the regulation with recent changes in the Code of Virginia, current best practices in education, current educational research, and the revised Virginia Standards of Learning and the Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachers.

Substantive elements of the regulations (i) revise selected definitions to conform with changes in the regulations; (ii) modify prescribed licensure requirements, including reducing the number of years of work experience required for a career switcher provisional license from five to three and extending the international educator license from three to five years; (iii) add new endorsement areas in mathematics, engineering, and special education; and (iv) increase rigor in the requirements for selected endorsement areas.

Summary of Public Comments and Agency's Response: A summary of comments made by the public and the agency's response may be obtained from the promulgating agency or viewed at the office of the Registrar of Regulations.

CHAPTER 23
LICENSURE REGULATIONS FOR SCHOOL PERSONNEL

Part I
Definitions

8VAC20-23-10. Definitions.

The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the meanings indicated unless the context clearly implies otherwise:

"Accredited institution" means an institution of higher education accredited by a regional accrediting agency recognized by the United States Department of Education.

"Accredited virtual school or program" means a virtual school or program accredited by one of the accrediting agencies recognized by the Virginia Department of Education.School divisions operating as multi-division online providers may be deemed as meeting accreditation requirements if a majority of their schools are fully accredited by the Virginia Board of Education. ]

"Alternate route to licensure" means a nontraditional route to licensure available to individuals who meet the criteria specified in 8VAC20-23-90.

"Approved program" means a professional education program recognized as meeting state standards for the content and operation of such programs so that graduates of the program will be eligible for state licensure. The Virginia Board of Education has the authority to approve programs in Virginia.

"Cancellation" means the withdrawal of ateaching ] license following the voluntary return of the license by the license holder.

"Certifiedprogram ] provider" means a provider certified by the Virginia Department of Education to provide preparation and training for applicants seeking the Provisional License specified in 8VAC20-23-90.

"Collegiate Professional License" means a five-year, renewableteaching ] license available to an individual who has satisfied all requirements for licensure set forth in this chapter, including an earned baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and the professional teacher's assessments prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

"Content area coursework" means courses at the undergraduate level (i.e., two-year or four-year institution) or at the graduate level that will not duplicate previous courses, or the level of coursework, taken in humanities, English, history and social sciences, sciences, mathematics, health and physical education, and fine arts. These courses are usually available through the college or department of arts or sciences. ]

"Denial" means the refusal to grant ateaching ] licenseto a new applicant or to an applicant who is reapplying after the expiration of a license ].

"Division Superintendent License" means a five-year, renewable license available to an individual who has completed an earned master's degree from a regionally accredited college or university and meets the requirements specified in 8VAC20-23-630. The individual's name [ must shall ] be listed on the Virginia Board of Education's list of eligible division superintendents.

"Experiential learning" means a process of applying for an initial license through the alternate route as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education and meeting the criteria specified in 8VAC20-23-90 E to be eligible to request experiential learning credits in lieu of the coursework for the endorsement (teaching) content area.

"Industry certification credential" means an active career and technical education credential that is earned by successfully completing a Virginia Board of Education-approved industry certification examination, being issued a professional license in the Commonwealth, or successfully completing an occupational competency examination. ]

"International Educator License" meansa five-year cultural exchange opportunity for Virginia students and international teachers. The International Educator License is ] a professional teaching license issued for no more than five years to an exchange teacher with citizenship in a nation other than the United States of Americaand who meets requirements by a state-approved, federally-designated Exchange Visitor Program and who is ] employed asa ] teacher in a Virginia public school or an accredited nonpublic school.

"Licensure by reciprocity" means a process used to issue a license to an individual coming into Virginia from another state when that individual meets certain conditions specified in this chapter.

"Mentor" means a classroom teacher hired by the local school division who has achieved continuing contract status or other instructional personnel including retired teachers who meet local mentor selection criteria. The mentor should work in the same building as the beginning teacher or be instructional personnel who is assigned solely as a mentor. A mentor should be assigned a limited number of teachers at any time. Instructional personnel who are not assigned solely as mentors should not be assigned to more than four teachers at any time. Mentors guide teachers in the program through demonstrations, observations, and consultations.

"Online Teacher License" means a five-year, renewable license valid only for teaching online courses. Teachers who hold a five-year renewable license issued by the Virginia Board of Education may teach online courses for which they are properly endorsed and do not need to seek this license.

"Postgraduate Professional License" means a five-year, renewable license available to an individual who has qualified for the Collegiate Professional License and who holds an appropriate earned graduate degree from a regionally accredited college or university.

"Professional studies" means courses and other learning experiences designed to prepare individuals in the areas of human development and learning, curriculum and instruction, assessment of and for learning, classroom and behavior management, foundations of education and the teaching profession, language and literacy, and supervised clinical experiences. ]

"Professional teacher assessment" means those tests or other requirements mandated for licensure as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

"Provisional License" means a nonrenewable license valid for a specified period of time not to exceed three years issued to an individual who has allowable deficiencies for full licensure as set forth in this chapter. The individualmust shall ] have a minimum of anundergraduate earned baccalaureate ] degree from a regionally accredited college or university, with the exception of those individuals seeking the Technical Professional License. The Provisional Licensewill be issued for a three-year validity period ], with the exception ofthose individuals seeking licensure through a career switcher program who will be issued a one-year Provisional License, will be the Provisional (Career Switcher) License that will be initially issued for a one-year validity period and Teach For America Provisional License that will be initially ] issued fortwo years a two-year validity period ].Individuals may apply for a third year on the Provisional License by submitting documentation indicating that all licensure assessments prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education have been taken. ] Individualsmust shall ] complete all requirementsfor licensure ], including passing all licensure assessments, for a renewable license within the validity period of thelicense Provisional License ].

"Pupil Personnel Services License" means a five-year, renewable license available to an individual who has earned an appropriate graduate degree from a regionally accredited college or university with an endorsement as a school counselor, school psychologist, school social worker, or vocational evaluator. This license does not require teaching experience unless otherwise outlined under the specific endorsement's requirements.

"Renewable license" means a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education for five years to an individual who meets all requirements specified in this chapter.

"Revocation" means the withdrawal of ateaching ] license.

"School Manager License" means a five-year, renewable license intended to provide for a differentiation of administrative responsibilities in a school setting. A school manager is licensed to administer noninstructional responsibilities in an educational setting.For example, a A ] school manager is restricted from evaluating teachers, supervising instruction, developing and evaluating curriculum, and serving as a school’s student disciplinarian. The license is available to a candidate who holds a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university; has three years ofsuccess successful ] managerial experience; and is recommended for the license by a Virginia school division superintendent.

"Suspension" means the temporary withdrawal of ateaching ] license.

"Technical Professional License" means a five-year, renewable license available to an individual who has graduated froman a public or ] accreditednonpublic ] high school (or possesses aGeneral Educational Development Certificate Virginia Board of Education-approved high school equivalency credential ]); has exhibited academic proficiency, technical competency, and successful occupational experience; and meets the requirements specified insubdivision 4 of ] 8VAC20-23-50  [ A 4 ].

"Teach For America License" means a two-year provisional license available to an individual who is a participant in Teach For America and meets the requirements specified in 8VAC20-23-50. ]

Part II
Administering the Regulations

8VAC20-23-20. Administering this chapter.

A. In administering this chapter, modifications may be made in exceptional cases by the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Proposed modifications shall be made in writing to the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Commonwealth of Virginia, Virginia Department of Education, P.O. Box 2120, Richmond, Virginia 23218-2120.

B. In administering this chapter, competencies required for endorsement areas are outlined in the Regulations Governing the Review and Approval of Education Programs in Virginia (8VAC20-543). This document should be referenced for detailed information regarding coursework content for endorsements. Individualsmust shall ] complete the semester hours required for endorsement areas, or the equivalent, thatmust shall ] be documented and approved by theVirginia ] Department of Education.

C. Virginia school divisions may submit requests to the Virginia Department of Education for determination of appropriate endorsements for blended or integrated course options.

D. Upon the effective date of this chapter, the Virginia Board of Education grants a one-year transition period for the implementation of this chapter. ]

Part III
Licensure

8VAC20-23-30. Purpose and responsibility for licensure.

The primary purpose for licensing teachers and other school personnel is to maintain standards of professional competence. The responsibility for licensure is set forth in § 22.1-298.1 of the Code of Virginia, which states that the Virginia Board of Education shall prescribe by regulation the requirements for licensure of teachers.

8VAC20-23-40. Conditions for licensure.

A. Applicants for licensuremust shall ]:

1. Be at least 18 years of age;

2. Pay the appropriate fees as determined by the Virginia Board of Education and complete the application process;

3. Have earned a baccalaureate degree, with the exception of the Technical Professional License, from a regionally accredited college or university and meet requirements for the license sought. Persons seeking initial licensure through approved programs from Virginia institutions of higher education shall only be licensed as instructional personnelby the Virginia Board of Education if the professional education programs offered at such institutions have been accredited by a national accrediting agency and the education (endorsement) programs have final approval by the if the education endorsement programs have approval by the ] Virginia Board of Education;individuals who have earned a degree from an institution in another country shall hold the equivalent of a regionally accredited college or university degree in the United States, as verified by a Virginia Department of Education-approved credential evaluation agency, for the required degree for the license; ] and

4. Possess good moral character(i.e., and be ] free of conditions outlined in Part VII (8VAC20-23-720 et seq.) of this chapter.

B. All candidates who hold at least a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and who seek an initial Virginia teaching licensemust shall ] obtain passing scores on professional teacher's assessments prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education. With the exception of the career switcher program that requires assessments as prerequisites, individualsmust shall ] complete the professional teacher'sassessments assessment ] requirements within the three-year validity of the initial provisional license. Candidates seeking a Technical Professional License, International Educator License, School Manager License, or Pupil Personnel Services License are not required to take the professional teacher's assessments. Individuals who hold a valid out-of-state license (full credential without deficiencies) and who have completed a minimum of three years of full-time, successful teaching experience in a public or an accredited nonpublic school, kindergarten through grade 12, outside of Virginia are exempt from the professional teacher's assessment requirements. Documentationmust shall ] be submitted to verify the school's status as a public or an accredited nonpublic school.

C. All individuals seeking an initial endorsement in early/primary education preK-3, elementary education preK-6, special education-general curriculum, special education-deaf and hard of hearing, special education-blindness and visual impairments, and individuals seeking an endorsement as a reading specialistmust shall ] obtain passing scores on a reading instructional assessment prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

D. Licensure by reciprocity is set forth in 8VAC20-23-100. A school leaderslicensure ] assessment prescribed by the Virginia Board of Educationmust shall ] be met for all individuals who are seeking an endorsement authorizing them to serve as principals and assistant principals in the public schools. Individuals seeking an initial administration and supervision endorsement who are interested in serving as central office instructional personnel are not required to take and pass the school leaderslicensure ] assessment prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

E. Individuals seeking initial licensuremust shall ] demonstrate proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction, complete study in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Services, and receive professional development in instructional methods tailored to promote student academic progress and effective preparation for theVirginia ] Standards of Learning end-of-course and end-of-grade assessments.

F. Every person seeking initial licensure shall provide evidence of completion of certification or training in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and use of automated external defibrillators. The certification or training program shall be based on the current national evidenced-based emergency cardiovascular care guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the use of an automated external defibrillator, such as a program developed by the American Heart Association or the American Red Cross. The Virginia Board of Education shall provide a waiver for this requirement for any person with a disability whose disability prohibits such person from completing the certification or training.

G. The teacher of record for verified credit courses for high school graduationmust shall ] hold a Virginia license with the appropriate content endorsement.

H. Every teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education shall have an industry certification credential, as defined in 8VAC20-23-10, in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential.

I. Effective July 1, 2017, every person seeking renewal of a license shall complete awareness training, provided by the Virginia Department of Education, on the indicators of dyslexia, as that term is defined by the Virginia Board of Education pursuant to regulations, and the evidence-based interventions and accommodations for dyslexia. ]

8VAC20-23-50. Types of licenses; dating licenses.

A. The following types of licenses are available:

1. Provisional License. The Provisional License is a nonrenewable license valid for a period not to exceed three years issued to an individual who has allowable deficiencies for full licensure as set forth in this chapter. The Provisional License will be issued fortwo years a three-year validity period ], with theexception exceptions ] ofthose individuals seeking a the ] Provisional(Career Switcher) ] Licensethrough a career switcher program that will initially be issued for a one-year validity period and the Provisional Teach For America License issued for a two year validity period ].Individuals may apply for a third year on the Provisional License by submitting documentation indicating that all licensure assessments prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education (http://doe.virginia.gov/teaching/licensure/prof_teacher_assessment.pdf) have been taken. The Provisional (Career Switcher) License will be dated as set forth in 8VAC20-23-90 A 2. ] Individualsmust shall ] completethe all ] requirements [ for licensure, ] including passing all licensure assessments, forthe a ] renewablefive-year ] license within the validity period of the Provisional License. The individualmust shall ] have a minimum of anundergraduate earned baccalaureate ] degree from a regionally accredited college or university, with the exception of those individuals seeking the Technical Professional License.

2. Collegiate Professional License. The Collegiate Professional License is a five-year, renewable license available to an individual who has satisfied all requirements for licensure, including an earnedundergraduate baccalaureate ] degree from a regionally accredited college or university and the professional teacher's assessments prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

 

3. Postgraduate Professional License. The Postgraduate Professional License is a five-year, renewable license available to an individual who has qualified for the Collegiate Professional License and who holds an appropriate earned graduate degree from a regionally accredited college or university.

4. Technical Professional License. The Technical Professional License is a five-year, renewable license available to a person who has graduated froma public or ] an accreditednonpublic ] high school or possesses aGeneral Educational Development Certificate Virginia Board of Education-approved high school equivalency credential ]; has exhibited academic proficiency, skills in literacy and communication, technical competency, and successful occupational experience;and ] has completed nine semester hours of specialized professional studies credit from a regionally accredited college or university; and has completed one year of successful, full-time teaching experience in a public school or accredited nonpublic school in the area of endorsement ]. The nine semester hours of professional studies courseworkmust shall ] include three semester hours of human development and learning, three semester hours of curriculum and instruction, and three semester hours of applications of instructional technology or classroom and behavior management. The Technical Professional License is issued at the recommendation ofan a Virginia ] employing educational agency in the areas of career and technical education, educational technology, and military science. Individuals seeking an endorsement to teach military sciencemust shall ] have the appropriate credentials issued by the United States military. The employing Virginia educational agencymust shall ] ensure the credentials issued by the United States military are active during the period the individual is teaching. In addition to demonstrating competency in the endorsement area sought, the individualmust shall ]:

a. Hold a valid license issued by the appropriate Virginia board for those program areas requiring a license and a minimum of two years of successful experience at the journeyman level or an equivalent. The employing Virginia educational agencymust shall ] ensure that the valid license issued by the appropriate Virginia board for the occupational program area is active during the period the individual is teaching;

b. Have completed a registered apprenticeship program and two years of successful experience at the journeyman level or an equivalent level in the trade; or

c. Have four years of successful work experience at the management or supervisory level or equivalent or have a combination of four years of training andsuccessful ] work experience at the management or supervisory level or equivalent.

Individuals holding the Technical Professional License who seek the Collegiate Professional or Postgraduate Professional Licensemust shall ] meet the requirements of the respective licenses.

5. School Manager License. The school manager license is a five-year, renewable license intended to provide for the differentiation of administrative responsibilities in a school setting. A school manager is licensed to administer noninstructional responsibilities in an educational setting.For example, a A ] school manager is restricted from evaluating teachers, supervising instruction, developing and evaluating curriculum, and serving as a school's student disciplinarian. The license is available to a candidate who holds a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university, has three years of successful managerial experience, and is recommended for the license by a Virginia school division superintendent.

6. Pupil Personnel Services License. The Pupil Personnel Services License is a five-year, renewable license available to an individual who has earned an appropriate graduate degree from a regionally accredited college or university with an endorsement for school counselor, school psychologist, school social worker, or vocational evaluator. This license does not require teaching experience, unless otherwise outlined under the specific endorsement's requirements.

7. Division Superintendent License. The Division Superintendent License is a five-year, renewable license available to an individual who has completed an earned master's degree from a regionally accredited college or university and meets the requirements specified in 8VAC20-23-630. The individual's namemust shall ] be listed on the Virginia Board of Education's list of eligible division superintendents.

8. International Educator License. The International Educator License provides a five-year cultural exchange opportunity for Virginia students and international teachers. The International Educator License is a professional teaching license issuedfor no more than five years ] to an exchange teacher with citizenship in a nation other than the United States of Americaand ] who is employed as a teacher in a Virginia public or accredited nonpublic school. To be issued the five-year, nonrenewable International Educator License, an individual serving as a cultural exchange teacher in Virginiamust shall ]:

a. Be employed by a Virginia public or an accredited nonpublic school;

b. Hold non-United States citizenship and be a nonpermanent resident; and

c. Meet the following requirements as verified by a state-approved, federally-designated Exchange Visitor Program (22 CFR Part 62):

(1) Be proficient in written and spoken English;

(2) Demonstrate competence in the appropriate academic subject area or areas by meeting the credential requirements for a qualified teacher in the exchange country;

(3) Hold the United States equivalent of a baccalaureate degree or higher as determined by an approved credentialevaluation ] agency; and

(4) Complete at least two years of successful full-time teaching experience that enables the educator to fulfill a similar assignment in his home country or is comparable to those requirements for Virginia teachers.

If an individual meets requirements of subdivisions 8 a, 8 b, 8 c (1), 8 c (2), and 8 c (3) of this subsection and has completed at least one year, but less than two years, of successful full-time teaching experience thatenables would enable ] the educator to fulfill a similar assignment in his home country or is comparable to those requirements for Virginia teachers, the International Educator License will be issued for three years with an option to extend the nonrenewable International Educator License for the additional two years uponmeeting passing ] all teacher assessments prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education and a recommendation of the Virginia employing school division or accredited nonpublic school.

Individuals who have been issued an International Educator License who seek a five-year, renewable licensewill need to shall ] meet all licensure and endorsement requirements, includingpassing ] applicable assessments prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

9. Online Teacher License. The Online Teacher License is a five-year, renewable license valid only for teaching online courses. Teachers who hold a five-year renewable license issued by the Virginia Board of Education may teach online courses for which they are properly endorsed and do not need to seek this license.

a.The In order to be issued an Online Teacher License, the ] individualis required to shall ] meetthe ] requirements for an endorsement in a content (teaching) area, and ] professional studiesrequirements, ] andachieve ] qualifying scores on professional teacher's assessments as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education. In addition, the individualmust shall ] complete a three-semester-hour course in online instructional procedures.

Online instructional procedures:3 Three ] semester hours. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skillsin and ] the ability to use the Internet for teaching, learning, and management; design, deliver, and support instruction in an online environment; adapt strategies for a variety of course models(e.g. ],such as ] synchronous and asynchronous) ]; select, adapt, and create rich multimedia for instruction; adapt individualized education program requirements to online course practices, as appropriate; use data to meet individualstudents student's ] needs; and employ innovative teaching strategies in an online environment. Demonstrated proficiency of advanced skills in the followingmust areas shall ] be addressed: use of communication technologies to interact with and engage students, parents, and mentors; use of education technologies; management of instructional activities in a technology-mediated environment; and nontraditional content delivery methods.

b. Online teaching experience is not acceptable to meet the full-time teaching experience for other license types, such as a Division Superintendent License, or for endorsements, such as for the reading specialist, school counselor, or administration and supervision endorsements. The Online Teacher License may be issued if requirements have been met as one of the following licenses to individuals teaching only online courses:

(1) Online Teacher (Postgraduate Professional) License - a five-year, renewable license available to an individual who has qualified for the Online Teacher (Collegiate Professional) License and who holds an appropriate earned graduate degree from a regionally accredited college or university.

(2) Online Teacher (Collegiate Professional) License - a five-year, renewable teaching license available to an individual who has satisfied all requirements for licensure, including an earned baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university, endorsement and professional studies requirements, andpassed ] the professional teacher's assessments prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education, or

(3) Online Teacher (Technical Professional) License - a five-year, renewable teaching license available to an individual who has graduated froma public or ] an accreditednonpublic ] high school or possesses aGeneral Educational Development Certificate Virginia Board of Education-approved high school equivalency credential ]; has exhibited academic proficiency, technical competency, and occupational experience; and meets the requirements specified in subdivision 4 of this subsection. An individual seeking an Online Teacher (Technical Professional) Licensemust shall ] be recommended for the license by a Virginia public school, a Virginia accredited nonpublic school, or an accredited virtual school program.

c. A nonrenewable Online Teacher (Provisional) License may be issued for a period not to exceed three years to an individual who has allowable deficiencies for full licensure as set forth in 8VAC20-23-90 B. The Online (Provisional) License will be issued fortwo three ] years.Individuals may apply for a third year on the Online (Provisional) License by submitting documentation indicating that all licensure assessments prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education have been taken. ] The individualmust shall ] have a minimum of anundergraduate earned baccalaureate ] degree from a regionally accredited college or university, with the exception of those individuals seeking the Technical Professional License. Individualsmust shall ] complete all requirements for a renewable Online Teacher License within the validity period of the license.

10. Teach For America License. The Teach For America License is a two-year provisional license.

a. This provisional license is available to any participant in Teach For America, a nationwide nonprofit organization focused on closing the achievement gaps between students in high-income and low-income areas, who submits an application and meets the following requirements:

(1) Holds, at minimum, a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited institution of higher education;

(2) Has met the requirements prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education for all endorsements sought or has met the qualifying scores on the content area assessment prescribed by the board for the endorsements sought;

(3) Possesses good moral character according to criteria developed by the Virginia Board of Education;

(4) Has been offered and has accepted placement in Teach For America;

(5) Has successfully completed preservice training and is participating in the professional development requirements of Teach For America, including teaching frameworks, curricula, lesson planning, instructional delivery, classroom management, assessment and evaluation of student progress, classroom diversity, and literacy development;

(6) Has an offer of employment from a local school board to teach in a public elementary or secondary school in the Commonwealth or a preschool program that receives state funds pursuant to subsection C of § 22.1-199.1 of the Code of Virginia; and

(7) Receives a recommendation from the employing school division for a Teach For America License in the endorsement area in which the individual seeks to be licensed.

b. In addition to the criteria set forth in subdivision 10 a of of this subsection, any individual who seeks an endorsement in early childhood, early/primary, or elementary education shall either (i) agree to complete such coursework in the teaching ofreading language and literacy ] as may be prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education pursuant to 8VAC20-23-130 during the first year of employment or (ii) achieve a passing score on a reading instructional assessment prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

c. Teachers issued a Teach For America provisional license shall not be eligible for continuing contract status while employed under the authority of a Teach For America license and shall be subject to the probationary terms of employment specified in § 22.1-303 of the Code of Virginia.

d. The Virginia Board of Education may extend any Teach For America License for one additional year upon request of the employing school division, provided that no Teach For America License shall exceed a total of three years in length.

e. Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, upon completion of at least two years of full-time teaching experience in a public elementary or secondary school in the Commonwealth or a preschool program that receives state funds pursuant to subsection C of § 22.1-199.1 of the Code of Virginia, an individual holding a Teach For America License shall be eligible to receive a renewable license if he has (i) achieved satisfactory scores on all professional teacher assessments required by the Virginia Board of Education and (ii) received satisfactory evaluations at the conclusion of each year of employment.

f. Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, the Virginia Board of Education shall issue a Teach For America License to any individual who (i) has completed two years of successful teaching in the Teach For America program in another state, (ii) is not eligible to receive a renewable license, and (iii) meets the criteria set forth in subdivision 10 a of this subsection.

B. All licenses will be effective from July 1 in the school year in which the application is made. An employing Virginia public school division, agency, or accredited nonpublic school is required to notify employees in writing at the time of employment of the need to meet appropriate assessment requirements for licensure.

8VAC20-23-60. Designations on licenses for career paths to teaching.

A. Designations on licenses will reflect stages in the professional development of teachers and promote continuing growth and career paths as educators.

B. Teaching licenses may be issued with one of the following designations, and the designation will be processed as an add-on endorsement. These designations will not apply to the Division Superintendent License, School Manager License, International Educator License, or Pupil Personnel Services License.

1. Career Teacher: This voluntary teacher designation will be issued on a renewable teaching license for individuals who have gained continuing contract status in Virginia and who apply for the Career Teacher designation.

2. Mentor Teacher: This voluntary teacher designation will be issued on a renewable teaching license for individuals who have (i) achieved the Career Teacher designation, (ii) received a recommendation for the designation from an employing Virginia school division superintendent or designee or accredited nonpublic school head, (iii) served at least three years as a mentor teacher in Virginia, (iv) documented responsibilities as a mentor, and (v) completed a local or state mentor teacher training program in accordance with the Virginia Board of Education requirements for mentor teachers in theVirgnia Virginia ] Board of Education Mentor Teacher Guidelines(http://www.doe.virginia.gov/teaching/career_resources/mentor/program_creation_guidelines.pdf) ].

3. Teacher as Leader: This voluntary teacher designation will be issued on a renewable teaching license for individuals who have (i) achieved the Career Teacher designation; (ii) completed at least five years of successful, full-time teaching experience in a Virginia public school or accredited nonpublic school; (iii) receivedthe a ] recommendation from an employing Virginia school division superintendent or designee or an accredited nonpublic school head; (iv) and completed one of the following:

a. National Board Certification or a nationally recognized certification program approved by the Virginia Board of Education and a recommendation from an employing Virginia school division superintendent or designee or accredited nonpublic school head and documentation, ] in an approvedVirginia ] Department of Education format, ] verifying the individual's demonstrated skills and abilities as a school leader and direct contributions to school effectiveness and student achievement; or

b. A recommendation from an employing Virginia school division superintendent or designee or accredited nonpublic school head and documentation, ] in an approvedVirginia ] Department of Education format, ] verifying the individual's demonstrated skills and abilities as a school leader and direct contributions to school effectiveness and student achievement.

8VAC20-23-70. Additional endorsements.

A. An individual who holds a teaching license may add an additional teaching endorsement to the license by passing a rigorous academic subject test for endorsements in which a test is prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education. This testing option does not apply to individuals (i) who are seeking an early/primary education preK-3 or elementary education preK-6 endorsement, special education endorsements, or a reading specialist endorsement or (ii) who hold a Technical Professional License, Vocational Evaluator License, Pupil Personnel Services License, School Manager License, or Division Superintendent License.

B. One or more endorsements may be added to a license, ] providedthat ] specific endorsement requirements have been met. Written requests may be made by the licensed professional and should be directed to the Virginia employing educational agency(if the individual has such employment) ] or college or university. If the request is not acted upon by the local educational agency or college or university within 30 days or is disputed, the license holder may make a written request for an additional endorsement directly to the Office of Professional Licensure, Virginia Department of Education. Written requests should be submitted by January 15 to be in effect by July 1 of the samecalendar ] year.

8VAC20-23-80. Deletion of an endorsement.

An endorsement may be deleted from a license at the request of the licensed professional. Written requests are made by the licensed professional and should be directed to the employing educational agency. If the request is not acted upon by the local educational agency within 30 days or is disputed, the license holder may make a written request for the deletion of an endorsement directly to the Office of Professional Licensure, Virginia Department of Education. Written requests should be submitted by January 15 to be in effect on July 1 of thatcalendar ] year. Individuals who wish to add an endorsement that has been deletedmust shall ] meet requirements for that endorsement at the time it is requested.

8VAC20-23-90. Alternate routes to licensure.

A. Career switcher alternate route to licensure for careerprofessions professionals ] - Provisional (Career Switcher) License. An alternate route is available to career switchers who seek teaching endorsements preK through grade 12 with the exception of special education.

1. An individual seeking a Provisional (Career Switcher) License through the career switcher programmust shall ] meet the following prerequisite requirements:

a. An application process;

b. An earned baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university;

c. The completion of requirements for an endorsement in a teaching area or the equivalent through verifiable experience or academic study;

d. At leastfive three ] years ofsuccessful ] full-time work experience or its equivalent; and

e. Virginia qualifying scores on the professional teacher's assessments as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

2. The Provisional (Career Switcher) License is awarded at the end of Level I preparationfor an initial validity period of one school year ]. All components of the career switcher alternate route for careerprofessions must professionals shall ] be completed by the candidate.

3. The Level I requirementsmust shall ] be completed during the course of a single year and may be offered through a variety of delivery systems, including distance learning programs. If an employing agency recommends extending the Provisional (Career Switcher) License for a second year, the candidate will enter Level III of the program. Career switcher programsmust be certified shall submit program documentation as set forth by the Virginia Department of Education for review and be certified every seven years ] by the Virginia Department of Education.

a. Level I preparation. Intensive Level I preparation includes a minimum of 180 clock hours of instruction, including field experience. This phase includes, but is not limited to, human development and learning; ] curriculum and instruction, including technology, reading, and other; language and literacy; ] specific course content relating to theVirginia ] Standards of Learning;differentiation of instruction foundations of education and the teaching profession ]; classroom and behavior management;instructional design based on assessment data; and human development and learning and assessment of and for learning ].

b. Level II preparation during first year of employment.

(1) Candidate seeks employment in Virginia with the one-year Provisional (Career Switcher) License.

(2) Continued Level II preparation during the first year of employment with a minimum of five seminars that expand the intensive preparation requirements listed in subdivision 3 a of this subsection. The five seminars will include a minimum of 20 cumulative instructional hours. A variety of instructional delivery techniques will be utilized to implement the seminars.

(3) One year of successful, full-time teaching experience in a Virginia public or accredited nonpublic school under a one-year Provisional (Career Switcher) License. A trained mentormust shall ] be assigned to assist the candidate during the first year of employment. Responsibilities of the mentor include, but are not limited to, ] the following:

(a) Collaborate with the beginning teacher in the development and implementation of an individualized professional development plan;

(b) Observe, assess, coach, and provide opportunities for constructive feedback, including strategies for self-reflection;

(c) Share resources and materials;

(d) Share best instructional, assessment, and organizational practices; classroom and behavior management strategies; and techniques for promotingvaried and ] effectivemethods of ] communicationwith and among students ]; and

(e) Provide general support and direction regarding school policies and procedures.

(4) Uponsuccessful ] completion ofthe ] Levels I and IIpreparation requirements ] of the career switcher alternate route to licensure program and submission of a recommendation from theemploying ] Virginia educationalemploying ] agency, the candidate will be eligible to apply for a five-year, renewable license. Renewal requirements for the regular license will be subject to current regulations of the Virginia Board of Education.

c. Level III preparation, if required.

(1) Post preparation, if required, will be conducted by theemploying ] Virginiaemploying ] educational agency to address the areas where improvement is needed as identified in the candidate's professional improvement plan; and

(2) Uponsuccessful ] completion of Levels I, II, and, if required, Level ] III of the career switcher alternate route to licensure program and submission of a recommendation from theemploying ] Virginia educationalemploying ] agency, the candidate will be eligible to receive a five-year renewable license.

4. Verification of program completion will be documented by the certified program provider and the division superintendent or designee.

5. Certified providers implementing a career switcher program may charge a fee for participation in the program.

B. An alternate route is available to individuals employed byan a Virginia ] educational agency who seek teaching endorsements preK through grade 12. The employing Virginia educational agency may request a nonrenewable Provisional License on behalf of the individual if the individual has completed an allowable portion of professional studies and endorsement requirements.An employed teacher may demonstrate meeting the teaching endorsement requirements by passing a rigorous academic subject test for endorsements in which a test is prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education. This testing option does not apply to individuals (i) who are seeking an early/primary education preK-3 or elementary education preK-6 endorsement, special education endorsements, or a reading specialist endorsement or (ii) who hold a Technical Professional License, Vocational Evaluator License, Pupil Personnel Services License, School Manager License, or Division Superintendent License. ] This routeis ] alsoapplicable is available ] to individuals who are employed by a Virginia public school, a Virginia accredited nonpublic school, or an accredited virtual school or program and who are seeking the Online Teacher License that is issued to teachers who teach only online courses. The Provisional License will be issued fortwo a validity period not to exceed three ] years.Individuals may apply for a third year on the Provisional License by submitting documentation indicating that all licensure assessments prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education have been taken. ] The Provisional License is a nonrenewable teaching license valid for a period not to exceed three years. Individualsmust shall ] complete all licensure requirements to become eligible for the five-year, renewable license.

1. An individual seeking a license through this alternate routemust shall ] have met the following requirements:

a. Entered the teaching field through the alternate route to licensure upon the recommendation of theemploying ] Virginiaemploying ] educational agency. For the Online Teacher Provisional License, individualsmust shall ] be employed by a Virginia public school division, a Virginia accredited nonpublic school, or an accredited virtual school or program;

b. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university with the exception of individuals seeking the Technical Professional License;

c. Have met requirements for the endorsement area; and

d. Need to complete an allowable portion of professional studies and licensure requirements.

2. The professional studies requirements for the appropriate level of endorsement soughtmust shall ] be completed. A Virginia educational agency may submit to the Superintendent of Public Instruction for approval an alternate program to meet the professional studies requirements. The alternate programmust shall ] include training(e.g., such as ] seminar, internship,or ] coursework, etc.) ] in human development and learning; curriculum and instruction, including technology; assessment of and for learning; classroom and behavior management;foundations of education and ] the teaching profession, including legal status of teachers and students, federal and state laws, and teacher evaluation as prescribed byVirginia's Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachers the Virginia Board of Education's guidelines for performance standards and evaluation criteria established pursuant to § 22.1-253.13:5 B of the Code of Virginia ] andreading language and literacy ].

3. One year of successful, full-time teaching experience in the appropriate teaching area in a Virginia public or an accredited nonpublic schoolmust shall ] be completed. For the Online Teacher License only, one year of successful online teaching experience in the endorsement area in a public school division, an accredited nonpublic school, or an accredited virtual school or program may be accepted in lieu of the supervised teaching experience. A fully licensed experienced teachermust shall ] be available in the school building to assist the beginning teacher employed through the alternate route.

C. Alternate route in special education. The Provisional (Special Education) License is a nonrenewable teaching license issuedfor a validity period not to exceed three years ] to an individual employed as a special education teacher in a public school or a nonpublicspecial education ] school in Virginia who does not hold the appropriate special education endorsement. The Provisional (Special Education) License will be issuedfor two years. Individuals may apply for a third year on the Provisional License by submitting documentation indicating that all licensure assessments prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education have been taken only with endorsements in special education ]. The Provisional License is a nonrenewable teaching license valid for a period not to exceed three years. This alternate route to special educationendorsement ] is not applicable to individuals seeking the Online Teacher License. To be issued the Provisional (Special Education) License through this alternate route, an individualmust meet the requirements through one of the two following options shall ]:

1.Option I. The individual must hold a full, valid Collegiate Professional or Postgraduate Professional License and must: a. ] Be employed by a Virginia public oraccredited ] nonpublic school as a specialeducator education teacher ] and have the recommendation of the employing educational agency;

b. 2. ] Have earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university;

c. 3. ] Have an assigned mentor with an active Virginia teaching license with an endorsement in special education; and

d. 4. ] Have a planned program of study in the assigned endorsement area, make progress toward meeting the endorsement requirements each of the three years of the license, and have completed at least three semester hours of coursework in the competencies of foundations for educating students with disabilities andhave ] an understanding and application of the legal aspects and regulatory requirements associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities. A survey course integrating these competencies would satisfy this requirement.

The Provisional (Special Education) Licenseissued ] through this alternate route shall not be issued without the completion of these prerequisites.

2. Option II. The individual must:

a. Be employed by a Virginia public or nonpublic school as a special educator and have the recommendation of the employing educational agency;

b. Have earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university;

c. Have an assigned mentor endorsed in special education; and

d. Have a planned program of study in the assigned endorsement area, make progress toward meeting the endorsement requirements each of the three years of the license, and have completed nine semester hours including courses in the following: characteristics of students with disabilities, individualized education program implementation, and classroom and behavior management.

The Provisional (Special Education) License through this alternate route shall not be issued without the completion of these prerequisites. ]

D. Alternate programs at institutions of higher education or Virginia school divisions. Alternate programs developed by institutions of higher education (i) recognize the unique strengths of prospective teachers from nontraditional backgrounds and (ii) prepare these individuals to meet the same standards that are established for others who are granted a license through an alternate route.

E. Experiential learning. Individuals applying for an initial teaching license through the alternate route as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Educationmust shall ] meet the following criteria to be eligible to requestthat ] experiential learningto ] satisfy the coursework for the endorsement (teaching) content area:

1. Have earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university;

2. Have at leastfive three ] years of documentedsuccessful ] full-time work experience that may include specialized training related to the endorsement sought; and

3. Have met theVirginia ] qualifying score on the content knowledge assessment prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

Experiential learning does not apply to individuals seeking special education andelementary education (i.e., ] preK-3 and preK-6) ] endorsements or endorsements in which there is no Virginia Board of Education- ] prescribed content or subject assessment.

8VAC20-23-100. Conditions for licensure for out-of-state candidates by reciprocity.

A. An individual coming into Virginia from any state may qualify for a Virginia teaching license with comparable endorsement areas if the individual (i) has completed a state-approved teacher preparation program through a regionally accredited four-year college or university or (ii) holds a valid out-of-state teaching license(i.e., full (full ] credential without deficiencies) thatmust shall ] be in force at the time the application for a Virginia license is made.An individual shall meet licensure requirements set forth in the Code of Virginia. ] An individual seeking licensuremust shall ] establish a file in theVirginia ] Department of Education by submitting a complete application packet that includes official student transcripts. Unless exempted by the criteria in subsection C of this section, professional teacher'sassessments assessment requirements ] prescribed by the Virginia Board of Educationmust shall ] be satisfied.

B. An individual coming into Virginia will qualify for a Virginia teaching license with comparable endorsement areas if the individual holds an active national certification from the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) or a nationally recognized certification program approved by the Virginia Board of Education.

C. Individuals who hold a valid out-of-state license(i.e., full (full ] credential without deficiencies) and who have completed a minimum of three years of full-time, successful teaching experience in a public or an accredited nonpublic school, kindergarten through grade 12, outside of Virginia are exempt from the professional teacher's assessment requirements. Documentationmust shall ] be submitted to verify the school's status as a public or accredited nonpublic school.

8VAC20-23-110. Requirements for renewing a license.

A. The Division Superintendent, Postgraduate Professional, Collegiate Professional, Technical Professional, Pupil Personnel Services, Online Teacher, and School Manager Licenses may be renewed upon the completion of 180 professional development points within a five-year validity period based on an individualized professional development plan that includes ongoing, sustained, and high-quality professional development.Every person seeking renewal of a license shall complete all renewal requirements, including professional development in a manner prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education, except that no person seeking renewal of a license shall be required to satisfy any such requirement by completing coursework and earning credit at an institution of higher education. ]

B. An individualwho holds an expired license must seeking renewal shall ] submit a completed licensure application at the time alicensure ] renewal request is submitted.

C. Virginia public school divisions and public education agencies must report annually to the Virginia Department of Education that instructional personnel have completed high-quality professional development each year as set forth by the Virginia Department of Education.

D. C. ] Any individual licensed and endorsed to teach (i) middle school civics or economics or (ii) high school government or history who is seeking renewal of such license is required to demonstrate knowledge of Virginia history or state and local government by completing a module or professional development course specifically related to Virginia history or state and local government that has a value of five professional development points.This requirement applies for purposes of the individual's next or initial renewal occurring after July 1, 2014.

E. If the requirement has not been met for initial licensure or licensure renewal, individuals D. Every person ] seeking renewal of a license shall provide evidence of completion of certification or training in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators. The certification or training program shall be based on the current national evidence-based emergency cardiovascular care guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the use of an automated external defibrillator, such as a program developed by the American Heart Association or the American Red Cross. The Virginia Board of Education shall provide a waiver for this requirement for any person with a disability whose disability prohibits such person from completing the certification or training.

F. E. Every person seeking renewal of a license shall demonstrate proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction.

F. Every person seeking renewal of a license shall complete awareness training, provided by the Virginia Department of Education, on the indicators of dyslexia, as that term is defined by the Virginia Board of Education pursuant to regulations, and the evidence-based interventions and accommodations for dyslexia.

G. Training in instructional methods tailored to promote academic progress and effective preparation for the Virginia Standards of Learning tests and end-of-grade assessments is required for licensure renewal.

H. Every person seeking renewal or initial license shall complete a study in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Services.

I. When provided by the state, individuals shall complete other professional development activities prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

J. ] Professional development points may be accrued by the completion of professional development activities to improve and increase instructional personnel's knowledge of the academic subjects the teachers teach or the area assigned from one or more of the following eight options.

1. College credit. Acceptable coursework offers content that provides new information and is offered on campus, off campus, or through extension by any regionally accredited two-year or four-year college or university. College courseworkmust shall ] develop further experiences in subject content taught, teaching strategies, uses of technologies, leadership, and other essential elements in teaching to high standards and increasing student learning.Instructional personnel must complete coursework to improve and increase the knowledge of the academic subjects or endorsement areas in which they are assigned. Individuals who do not hold a graduate degree must refer to subsection G of this section. No person seeking renewal of a license shall be required to complete coursework and earn credit at an institution of higher learning. ]

2. Professional conference. A professional conference is a workshop, institute, or seminar of four or more hours that contributes to ongoing, sustained, and high-quality professional development.

3. Curriculum development. Curriculum development is a group activity in which the license holder contributes to the improvement of the curriculum of a school, a school division, or aneducation educational ] institution in the teaching area assigned. This includes the alignment of curriculum frameworks, instructional materials, and assessments to provide a system with clear expectations of what is to be taught and learned.

4. Publication of article. The articlemust shall ] contribute to the education profession or to the body of knowledge of the license holder's teaching area or instructional position.This article shall be published in a recognized professional journal. ] Grant reports that present the results of educational research are acceptable provided the license holder had an active role in planning, analyzing, interpreting, demonstrating, disseminating, or evaluating the study or innovation.The article must be published in a recognized professional journal. ]

5. Publication of book. Booksmust shall ] be published for purchase andmust shall ] contribute to the education profession or to the body of knowledge of the license holder's teaching area or instructional position. The published bookmust shall ] increase the field of content knowledge;provide information on ] planning and assessment for evaluating and providing students with feedback that encourages student progress and measures student achievement;reference ] instruction, safety, and learning environment;expand upon ] and communication and community relations working with students, parents, and members of the community to promote broad support for student learning. Points will not be awarded for self-published books.

6. Mentorship. Mentoring is the process by which an experienced professional who has received mentorship training provides assistance to one or more persons for the purpose of improving their performance. Assistance may involve role modeling, direct instruction, demonstration, observation with feedback, developing of plans, and consultation to promote instructional excellence and increased student achievement. Mentoring may include the supervision of a field experience of a pre-service student teacher or an intern in an approved teacher or principal preparation program, as well as mentoring as part of the induction process for a beginning teacher or a first-year administrator. Individuals serving in this role and submitting documentation for license renewal based on the mentorship option shall receive training as a mentor prior to the assignment and at least once during the five-year renewal cycle.

7. Educational project. Educational projectsmust shall ] be planned, focused projects based on high standards of teaching and learning. Projectsmust shall ] result in a written report or other tangible product. Projectsmust shall ] contribute to the education profession or to the body of knowledge of the license holder's teaching area or instructional position. A project could include participation in new professional responsibilities, such as leading a school improvement initiative.

8. Professional development activity. Professional development activitiesmust shall ] focus on student learning and achievement, schoolwide educational improvement, leadership, subject content, teaching strategies, and use of technologiesand or ] other essential elements in teaching to high standards. Activitiesmust shall ] be planned, rigorous, systematic, and promote continuous inquiry and reflection. Local employing educational agencies are encouraged to design professional development activities that are conducted in school settings and linked to student learning and achievement.

G. A minimum of 90 points (i.e., three semester hours in a content area) at the undergraduate (i.e., two-year or four-year institution) or graduate level earned from a regionally accredited college or university in the license holder's endorsement areas shall be required of license holders without a master's degree. With prior approval, exceptions to the content course requirement may be made by the division superintendent or principal. Special education coursework designed to assist classroom teachers and other school personnel in working with students with disabilities, a course in gifted education, a course in educational technology, or a course in English as a second language may be completed to satisfy the content course requirement. Professional development activities designed to support the Virginia Standards of Learning, Standards of Accreditation, and state assessments may be accepted in lieu of the content course. An individual without a master's degree who holds a renewable Online Teacher License may complete pedagogy of online instruction coursework to meet this requirement. The substance of the activities must clearly support these initiatives and address one or more of the following areas: (i) new content knowledge to implement the Virginia Standards of Learning, (ii) curriculum development initiative designed to translate the standards from standards to classroom objectives, (iii) teaching beginning reading skills including phonemic awareness and the structure of language (i.e., phonics), (iv) staff development activities in assessment to assist classroom teachers in the utilization of test results to improve classroom instruction, and (v) professional development designed to implement the technology standards in the schools. Technical Professional License holders without baccalaureate degrees may satisfy the requirement through career and technical education workshops, career and technical education institutes, or through undergraduate coursework at two-year or four-year institutions.

H. Content area courses are courses at the undergraduate level (i.e., two-year or four-year institution) or at the graduate level that will not duplicate previous courses taken in the humanities, English, history and social sciences, sciences, mathematics, health and physical education, and fine arts. These courses are usually available through the college of or department of arts and sciences. License holders with elementary education, middle education, special education, or reading endorsements must satisfy the 90-point requirement through reading coursework or content coursework in one of the areas listed in this subsection. Courses available through a regionally accredited college's or university's department of education may be used to satisfy the content requirement for those license holders with endorsements in health and physical education, career and technical education, and library science education.

I. With prior approval of the division superintendent or principal, the 90 points in a content area also may be satisfied through coursework taken to obtain a new teaching endorsement or coursework taken because of a particular need of a particular teacher. ]

J. K. ] Theremaining 90 180 ] points may be accrued by activities drawn from one or more of the eight renewal options. Renewal work is designed to provide licensed personnel with opportunities for professional development relative to the grade levels or teaching fields to which they are assigned or for which they seek an added endorsement. Such professional development encompasses (i) responsible remediation of any area of an individual's knowledge or skills that fails to meet the standards of competency and (ii) responsible efforts to increase the individual's knowledge of new developments in his field and to respond to new curricular demands within the individual's area of professional competence.

K. L. ] The proposed work toward renewal in certain optionsmust shall ] be approved in advance by the chief executive officer or designee of the employing educational agency. Persons who are not employed by an educational agency may renewor reinstate ] their license by submitting to the Office of Professional Licensure,Virginia ] Department of Education,their a renewal application, fee, the ] individualized renewal record, ] and verification ofpoints the completion of all renewal requirements ], including official student transcripts of coursework taken at a regionally accredited two-year or four-year college or university.

L. Accrual of professional development points shall be determined by criteria set forth by the Virginia Department of Education in the Virginia Renewal Manual (http://doe.virginia.gov/teaching/licensure/licensure_renewal_manual.pdf).

M . Persons seeking license renewal as teachers must demonstrate proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction.

N. M. ] Virginia school divisions andaccredited ] nonpublic schoolswill shall ] recommend renewal of licenses using the renewal point system.The renewal recommendation must include verification of demonstrated proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction.

O. Training in instructional methods tailored to promote academic progress and effective preparation for the Standards of Learning tests and end-of-grade assessments is required for licensure renewal.

P. If they have not already met the requirement, persons seeking licensure renewal as teachers must complete study in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Services that are relevant to the specific teacher licensure routes. ]

Part IV
Licensure Regulations Governing Early/Primary Education, Elementary Education, and Middle Education Endorsements

8VAC20-23-120. Early/primary education, elementary education, and middle education endorsements.

Individuals seeking licensure with endorsements in early/primary education, elementary education, and middle education may meet requirements through the completion of an approved program, ] or if employed by a Virginia public oraccredited ] nonpublic school, ] through the alternate route to licensure. Components of the licensure program include a degree from a regionally accredited college or university in the liberal artsand or ] sciences, or equivalent; professional teacher's assessments requirement prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education; specific endorsement requirements; and professional studies requirements.

8VAC20-23-130. Professional studies requirementsfor early/primary education, elementary education, and middle education endorsements ].

Professional studies requirements for early/primary education, elementary education, and middle education: 21 semester hours. These requirements may be taught in integrated coursework or modules.

1. Human development and learning (birth through adolescence): 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the physical, social, emotional, speech and language, and intellectual development of children and the ability to use this understanding in guiding learning experiences and relating meaningfully to students.

b. The interaction of children with individual differences - economic, social, racial, ethnic, religious, physical, andmental cognitive ]- should be incorporated to include skills contributing to an understanding of developmental disabilities and developmental issues related to, ] but not limited to, ] low socioeconomic status,; ] attention deficit disorders,; ] developmental disorders,; ] gifted education, ] including the use of multiple criteria to identify gifted students,; ] substance abuse, child abuse,; trauma, including child abuse and neglect and other adverse childhood experiences; ] and family disruptions.

2. Curriculum and instruction: 3 semester hours.

a. Early/primary education preK-3 or elementary education preK-6 curriculum and instruction: 3 semester hours.

(1) Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology;varied and ] effectivemethods of ] communication with and among students; selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies; and selection, development, and use of appropriate curricula, methodologies, and materials that support and enhance student learning and reflect the research on unique, age-appropriate, and culturally relevant curriculum and pedagogy.

(2) Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instructionmust shall ] be included.

(3) Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners, includinglimited ] Englishproficient students learners ], gifted and talented students, andthose ] students with disabilities;, ] and appropriate for thelevel of endorsement (i.e., ] preK-3 or preK-6) sought endorsement ] shall be included.

(4) Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student engagement and student academic progress and effective preparation for theVirginia ] Standards of Learning assessments.

(5) Study in (i) methods of improving communication between schools and families,; ] (ii) communicating with families regarding social and instructional needs of children,; ] (iii) ways of increasing familyinvolvement engagement ] in student learning at home and in school,; ] (iv) the Virginia Standards of Learning,; ] and (v) Virginia Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds prepared by thedepartment's Virginia Department of Education's ] Office of Humanities and Early Childhood shall be included.

(6) Early childhood educatorsmust shall ] understand the role of families in child development and in relation to teaching educational skills.

(7) Early childhood educatorsmust shall ] understand the role of the informal and play-mediated settings for promoting students' skills and development andmust shall ] demonstrate knowledge and skill in interacting in such situations to promote specific learning outcomes as reflected in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds ].

(8) ] Demonstrated proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction shall beincluded required ].Persons seeking initial licensure as teachers and persons seeking licensure renewal as teachers for the first time shall complete study Study ] in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Servicesthat are relevant to the specific teacher licensure routes and training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators shall be included ].

(9) ] Pre-student teaching experiences [ ( i.e., field (field ] experiences) should be evident within these skills.

b. Middle education 6-8 curriculum and instruction: 3 semester hours.

(1) Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology;varied and ] effectivemethods of ] communication with and among students;and ] selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies; and evaluation of pupil performance ].

(2) Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instructionmust shall ] be included.

(3) Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners includinglimited ] Englishproficient students learners ], gifted and talented students, and students with disabilities, andmust shall ] be appropriate for the middle education endorsement shall be included.

(4) Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student engagement and student academic progress and effective preparation for the Virginia Standards of Learning assessments.

(5) Study in methods of improving communication between schools and families, ways of increasing familyinvolvement engagement ] in student learning at home and in school, andfamily engagement with ] theVirginia ] Standards of Learning shall be included.

(6) Demonstrated proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction shall be included.(7) Persons seeking initial licensure as teachers and persons seeking licensure renewal as teachers for the first time shall complete study Study ] in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Servicesthat are relevant to the specific teacher licensure routes and training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators shall be included ].

(7) ] Pre-student teaching experiences(i.e., field (field ] experiences) should be evident within these skills.

3. Classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding and application of research-based classroom and behavior management techniques, classroom community building, positive behavior supports, and individual interventions, including techniques that promote emotional well-being and teach and maintain behavioral conduct and skills consistent with norms, standards, and rules of the educational environment.

b. This area shall address diverse approaches based uponculturally responsive ] behavioral, cognitive, affective, social and ecological theory and practice.

c. Approaches should support professionally appropriate practices that promote positive redirection of behavior, development of social skills, and ofself discipline self-discipline ].

d. Knowledge and an understanding of various school crisis management and safety plans and the demonstrated ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environmentmust shall ] be included.

e. The link between classroom management and students' agesmust shall ] be understood and demonstrated in techniques used in the classroom.

4. Assessment of and for learning: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding and application of creating, selecting, and implementing valid and reliable classroom-based assessments of student learning, including formative and summative assessments. Assessments designed and adapted to meet the needs of diverse learnersmust shall ] be addressed.

b. Analytical skills necessary to inform ongoing planning and instruction, as well as to understand, ] and help students understand their own progress and growthmust shall ] be included.

c. Skillsshall ] also include theability to understand the ] relationships among assessment, instruction, and monitoring student progress to include student performance measures in grading practices, the ability to interpret valid assessments using a variety of formats in order to measure student attainment of essential skills in a standards-based environment, and the ability to analyze assessment data to make decisions about how to improve instruction and student performance.

d. Understanding of state assessment programs and accountability systems, including assessments used for student achievementgoal setting goal-setting ] as related to teacher evaluation and determining student academic progressmust shall ] be included.

e. Knowledge of legal and ethical aspects of assessment, ] and skills for developing familiarity with assessments used in preK-12 education(e.g. ],such as ] diagnostic, college admission exams, industry certifications, and placementassessments) must assessment shall ] be included.

5.The Foundations of education and the ] teaching profession: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding of the historical, philosophical, and sociological foundations underlying the role, development, and organization of public education in the United States.

b. Attentionmust shall ] be given to the legal status of teachers and students, including federal and state laws and regulations; school as an organization and culture; and contemporary issues and current trends in education, including the impact of technology on education. Local, state, and federal governance of schools, including the roles of teachers and schools in communities,must shall ] be included.

c. Professionalism and ethical standards, as well as personal integritymust shall ] be addressed.

d. Knowledge and understanding of Virginia's Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachersmust shall ] be included.

6.Reading Language and literacy ]: 6 semester hours.

a. Early/primary preK-3 and elementary education preK-6 - language acquisition and reading and writing: 6 semester hours. Skills listed for these endorsement areas represent the minimum competencies that a beginning teachermust shall ] be able to demonstrate. These skills are not intended to limit the scope of a beginning teacher's program. Additional knowledge and skills that add to a beginning teacher's competencies to deliver instruction and improve student achievement should be included as part of a quality learning experience.

(1) Language acquisition: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, ] as well as the complex nature of language acquisition as a precursor to literacy. Language acquisition shall follow the typical development of linguistic competence in the areas of phonetics, semantics, syntax, morphology, phonology, and pragmatics.

(2) Reading and writing: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, ] as well as the reciprocal nature of reading and writing. Reading shall include phonemicand other phonological ] awareness, concept of print, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension strategies. Writing shall include writing strategies and conventions as supportingthe ] composing andwriting written ] expression and usage and mechanics domains. Additional skills shall include proficiency in understanding the stages of spelling development, and ] the writing process, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading.

b. Middle education - language acquisition and reading development: 3 semester hours and literacy in the content areas: 3 semester hours.

(1) Language acquisition and reading development: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the complex nature of language acquisition and reading, to include phonemicand other phonological ] awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension strategies for adolescent learners. Additional skills shall include proficiency in writing strategies, ] as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading for adolescent learners.

(2) Literacy in the content areas: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart an understanding of vocabulary development and comprehension skills in English, mathematics, science, history and social science, and other content areas. Strategies include teaching students how to ask effective questions, summarize and retell both verbally and in writing, and to listen effectively. Teaching strategies include literal, interpretive, critical, and evaluative comprehension, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading for adolescent readers.

7. Supervised clinicalexperience experiences ]. Supervised clinical experiences shall be continuous and systematic and comprised of early field experiences and a minimum of 10 weeks ofsuccessful ] full-time student teachingin the endorsement area sought ] under the supervision of a cooperating teacher with demonstrated effectiveness in the classroom. The summative supervised student teaching experience shall include at least 150 clock hours spent in direct teaching at the level of endorsementin a public or accredited nonpublic school ]. One year of successful full-time teaching experience in the endorsement area in a public or accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the supervised teaching experience. For the Online Teacher License only, one year of successful online teaching experience in the endorsement area in a public school, an accredited nonpublic school, or an accredited virtual school or program may be accepted in lieu of the supervised teaching experience. A fully licensed, experienced teacher shall be available in the school building to assist a beginning teacher employed through the alternate route.

8VAC20-23-140. Early childhood for three-year-olds and four-year-olds (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1. An earned baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with an endorsement in elementary education(such, such ] as preK-3 orpreK-6) preK-6, ] or special education early childhood;

2. Completed 9 semester hours of graduate-level coursework in early childhood education; and

3. Completed a supervised practicum of at least 45 instructional hours in a preschool setting(i.e., three-year-olds (three-year-olds ] and four-year-olds) in a public school, an accredited nonpublic school, or another program approved by the Virginia Board of Education. One year of successful, full-time teaching experience in a public or accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the practicum.

4. The add-on endorsement to an elementary endorsement that includes preK is not required to teach preK(i.e., three-year-olds (three-year-olds ] and four-year-olds), but the endorsement recognizes the candidate's additional preparation in early childhood education.

8VAC20-23-150. Early/primary education preK-3.

Endorsement requirements.

1. The candidate must have graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in early/primary education preK-3; or

2. The candidate for the early/primary education preK-3 endorsement must have earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university in the liberal artsand or ] sciences, or equivalent, and completed coursework that covers the early/primary education preK-3 competencies andfulfills meets ] the following51 ] semester-hour requirements:

a. English(must (shall ] include composition, oral communication, and literature): 12 semester hours; or complete 6 semester hours in English and pass a rigorous elementary subject test prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education;

b. Mathematics(must (shall ] include algebra, geometry, probability and statistics, and methods in teaching elementary mathematics): 12 semester hours; or complete 6 semester hours in mathematics, complete a methods in teaching elementary mathematics course (3 semester hours), and pass a rigorous elementary subject test prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education;

c. Laboratory sciences: 12 semester hours (in at least two science disciplines and methods in teaching elementary science); or complete 6 semester hours in laboratory science (in two science disciplines), complete a methods in teaching elementary science course (3 semester hours), and pass a rigorous elementary subject test prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education;

d. History(must (shall ] include American history and world history): 6 semester hours, and Social Science(must (shall ] include geography and economics): 6 semester hours; or complete 3 semester hours in history, complete 3 semester hours in social science (geography or economics),complete a methods in teaching elementary history and social sciences course (3 semester hours), ] and pass a rigorous elementary subject test prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education; and

e. Arts: 3 semester hours.

8VAC20-23-160. Elementary education preK-6.

Endorsement requirements.

1. The candidate shall have graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in elementary education preK-6; or

2. The candidate for the elementary education preK-6 endorsementmust shall ] have earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university majoring in the liberal artsand or ] sciences (or equivalent) andfulfill meet ] the following57 ] semester-hour requirements:

a. English(must (shall ] include composition, oral communication, and literature): 12 semester hours; or complete 6 semester hours in English and pass a rigorous elementary subject test prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education;

b. Mathematics(must (shall ] include algebra, geometry, probability and statistics, and teaching elementary mathematics): 15 semester hours; or complete 6 hours in mathematics, complete a methods in teaching elementary mathematics course (3 semester hours), and pass a rigorous elementary subject test prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education;

c.Science (including a laboratory course) Laboratory sciences ]: 15 semester hours in at least three science disciplines and at least a three credit science methods course; or complete6 9 ] semester hours (in two science disciplines), complete a methods in teaching elementary science course (3 semester hours), and pass a rigorous elementary subject test prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education;

d. History(must (shall ] include American history and world history): 6 semester hours, and Social Science(must (shall ] include geography and economics): 6 semester hours; or complete 3 semester hours in history, complete 3 semester hours in social science (geography or economics),complete a methods in teaching elementary history and social sciences course (3 semester hours), ] and pass a rigorous elementary subject test prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education; and

e. Arts: 3 semester hours.

8VAC20-23-170. Middle education 6-8.

Endorsement requirements.

1. The candidatemust shall ] have graduated from an approved teacher preparation discipline-specific program in middle education 6-8 with at least one area of academic preparation from the areas of English, mathematics, science, and history and social sciences; or

2. An applicant seeking the middle education 6-8 endorsementmust shall ] have earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university in the liberal artsand or ] sciences, or equivalent; and completed the minimum number of semester hours, as indicated, in at least one area of academic preparation(i.e., concentration) (concentration) ] that will be listed on the license. The applicant will be restricted to teaching only in the area or areas of concentration listed on the teaching license.

a. English. English concentration(must (shall ] include coursework in language,for example such as ] history, structure, grammar, fiction and nonfiction texts, media literacy, advanced composition, and interpersonal communication or speech): 21 semester hours.

b. Mathematics. Mathematics concentration(must (shall ] include coursework in algebra, geometry, probability and statistics, applications of mathematics, and methods of teaching mathematics to include middle school mathematics content): 24 semester hours.

c. Science. Science Laboratory sciences. Laboratory sciences ] concentration(must (shall ] include courses in each of the following: biology, chemistry, physics, and Earth and space science; and a laboratory course is required intwo each ] of the four areas):21 24 ] semester hours.

d. History and social sciences. History and social sciences concentration(must (shall ] include a course in American history; world history; economics; American government, including state and local government; and geography): 21 semester hours.

Part V
Licensure Regulations Governing PreK-12
Endorsements ], Special Education, Secondary Grades 6-12Endorsements ], and Adult EducationEndorsements ]

8VAC20-23-180. PreK-12endorsements ], special education, secondary grades 6-12endorsements ], and adult educationendorsements ].

Individuals seeking licensure with preK-12endorsements ], special education, secondary grades 6-12endorsements ], or adult educationendorsements ] may meet requirements through the completion of an approved program, ] or if employed by a Virginia public oraccredited ] nonpublic school, ] through the alternate route to licensure. Components of the licensure program include a degree from a regionally accredited college or university in the liberal artsand or ] sciences, or equivalent; professional teacher's assessment requirements prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education; specific endorsement requirements; and professional studies requirements.

8VAC20-23-190. Professional studies requirementsfor PreK-12, special education, secondary grades 6-12, and adult education endorsements ].

Professional studies requirements foradult education, ] preK-12endorsements, and, ] secondary grades 6-12endorsements, and adult education endorsements ]: 18 semester hours. Professional studies requirements for special educationendorsements ]: 21 semester hours. These requirements may be taught in integrated coursework or modules.

1. Human development and learning (birth through adolescence): 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the physical, social, emotional, speech and language, and intellectual development of children and the ability to use this understanding in guiding learning experiencesand relating meaningfully to students ].

b. The interaction of children with individual differences - economic, social, racial, ethnic, religious, physical, andmental cognitive ] - should be incorporated to include skills contributing to an understanding of developmental disabilities and developmental issues related to, ] but not limited to, ] low socioeconomic status,; ] attention deficit disorders,; ] developmental disabilities,; ] gifted education, ] including the use of multiple criteria to identify gifted students,; ] substance abuse, child abuse,; trauma, including child abuse and neglect and other adverse childhood experiences; ] and family disruptions.

2. Curriculum and instruction: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology;varied and ] effectivemethods of ] communication with and among students; selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies; selection, development, and use of appropriate curricula, methodologies, and materials that support and enhance student learning and reflect the research on unique, age-appropriate, and culturally relevant curriculum and pedagogy.

b. Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instructionmust shall ] be included.

c. Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners, includinglimited ] Englishproficient students learners ]; gifted and talented students andthose ] students with disabilities; and appropriate for the level of endorsement sought shall be included.

d. Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student academic progress and effective preparation for the Virginia Standards of Learning assessments.

e. Methods of improving communication between schools and families, ways of increasing familyinvolvement engagement ] in student learning at home and in school, andfamily engagement with ] the Virginia Standards of Learning shall be included.

f. Demonstrated proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction shall be included.g. Persons seeking initial licensure as teachers and persons seeking licensure renewal as teachers for the first time shall complete study Study ] in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Servicesthat are relevant to the specific teacher licensure routes and training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators shall be included ].

h. g. ] Curriculum and instruction for secondary grades 6-12 endorsements shall include middle and secondary education.

h. ] Pre-student teaching experiences(i.e., field (field ] experiences) should be evident within these skills. For preK-12, field experiences shall be at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels.

3. Assessment of and for learning: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding and application of creating, selecting, and implementing valid and reliable classroom-based assessments of student learning, including formative and summative assessments. Assessments designed and adapted to meet the needs of diverse learnersmust shall ] be addressed.

b. Analytical skills necessary to inform ongoing planning and instruction, as well as to understand, and help students understand their own progress and growthmust shall ] be included.

c. Skillsshall ] also includethe ability to understand ] the relationships among assessment, instruction, and monitoring student progress to include student performance measures in grading practices, the ability to interpret valid assessments using a variety of formats in order to measure student attainment of essential skills in a standards-based environment, and the ability to analyze assessment data to make decisions about how to improve instruction and student performance.

d. Understanding of state assessment programs and accountability systems, including assessments used for student achievementgoal setting goal-setting ] as related to teacher evaluation and determining student academic progress, including knowledge of legal and ethical aspects of assessment shall be included ].

e.Develop Knowledge of legal and ethical aspects of assessment and skills for developing ] familiarity with assessments used in preK-12 education(e.g., such as ] diagnostic, college admission exams, industry certifications,and ] placement assessments) shall be included ].

4.The Foundations of education and the ] teaching profession: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding of the historical, philosophical, and sociological foundations underlying the role, development, and organization of public education in the United States.

b. Attentionmust shall ] be given to the legal status of teachers and students, including federal and state laws and regulations,; ] school as an organization and culture,; ] and contemporary issues and current trends in education, including the impact of technology on education. Local, state, and federal governance of schools, including the roles of teachers and schools in communitiesmust shall ] be included.

c. Professionalism and ethical standards, as well as personal integritymust shall ] be addressed.

d. Knowledge and understanding of Virginia's Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachersmust shall ] be included.

5. Classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding and application of research-based classroom and behavior management techniques, classroom community building, positive behavior supports, and individual interventions, including techniques that promote emotional well-being and teach and maintain behavioral conduct and skills consistent with norms, standards, and rules of the educational environment.

b. This area shall address diverse approaches based uponculturally responsive ] behavioral, cognitive, affective, social and ecological theory and practice.

c. Approaches should support professionally appropriate practices that promote positive redirection of behavior, development of social skills and of self-discipline.

d. Knowledge and an understanding of various school crisis management and safety plans and thedemonstrated ] ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environmentmust shall ] be included. The link between classroom management and the students' agesmust shall ] be understood and demonstrated in techniques used in the classroom.

6.Reading Language and literacy ].

a. Adult education, preK-12, and secondary grades 6-12 - literacy in the content areas: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart an understanding of vocabulary development and comprehension skills in English, mathematics, science, history and social science, and other content areas. Strategies include teaching students how to ask effective questions, summarize and retell both verbally and in writing, and listen effectively. Teaching strategies include literal, interpretive, critical, and evaluative comprehension, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading for adolescent learners.

b. Special education - language acquisition and reading and writing: 6 semester hours. Skills listed for these endorsement areas represent the minimum competencies that a beginning teachermust shall ] be able to demonstrate. These skills are not intended to limit the scope of a beginning teacher's program. Additional knowledge and skills that add to a beginning teacher's competencies to deliver instruction and improve student achievement should be included as part of a quality learning experience.

(1) Language acquisition: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, ] as well as the complex nature of language acquisition as a precursor to literacy. Language acquisition shall follow the typical development of linguistic competence in the areas of phonetics, semantics, syntax, morphology, phonology, and pragmatics.

(2) Reading and writing: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, ] as well as the reciprocal nature of reading and writing. Reading shall include phonemicand other phonological ] awareness, concept of print, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension strategies. Writing shall include writing strategies and conventions as supporting the composing andwriting written ] expression and usage and mechanics domains. Additional skills shall include proficiency in understanding the stages of spelling development, and ] the writing process, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading and the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading ].

7. Supervised classroom experience. Supervised clinical experiences shall be continuous and systematic and comprised of early field experiences and a minimum of 10 weeks ofsuccessful ] full-time student teachingin the endorsement area sought ] under the supervision of a cooperating teacher with demonstrated effectiveness in the classroom. The summative supervised student teaching experience shall include at least 150 clock hours spent in direct teaching at the level of endorsementin a public or accredited nonpublic school ].

If a preK-12 endorsement is sought, teaching activities shall be at the elementary and middle or secondary levels. Individuals seeking the endorsement in library media shall complete the supervised school library media practicum in a school library media setting. Individuals seeking an endorsement in an area of special education shall complete the supervised classroom experience requirement in the area of special education for which the endorsement is sought. One year of successful full-time teaching experience in the endorsement area in a public or an accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the supervised teaching experience. For the Online Teacher License only, one year of successful online teaching experience in the endorsement area in a public school, an accredited nonpublic school, or an accredited virtual school or program may be accepted in lieu of the supervised teaching experience. A fully licensed, experienced teacher shall be available in the school building to assist a beginning teacher employed through the alternate route.

8VAC20-23-200. Adult education.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university or hold a Collegiate Professional License(requires a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university) ]; and

2. A minimum of 15 semester hours in adult education thatmust shall ] include the following competencies and one semester of supervised successful full-time, or an equivalent number of hours of part-time experience, teaching of adults:

a. Understanding of the nature or psychology of the adult learner or adult development;

b. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes needed for the selection, evaluation, and instructional applications of the methods and materials foradult basic skills adults to become college and career ready, ] including:

(1) Curriculum development in adult basic education orGeneral Educational Development (GED) Virginia Board of Education-approved high school equivalency ] instruction;

(2)Beginning reading Literacy skills ] for adults;

(3)Beginning mathematics Numeracy skills ] for adults;

(4) Reading comprehension for adult education;and ]

(5) Foundations of adult education; and

(6) (5) ] Other adult basic skills instruction.

B. Individuals not holding a Collegiate Professional License or a Postgraduate Professional Licensemust shall ] meet the professional teacher's assessment requirements prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

8VAC20-23-210. Adult English as a second language (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in adult English as a second language; or

2.An earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with an endorsement in a teaching area; and

3. Completed 21 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Methods for teachingadult ] Englishas a second language to adults learners ]: 3 semester hours;

b. English linguistics: 3 semester hours;

c. Cross-cultural education: 3 semester hours;

d. Modern foreign language: 6 semester hours; and

e. Electives from the following areas: 6 semester hours:

(1) Cross-cultural communication;

(2) Second language acquisition;

(3) General linguistics;

(4) Teaching reading to adults;

(5) Adult Englishas a second language learner ] instruction; or

(6) Adult Englishas a second language learner ] curriculum development.

8VAC20-23-220. Career and technical education – agricultural education.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation programwith a minimum of a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university ] in agricultural education; or

2.Completed Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed ] 39 semester hours of coursework in agriculture, including at leastthree 3 ] semester hours in each of thefollowing ] areas in subdivisions 2 a through 2 fof this subsection, ] as well as a minimum ofnine 9 semester ] hours in one concentration area listed inthe following areas ] subdivisions 2 a through 2 f:

a. Plant science;

b. Animal science;

c. Agricultural mechanics and applied technology with a lab component;

d. Agricultural economics and management;

e. Forestry and wildlife management;

f. Horticulture; and

g. Supervised occupational experience, 3 semester hours, or one year of successful, full-time or the equivalentof relevant occupational experience ] (a minimum of 2,000 cumulative hours)relevant occupational experience ] within the past five years.

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential. ]

B. Technical Professional License. An endorsement in specialized areas may be granted to individuals who have:

1. Been recommended by an employing Virginia educational agency;

2. Completed two years of successful, full-time or the equivalent of occupational experience within the past five years in the teaching specialty sought;

3. Completed professional studies requirements (human development and learning: 3 semester hours; curriculum and instruction in career and technical education: 3 semester hours; and applications of instructional technology or classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours); and

4. Completed an agricultural education certificate or associate degree program in the teaching specialty area sought.

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential. ]

8VAC20-23-230. Career and technical education – business and information technology.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation programwith a minimum of a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university ] in business and information technology; or

2.Completed Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed ] a major in business education or 39 semester hours of coursework in business and information technology, including:

a. Accounting: 6 semester hours;

b. Economics: 3 semester hours;

c. Business law, business principles, management, marketing, or finance: 9 semester hours;

d. Communications and media to include oral, written, and presentationskills ]: 3 semester hours;

e. Information systems and technology to include computer software applications(e.g. ],such as ] word processing, spreadsheet, database, and presentation) ], information technology fundamentals, database management, communications systems, programming, software development, security, and networking: 12 semester hours;

f. Input technologies to include touch keyboarding (required, or documented demonstrated mastery of the touch keyboarding skill), audio input devices, video input devices, pointing devices, touch screens, or other emerging input technologies: 3 semester hours; and

g. Supervised business experience: 3 semester hours;, ] or one year of successful full-time or the equivalent(i.e., (a minimum of ] 2,000part-time cumulative ] hours) relevant occupational experience within the last five years.

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential. ]

B. Technical Professional License. An endorsement in a highly specialized business and information technology area, such as networking,administration, communications systems, ] programming, database management, Internet application development, medical office procedures, legal office procedures, network administration, and other emerging highly specialized areas may be granted to individuals who have:

1. Been recommended by an employing Virginia educational agency;

2. Completed two years of successful, full-time or the equivalent occupational experience within the last five years in the teaching specialty area sought;

3. Completed a business certificate or associate degree program from a regionally accredited institution in the teaching specialty area sought; and

4. Completed professional studies requirements (human development and learning: 3 semester hours; curriculum and instruction in career and technical education: 3 semester hours; and applications of instructional technology or classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours).

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential. ]

8VAC20-23-240. Career and technical education – family and consumer sciences.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation programwith a minimum of a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university ] in family and consumer sciences; or

2.Completed Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed ] a major in family and consumer sciences education or 39 semester hours of coursework in family and consumer sciences distributed in the following areas:

a. Development of individuals through the lifespan and the family life cycleand family ]: 9 semester hours;

b. Resource management, personal and family finance, and consumer economics: 6 semester hours;

c. Food, nutrition, dietetics, wellness, and food science: 9 semester hours;

d. Housing, home furnishing, and equipment: 3 semester hours;

e. Apparel and textiles: 6 semester hours;

f. Occupational program management: 3 semester hours; and

g. Supervised occupational experience related to family and consumer sciences, 3 semester hours, or one year of successful, full-time or the equivalentof (a minimum of 2,000 cumulative hours) ] relevant occupational experience within the last five years.

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential. ]

B. Technical Professional License. An endorsement in a specialized family and consumer sciences area, such as child care occupations, consumer services, family and human services, fashion design occupations, food occupations, hospitality occupations, interior design occupations,and ] home furnishings occupations, and home and institutional services, may be granted to individuals who have:

1. Been recommended by an employing Virginia educational agency.; ]

2. Completed at least two years of successful, full-time occupational experience or the equivalent within the past five years in the teaching specialty for which they are seeking endorsement.; ]

3. Completed a family and consumer sciences certificate or associate degree programfrom a regionally accredited college or university, ] where applicable in the area of endorsement sought.; and ]

4. Completed professional studies requirements (human development and learning: 3 semester hours; curriculum and instruction in career and technical education: 3 semester hours; and applications of instructional technology or classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours).

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential. ]

8VAC20-23-250. Career and technical education – health and medical sciences.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved program of studywith a minimum of a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university ] in a health care program of study and hold a current license or certification as a professional practitioner in the area in which one is to be teaching; or

2.A Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a ] current license or certification as a professional practitioner in the area in which one is to be teaching and completed two years of successful, full-time or the equivalent of occupational experience within the past five years in an area related to the teaching specialty sought.

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential. ]

B. Technical Professional License. An endorsement in a specialized health occupations area may be granted to individuals who have:

1. Been recommended by an employing Virginia educational agency;

2. A license orbe are ] certified as a professional practitioner in the area in which one is to be teaching;

3. Completed two years of full-time or the equivalent of occupational experience within the past five years in the teaching specialty sought;

4. Completed a health occupations certificate or associate degree program from a regionally accredited institution in the teaching specialty area sought; and

5. Completed professional studies requirements (human development and learning: 3 semester hours; curriculum and instruction in career and technical education: 3 semester hours; and applications of instructional technology or classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours).

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential. ]

8VAC20-23-260. Career and technical education – marketing education.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation programwith a minimum of a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university ] in marketing education; or

2.Completed Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed ] a major in marketing education or a minimum of 39 semester hours of coursework in marketing to include;: ]

a. Marketing processes and environment: 3 semester hours;

b. Management and supervision: 6 semester hours;

c. Economics: 3 semester hours;

d. Merchandising and operations: 3 semester hours;

e. Advertising and promotion: 3 semester hours;

f. Sales and selling: 3 semester hours;

g. Communication theory and techniques: 3 semester hours;

h. Consumer behavior: 3 semester hours;

i. International (global) marketing: 3 semester hours;

j. Finance, accounting, or marketing mathematics: 3 semester hours;

k. Technology applications: 3 semester hours; and

l. Supervised marketing occupational experience, 3 semester hours, or one year ofsuccessful ] full-time work experience in the field of marketing may be accepted in lieu of the supervised marketing internship.

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential. ]

B. Technical Professional License. An endorsement in a specialized marketing area, such as apparel and accessories, hotel operations, international marketing, or restaurant, may be granted to individuals who have:

1. Been recommended by an employing Virginia educational agency;

2. Completed two years ofsuccessful ] full-time occupational experience, or the equivalent, within the last five years in the teaching specialty area sought; and

3. Completed professional studies requirements (human development and learning: 3 semester hours; curriculum and instruction in career and technical education: 3 semester hours; and applications of instructional technology or classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours).

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential. ]

8VAC20-23-270. Career and technical education – technology education.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation programfrom a regionally accredited college or university with a minimum of a baccalaureate degree ] in technology education; or

2.Completed Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed ] a major in technology education or 33 semester hours in technology education distributed in the following areas:

a. The nature of technology. Experiences shall include those that promote an understanding of the characteristics, scope, and core concepts of physical, biological, and informational technologies, the relationships among these technologies, and their connections to other science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields: 6 semester hours;

b. Technology and society. Experiences shall include those that develop a working knowledge of the cultural, social, economic, and political effects of technology, its effect on the environment, and the role of society in the history, development, and use of physical, biological, and informational technologies: 3 semester hours;

c. Engineering. Experiences shall include those that develop comprehension of the attributes of technological design, inclusive of constraints, optimization, predictive analysis, problem solving, critical thinking, technical writing, and integrative mathematics and science: 6 semester hours;

d. Abilities for a technological world. Experiences shall include those that develop the capacity to utilize the design process, to use and maintain technological products and systems, and to assess their impact: 9 semester hours; and

e. The designed world. Experiences shall include those that promote an understanding of current and emerging physical, biological, and informational technologies: 9 semester hours; or

3. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university with a major in one of the following fields of study: architecture, design, engineering, engineering technology, industrial technology, or physics and completed a minimum of 15 semester hours of technology education content coursework, including at least 3 semester hours in each of the following areas:

a. The nature of technology;

b. Technology and society;

c. Engineering;

d. Abilities for a technological world; and

e. The designed world.

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential. ]

8VAC20-23-280. Career and technical education – trade and industrial education.

A. Endorsement requirements.

1. The candidatemust shall ] have graduated from an approved teacher preparation program with a minimum of a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university in trade and industrial education; or

2. A candidate who has graduated from an approved teacher preparation program that is not in the trade and industrial education program subject area for which the candidate is seeking endorsementmust shall ] have:

a. A current statelicensure license ] or industry certification based on the prescribed standard or examination, if applicable; and

b. Evidence of at least two years ofsuccessful ] full-time or equivalent occupational experience within the past five years in the teaching specialty for which the candidate is seeking endorsement. A candidate whose occupational experience has not been within the last five yearsmust shall ] participate in a supervised technical update related to the teaching specialty or area of endorsement or complete a supervised internship of work experience of not less than six weeks related to the area of endorsement or teaching specialty.

B. Technical Professional License. An endorsement in a specialized trade and industrial education area will be granted to an individual who has:

1. Been recommended by an employing Virginia educational agency;

2. A current license or is currently certified as a professional practitioner in the area in whichhe the individual ] is to be teaching, if applicable, or can demonstrate competency in the area of trade and industrial educationhe the individual ] is to be teaching;

3. Evidence of at least two years ofsuccessful ] full-time or the equivalent occupational experience within the past five years in the teaching specialty for which he is seeking endorsement. Candidates whose occupational experience has not been within the last five yearsmust shall ] participate in a supervised technical update related to the teaching specialty or area of endorsement or complete a supervised internship of work experience of not less than six weeks related to the area of endorsement or teaching specialty; and

4. Completed professional studies requirements (human development and learning: 3 semester hours; curriculum and instruction in career and technical education: 3 semester hours; and applications of instructional technology or classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours).

C. Add-on endorsement requirements. A candidatemust shall ]:

1. Hold an active Collegiate Professional or Postgraduate Professional License with a teaching endorsement;

2. Demonstrate competency in the trade or industrial area being sought;

3. Hold current state licensure or industry certification for the trade or industrial area for which endorsement is sought based upon the prescribed standard or examination;

4. Have completed two years or 4,000 clock hours of satisfactory, full-time occupational experience at the journeyman level or an equivalent level in the occupation within the last five years. Candidates whose occupational experience has not been within the last five yearsmust shall ] participate in a supervised technical update related to the teaching specialty or area of endorsement or complete a supervised internship of work experience of not less than six weeks related to the area of endorsement or teaching specialty; and

5. Have completed 3 semester hours in curriculum and instruction specific to vocational industrial education.

8VAC20-23-290. Career and technical education – transition and special needs (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation programwith a minimum of a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university ] intransition and ] special needseducation ]; or

2.Completed Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed ] a major in career and technical education or special education, pre-K-12 preK-12 ] with an endorsement in one area of career and technical education or special education preK-12, including 12 semester hours distributed in the following areas:

a. Overview of special needs programs and services: 3 semester hours;

b. Instructional methods, curriculum, and resources: 3 semester hours;

c. Career and life planning, transitioning, occupational information, and delivery of cooperative education programs: 3 semester hours; and

d. Purposes and practices and characteristics of special populations: 3 semester hours; and

3. Completed successful, supervised occupational experience, 3 semester hours, or one year of full-time or the equivalent of relevant occupational experience within the past five years.

8VAC20-23-300. Computer science.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in computer science; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 36 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Mathematics, including discrete mathematics;

b. Data structures and algorithm analysis;

c. Foundations of computer science; and

d. Programming in at least two distinct languages: 6 semester hours.

B. Add-on endorsement requirements in computer science. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.An earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

2. Completed 18 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Mathematics, including discrete mathematics;

b. Data structures and algorithm analysis;

c. Foundations of computer science; and

d. Programming in at least two distinct languages: 6 semester hours.

8VAC20-23-310. Dance arts preK-12.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in dance arts; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in dance arts or 24 semester hours with coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Development of movement language: 9 semester hours.

(1) A course in each area of ballet, folk, jazz, and modern dance: 6 semester hours; and

(2) Area of concentration in one area of ballet, folk, jazz, or modern dance beyond the entry level: 3 semester hours;

b. Composition, improvisation, and dance arts production,which ] may include stage lighting, stage costuming, or stage makeup: 3 semester hours;

c. Scientific foundations, including human anatomy, kinesiology, and injury prevention and care for dance arts: 9 semester hours; and

d. Cultural understanding, including cultural context and dance history: 3 semester hours.

B. Add-on endorsement requirements in dance arts. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.An earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

2. Completed 15 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Development of movement language: 9 semester hours.

(1) A course in each area of ballet, folk, jazz, and moderndance ]: 6 semester hours; and

(2) Area of concentration in one area of ballet, folk, jazz, or moderndance ] beyond the entry level: 3 semester hours;

b. Composition, improvisation, and dance arts production,which ] may include stage lighting, stage costuming, or stage makeup: 3 semester hours; and

c. Cultural understanding, including cultural context and dance history: 3 semester hours.

8VAC20-23-320. Driver education (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.An earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

2. Completed an approved teacher preparation program in driver education; or

3.Completed Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and completed ] 6 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Driver Task Analysis: to include, including ] instructional strategies as prescribed in the Curriculum and Administrative Guide for Driver Education in Virginia [ 2010 ] (http://www.doe.virginia.gov/instruction/driver_education/curriculum_admin_guide/index.shtml); understanding the highway transportation system; applying Virginia's motor vehicle laws; personal, legal, and emotional factors; visual and sensory perception; risk perception and risk management; space management and other defensive driving techniques; environmental, financial, and other vehicle ownership responsibilities; vehicle technologies; and the scientific principles of the driving tasks: 3 semester hours; and

b. Principles and methodologies of classroom and in-car instruction, including applying classroom and in-car teaching techniques for delivering concurrent instruction; applying perception, vehicle balance, speed control, and other risk management principles to the development of precision driving skills; and understanding program administrative tasks, including juvenile licensing laws and issuance of a driver's license; a minimum of 14 hours of actual behind-the-wheel supervised teaching experience demonstrating vehicle control skills and performance capabilities that includes 2 hours of basic evasive maneuvers; and a minimum of 14 hours of mentorship with a licensed, endorsed driver education teacher: 3 semester hours.

4. A current, valid Virginia driver's license.School divisions are to ensure that teachers of driver education hold a valid driver's license. ]

8VAC20-23-330. Engineering.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in engineering;

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in engineering or an engineering subspecialtyat in ] an Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET)-accredited college or university program;

3. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed an engineering technology, science, or technology education major with at least 12 semester hours of coursework in engineering courses, including:

a. Introduction to engineering design;

b. Statics or dynamics;

c. Circuits or fluid mechanics; and

d. Thermodynamics;

4.Completed Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed ] a science, mathematics, or technology education major with at least five years of successfulfull-time ] experience working in an engineering environment; or

5.Hold Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold ] a professional engineer's (P.E.) license.

8VAC20-23-340. English.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in English; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in English or a minimum of 36 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Literacy and reading: 12 semester hours. Coursesmust shall ] include:

(1) Survey of British literature;

(2) Survey of American literature;

(3) World literature; and

(4) Literary theory and criticism.

b. Language: 3 semester hours. Includes the development and nature of the English language.

c. Composition: 12 semester hours. Experiences shall include:

(1) A grammar course integrating grammar and writing;

(2) The teaching of writing, based on current knowledge and most effective practices, including the use of technology for this purpose;

(3) An advanced composition course emphasizing rhetorical practices of expository, persuasive, argumentative, and analytical writing; and

(4) Teaching research including ethical accessing, evaluating, organizing, crediting, and synthesizing information.

d. Oral language: 3 semester hours. Experiences shall include the teaching of public and presentation speaking, including nonverbal communication and the role of communication in small group and mass communication.

e. Electives from the areas listed inthis section this subdivision 2 ]: 6 semester hours.

8VAC20-23-350. English as a second language preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in English as a second language; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 24 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Teaching of reading and writing. Coursesmust shall ] includethe five areas of reading instruction: skills in ] phonemicand other phonological ] awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and text comprehension as well as the similarities and differences between reading in a first language and reading in a second language and a balanced literacy approach ];pre-reading, during reading, and post-reading strategies; vocabulary development; and guided reading. Ability to structure interactive tasks that engage students in using oral language to develop language and skills. Ability to determine students' reading levels and design instruction for multi-level classrooms by incorporating appropriate scaffolding or language supports; ] one coursemust shall ] address teaching reading to English language learners: 6 semester hours;

b. English linguistics:general and English linguistics ] 3 semester hours;

c. Cross-cultural education: 3 semester hours;

d. Second language acquisition: 3 semester hours;

e. Methods of English as a second language, to includeinstruction based on the understanding of ] the World-Class Instructional Design and Assessment (WIDA) English Language Development (ELD) Standards: 3 semester hours;

f. English as a second language assessment to include assessing comprehension and communication in English: 3 semester hours; and

g. Electives from the areas listed in [ this section this subdivision 2 ]: 3 semester hours.

8VAC20-23-360. Foreign language preK-12.

A. The specific language of the endorsement will be noted on the license.

B. Endorsement requirements for foreign language preK-12 - languages other than Latinand American Sign Language ]. The candidate [ must shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in a foreign language; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university, ] and completeda major in the foreign language or ] 30 semester hours of coursework above the intermediate level in the foreign language distributed in the following areas:

a. Advanced grammar and composition;

b. Conversation, culture and civilization, and literature; and

c. In addition to the 30 semester hours, completed a minimum of 3 semester hours of methods of teaching foreign languages at the elementary and secondary levels.

3. Endorsement in a secondforeign ] language may be obtainedwith by successfully completing ] 24 semester hours of coursework above the intermediate level.

4. Candidates who have learned a foreign language without formal academic credit in a regionally accredited college or universitymust shall ] complete the following requirements:

a. Achieve a qualifying score on a foreign language assessment in the appropriate language as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education; and

b. Earn a minimum of 3 semester hours of methods of teaching foreign languages at the elementary and secondary levels from a regionally accredited college or university in the United States or obtain teacher certification in another country with at least 3 semester hours of methods of teaching foreign languages at the elementary and secondary levels at a foreign institution.

C. Endorsement requirements for foreign language preK-12 - Latin. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in Latin; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 24 semester hours of Latin above the intermediate level. A maximum of six semester hours of Roman history, Roman life,Roman ] mythology, orRoman ] archaeology may be included in the total hours. A minimum of 3 semester hours of methods of teaching Latin at the elementary and secondary levels are required.

D. Endorsement requirements for foreign language preK-12 - American Sign Language.

1. The candidatemust shall ] have (i) graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in a foreign language - American Sign Language or (ii) earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in American Sign Language or 24 semester hours above the intermediate level in American Sign Language. The program shall include (i) courses in advanced grammar and syntax, conversation, and culture and (ii) a minimum of 3 semester hours of methods of teaching foreign languages at the elementary and secondary levels.

2. Native users or candidates who have learned American Sign Language without formal academic credit in a regionally accredited college or university, as explained in subdivision 1 of this subsection,must shall ] complete the following requirements:

a. Competency in American Sign Language demonstrated by written documentation of one of the following:

(1) Hold a current, valid Provisional, Qualified, or Professional certification by the American Sign Language Teachers' Association;

(2) Hold one of the following current, valid national certificates in interpreting:

(a) Registry of Interpreters for Deaf certification in at least one of the following: Certificate of Interpretation (CI), Certificate of Deaf Interpretation (CDI), Reverse Skills Certification (RSC), or Comprehensive Skills Certificate (CSC);

(b)Hold a A ] current, valid National Association for the Deaf Level IV certification or higher; or

(c)A ] National Interpreter Certification (NIC); or

(3) Complete requirements by achieving a qualifying score on an assessment demonstrating proficiency in American Sign Language prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

b.Completed a A ] minimum of 3 semester hours of methods of teaching foreign languages at the elementary and secondary levels from a regionally accredited college or university in the United States; and

c.Earned a A ] minimum of 6 semester hours in coursework, ] including grammar and syntax of American Sign Language.

8VAC20-23-370. Gifted education (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.An earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area;and ]

2.Completed Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed ] an approved teacher preparation program in gifted education; or

3. Completed the following requirements:

a. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and ]

a. b. ] Completed 12 semester hours of graduate-level coursework in gifted education distributed in the following areas:

(1)Academic and social-emotional characteristics and special populations of gifted learners Introduction and identification of giftedness ]: 3 semester hours;

(2)Curriculum models and differentiation of instruction for Social and emotional development and guidance of ] gifted learners: 3 semester hours;

(3)Identification and assessment of Curriculum and instructional strategies for ] gifted learners: 3 semester hours; and

(4)Current trends and issues in the field of gifted education Advanced course work in one of the following areas ]: 3 semester hours; and:

(a) Advanced curriculum, instruction, and assessment design;

(b) Advanced program development and evaluation; or

(c) Advanced study in underrepresented populations; and ]

b. c. ] Completed a practicum of at least 45 instructional hours. This practicum shall include a minimum of 45 instructional hours of successful teaching experiences with gifted students in a public or an accredited nonpublic school. In lieu of the practicum, one year of successful, full-time teaching experience with gifted students in a public or an accredited nonpublic school may be accepted, ] provided the teacher is assigned a mentor holding a valid license with an endorsement in gifted education.

8VAC20-23-380. Health and physical education preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in health and physical education; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in health and physical education or 45 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Personal healthand, ] safety, and care of athletic injuries ]: 3 semester hours;

b. Human anatomy, physiology,exercise physiology, ] andkinesiology biomechanics of human movement ]: 9 semester hours;

c. General health and physical education theory, including curriculum design and development in health and physical education: 3 semester hours;

d. Instructional methods and skills for secondary physical education: 3 semester hours;

e.Instructional Concepts of motor learning, instructional ] methods, ] and skills for elementary physical education: 3 semester hours;

f.School Instruction methods for elementary and secondary school ] healthmethods course ]: 3 semester hours;

g. Health and physical education electives: 9 semester hours;

h.Adapted Instructional methods and strategies for adapted ] physical education: 3 semester hours;

i. Technology in health and physical education: 3 semester hours;

j.Principles of human ] nutrition: 3 semester hours; and

k.Measurement Assesment ] and evaluation in the content area: 3 semester hours.

8VAC20-23-390. History and social sciences.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in history and social sciences; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 51 semester hours of coursework distributed ineach of ] the following areas:

a. History: a major in history or 18 semester hours in history(must (shall ] include coursework in American history, Virginia history, and world history);

b. Political science: a major in political science or 18 semester hours in political scienceto, which shall ] include coursework in American government (state and local government);

c. Geography: 9 semester hours; and

d. Economics: 6 semester hours.

B. Add-on endorsement requirements in history, political science, geography, and economics. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university andhave hold ] a teaching license with an endorsement in history, political science, geography, or economics; and

2. Completed 21 semester hours of coursework in the additional social science area(i.e., - ] history, political science, geography, or economics) for which the add-on endorsement is ] sought.

8VAC20-23-400. Journalism (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.An earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

2. Completed a minimum of 15 semester hours in journalism.

8VAC20-23-410. Keyboarding (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.An earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

2. Completed  6 semester hours in keyboarding. Three of the six semester hours may be from either formal keyboarding instruction or documented demonstrated mastery of the touch keyboarding skill, and three semester hoursmust shall ] include document formatting skills, word processing, and computer applications.

8VAC20-23-420. Library media preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved preparation program in school library media; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 24 semester hours distributed in the following areas:

a. Teaching for learning, including knowledge of learners and learning; effective and knowledgeable teaching; collaborative instructional partners; integration of learning standards and technologies; assessment of and for student learning; and the design and implementation of instruction that engages students interests and develops their ability to inquire, think critically, and gain and share knowledge: 3 semester hours;

b. Literacy and reading, including familiarity with children's, young adult, and professional literature in multiple formats; use of a variety of strategies to promote reading for enjoyment and information; collection development to support diverse learning needs; and collaboration to reinforce reading instructional strategies: 6 semester hours;

c. Information and knowledge, including efficient and ethical information-seeking behavior, ethical and equitable access to information, design and delivery of authentic learning through current and emerging technology, and the use of evidence-based action research to create and share knowledge: 6 semester hours;

d. Advocacy and leadership, including networking with the library community, commitment to professional development, leadership in articulating the role of the school library program in the educational community and in student learning, and advocacy for school library programs, resources, and services: 3 semester hours; and

e. Program management and administration, including planning, developing, implementing, and evaluating library programs, collections, and facilities; personnel; funding; organization of materials; professional ethics; and strategic planning and program assessment: 6 semester hours.

3. Supervised school library media practicum. Experiences shall include clinical experience to give the applicant an opportunity to apply the skills,understandings knowledge ], and competencies required for the endorsement. One year of successful, full-time experience as a school librarian in a public or accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the supervised practicum.

8VAC20-23-430. Mathematics.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in mathematics; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in mathematics or 36 semester hours of coursework distributed in each of the following areas:

a. Algebra. Experience shall include linear algebra (matrices, vectors, and linear transformations) and abstract algebra (ring, group, and field theory);

b. Geometry. Experience shall include Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries;

c. Analytic geometry;

d. Probability and statistics;

e. Discrete mathematics. Experience shall include the study of mathematical properties of finite sets and systems and linear programming;

f. Calculus. Experience shall include multivariable calculus;and ]

g. Mathematical modeling; and

h. Computer science, including two programming languages ].

8VAC20-23-440. Mathematics –Algebra algebra ] I (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.An earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

2. Either:

a. Completed an approved teacher preparation program in Algebra I; or

b. Completed 24 semester hours that include coursework in each of the following areas:

(1) Elementary functions, introductory college algebra, and trigonometry;

(2) Linear algebra;

(3) Calculus;

(4) Euclidean geometry;

(5) Probability and statistics;

(6) Discrete mathematics;

(7) Mathematical modeling; and

(8) Methods of teaching algebra.

8VAC20-23-450. Music education – instrumental preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in music education - instrumental; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 42 semester hours of coursework distributed ineach of ] the following areas:

a. Basic music knowledge. Experiences shall be related to music theory, music history, and literature: 18 semester hours.; ]

b. Musical performance. Experiences shall consist of developing competency in a primary performance medium (band or orchestral instrument), in a secondary performance medium (band, orchestral, or keyboard instrument), and in teaching, rehearsing, and conducting ensembles: 18 semester hours.; and ]

c. Electives with coursework selected from either of the two areas listed in subdivisions 2 a and 2 b of this section: 6 semester hours.

8VAC20-23-460. Music education – vocal/choral preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in music education - vocal/choral; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 42 semester hours of coursework distributed ineach of ] the following areas:

a. Basic music knowledge. Experiences shall be related to music theory, music history, and literature: 18 semester hours.; ]

b. Musical performance. Experiences shall consist of developing competency in a primary and secondary medium, selected from voice or keyboard, ] and in teaching, rehearsing, and conducting ensembles: 18 semester hours.; and ]

c. Electives with coursework selected from either of the two areas listed in subdivisions 2 a and 2 b of this section: 6 semester hours.

8VAC20-23-470. Science – biology.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in biology;

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in biology or 32 semester hours in biology, ] and at least one course in each of the followingareas ]: genetics, biochemistry/molecular biology, cell biology, botany, zoology, anatomy/physiology, ecology,  and evolutionary biology and other preparation consistent with the competencies for the endorsement; or

3. Earned an endorsement in another science discipline andcompleted ] at least 18 semester hours in biology, including at least one course in each of the following areas: genetics, biochemistry/molecular biology or cell biology, botanyor, ] zoology, anatomy/physiology, and evolutionary biology or ecology.

8VAC20-23-480. Science – chemistry.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in chemistry;

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in chemistry or 32 semester hours in chemistry, including at least one course in each of the followingareas ]: inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, biochemistry, and analytical chemistry and other preparation consistent with the competencies required for the endorsement; or

3. Earned an endorsement in another science discipline andcompleted ] at least 18 semester hours in chemistry, including at least one course in each of the following areas: inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, biochemistry, and analytical chemistry.

8VAC20-23-490. Science – Earth science.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in Earth science;

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in Earth science, geology, or environmental science with a minimum of 32 semester hours in Earth sciences, including at least one course in each of the followingareas ]: structural geology, petrology, paleontology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy/space science; or

3. Earned an endorsement in another science discipline andcompleted ] at least 18 semester hours in Earth sciences, including at least one course in each of the following areas: structural geology, petrology, paleontology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy/spaceor planetary ] science.

8VAC20-23-500. Science – physics.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in physics;

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in physics or 32 semester hours in physics, including the following coursework: mechanics, electricity and magnetism, optics, and modern physics and other preparation consistent with the competencies required for the endorsement; or

3. Earned an endorsement in another science discipline and at least 18 semester hours in physics, including preparation in each of the following areas: mechanics, electricity and magnetism, optics, and modern physics.

8VAC20-23-510. Special education – adapted curriculum K-12.

Endorsement requirements: The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved program in special education - adapted curriculum; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 27 semester hours in the education of students with disabilitiesas ] distributed in the following areas:

a. Core coursework: 12 semester hours distributed among the following areas:

(1) Foundations: 3 semester hours. Characteristics that include knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include an understanding and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities;

(2) Assessment and evaluation: 3 semester hours. Includes an understanding and application of the foundation of assessment and evaluation related to best practices in special education, including types and characteristics of assessment, introduction to formal and informal assessment, and the use of assessments and other information to determine special education eligibility, service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities. Understanding of the current legal and ethical issues related to assessment selection and use, including comprehensive evaluation requirements, students with disabilities participation in the state and local accountability systems, assessment options, appropriate grading and testing accommodations, and assessment of students from diverse backgrounds.

(3) Collaboration that includes skills in consultation, case management, co-teaching, and collaboration: 3 semester hours. Includes understanding roles and responsibilities, knowledge and application of effective communication skills and of culturally responsive practices and strategies, and the ability to develop home, school, and community partnerships to address the needs of students with disabilities.

(4) Management of classroom instruction and behaviors: 3 semester hours. Includes an understanding and knowledge of research-based classroom management techniques, positive behaviors supports, and individual interventions and a demonstrated ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environment, ] including classroom organization, instructional design, and establishment of classroom routines and procedures. Knowledge of the elements of effective instructional planning, differentiation of instruction, and other instructional approaches to enhance student engagement and achievement. Understanding of behavior assessments, data collection and analysis, and development and monitoring of behavior intervention plans.

b. Adapted curriculum coursework: 15 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

(1) Characteristics: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area include the ability to demonstrate knowledge of the characteristics, including medical and health conditions, and learning and support needs of students with disabilities (K-12) whose cognitive and functional skills are significantly different from typically developing peers and therefore require adaptations to the general curriculum for an appropriate education, including, but not limited to, students with autism spectrum disorders, developmental delay, intellectual disability, traumatic brain injury, and multiple disabilities including sensory, deaf-blindness, speech-language, orthopedicand/or and other ] health impairments as an additional disability to those referenced above.

(2) Individualized education program (IEP) implementation: 3 semester hours. Knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements of IEP development, including timelines, components, team composition, roles, and responsibilities. Skills in this area include the ability to apply knowledge of assessment and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques; to make decisions about student progress, instruction, program, goal development, modifications, adaptations, placement, and teaching methodology for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum andVirginia ] Standards of Learning through an aligned curriculum; and to demonstrate the use of assessment, evaluation, and other information to develop and implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities in an adapted curriculum across the K-12 grade levels.

(3) Transitioning: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area include the ability to prepare students and work with families to provide successful student transitions throughout the educational experience to include postsecondary education, training, employment, and independent living that addresses an understanding of long-term planning, age-appropriate transition assessments, career development, life skills, community experiences and resources, and self-determination to include goal setting, decision making, problem solving, self-awareness and self-advocacy, guardianship, and other legal considerations.

(4) Instructional methods and strategies for the adapted curriculum: 3 semester hours. An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities who need an adapted curriculum. Knowledge of the general curriculum requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs. Skills in this area include the ability to understand and use a range of modifications, adaptations, special instructional strategies, and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in reading, writing, and mathematics instruction for students with more significant disabilities; ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments; knowledge of available assistive and instructional technologies, including alternative communication methods and systems to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the adaptive curriculum and the ability to evaluate its effectiveness; ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized assessment to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional material and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as they relate to curriculum design and delivery; ability to modify and adapt instructional content in a variety of settings and collaborate with general education content teachers to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the adapted curriculum and monitor student progress.

(5) Individualized supports and specialized care of students with significant disabilities: 3 semester hours. Knowledge of and ability to implement adapted strategies to address the positioning, handling, communication, personal care, and medical needs of students with significant disabilities. Knowledge and understanding of the roles of related disciplines and service providers in collaborative planning and service delivery. Demonstration of the ability to develop and utilize a blended curriculum design to address disability-specific or unique needs such as feeding and communication while addressing the adapted curriculum requirements.

8VAC20-23-520. Special education blindness and visual impairments preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in special education visual impairments preK-12; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in special education blindness and visual impairments or 30 semester hours in education of students with visual impairments, distributed with at least one course in each of the following areas:

a. Characteristics of students with visual impairment: 3 semester hours ]. Provides an overview of the characteristics of and services to persons with visual impairments, including the impact of visual impairment on infant and child growth and development, child and adolescent emotional and social development, and family interaction patterns. Includes the educational, conceptual, psychosocial, and physical implications of a visual impairment.

b. Foundations: 3 semester hours ]. Includes knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include understanding and application of the regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

c. Braille code: 3 semester hours. Includes the literary code of Braille, its implications for educational and literacy programs for students with visual disabilities and how to teach the Braille code to students with visual impairments.

d. Braille reading and writing: 3 semester hours. Includes instruction in the various technologies used by students who use Braille; basic instruction on transcription of advanced Braille codes,including uncontracted and contracted Unified English Braille, ] including music, foreign language, chemistry,computer Braille, ] and Nemeth code (Braille mathematics code); techniques for teaching skills in each code; and technology tools used to create Braille and tactile materials in addition to other assistive technologies used for instruction in mathematics and science.

e. Medical and educational implications of visual impairment: 3 semester hours ]. Includes anatomy of the human eye, normal visual development, pathology of the eye, examination procedures for the identification of visual pathology, and the effects of pathology on visual learning and development.

f. Assistive technology for students with sensory impairment: 3 semester hours ]. Introduces specific technology and resources available to enhance and improve ability of individuals with sensory disabilities and includes literacy skill development of students who are blind or visually impaired using technology.

g. Curriculum and assessment: 3 semester hours ]. Includes knowledge of educational assessments used with students with visual impairments and additional disabilities including deaf-blindness. Addresses assessment of technology needs of students with visual impairments, including functional vision assessments, learning media assessments, assistive technology, and assessment in areas of the expanded core curriculum; application of assessment results to development of the individualized education program (IEP); planning for placement; and services and accommodations for students with visual impairments.

h. Positive behavior intervention supports: 3 semester hours ]. Includes understanding of research-based, positive behavior intervention supports and individual interventions; knowledge of the elements of effective instructional planning, differentiation of instruction, and other instructional approaches to enhance student engagement and achievement; and understanding of behavior assessments, data collection and analysis, development and monitoring of behavior intervention plans.

i. Collaboration: 3 semester hours ]. Includes skills in consultation, case management, co-teaching, and collaboration that include understanding roles and responsibilities, knowledge and application of effective communication skills, of culturally responsive practices and strategies, and the ability to develop home, school, and community partnerships to address the needs of students who are visually impaired.

j. Teaching methods: 3 semester hours ].Skills in this area include: ]

(1)Includes methods Methods ] of teaching compensatory skills, the core curriculum, and technology used by students who are blind and visually impaired; introduces individual family service plans (IFSPs); and includes understanding and application of development and implementation of the IEP, including service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students who are visually impaired.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in instruction for students who are visually impaired.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with theVirginia ] Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to assess student needs as they relate to curriculum design and delivery.

(6) Ability to model and directly teach instructional strategies in a variety of settings, and monitor student progress.

(7) Ability to adapt materials and procedures to meet the needs of students with visual impairments.

k. Orientation and mobility. Includes the components of orientation and mobility (O&M); how the need for independent travel in the blind population created the field of O&M; and the philosophy and history of O&M, including cane instruction, dog guides, and methods of travel. Addresses techniques in developing orientation skills and basic mobility instruction. Motor and concept skill development are emphasized.

8VAC20-23-530. Special education deaf and hard of hearing preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in special education deaf and hard of hearing; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in special education deaf and hard of hearing or 27 semester hours in education of students who are deaf and hard of hearing distributed in the following areas:

a. Foundations: 3 semester hours. Includes knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical and legal aspects that include understanding and application of the regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

b. Characteristics: 3 semester hours. Includes the ability to demonstrate knowledge of etiologies of hearing loss, definitions, characteristics, learning, and support needs of students who are deaf and hard of hearing from pre-K through secondary levels, who may be using various communication modalities/languages and who may have additional disabilities.

c. Assessment and evaluation: 3 semester hours. Includes an understanding and application of the foundation of assessment and evaluation related to best practices, including types and characteristics of assessments, formal and informal assessment, and the use of assessment information to determine special education eligibility and inform service delivery, curriculum, accommodations, instructional methods, and student progress. Understanding comprehensive evaluation requirements, participation of students with disabilities in state and local accountability systems, assessment options, appropriate testing accommodations, and assessment of students from diverse backgrounds.

d. Instructional planning: 3 semester hours.Includes the following: ]

(1) Familiarity with individual family service plans (IFSPs).

(2) An understanding and application of development and implementation of the individualized education program (IEP) including service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students who are deaf and hard of hearing andin ] transition.

(3) Knowledge of the general curriculum requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(4) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in instruction for students who are deaf and hard of hearing.

(5) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with theVirginia ] Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to assess student needs as they relate to the curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students who are deaf and hard of hearing, and monitor student progress.

e. Speech, language, and literacy development: 3 semester hours. Includes an understanding of the normal developmental sequence of speech, language (oral, signed, and written), auditory, and cognitive milestones, varying methodologies and strategies used in assessing language skills (through the air and spoken) of a student who is deaf and hard of hearing; demonstrate skills necessary to foster and enhance language development and communication skills in students who are deaf and hard of hearing including American Sign Language, cued speech, and listening and spoken language skills. Ability to model and directly teach instructional strategies that foster language and literacy development.

f. Classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours. Includes an understanding and knowledge of research-based classroom management techniques, positive behavior intervention supports and individual interventions; and demonstrated ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environment including classroom organization, instructional design, and establishment of classroom routines and procedures. Knowledge of the elements of effective instructional planning, differentiation of instruction, and other instructional approaches to enhance student engagement and achievement. Understanding of behavior assessments, data collection and analysis, development, and monitoring of behavior intervention plans

g. Audiology and speech and hearing science: 3 semester hours. Understanding of the basic principles of sound reception and production including neuroanatomy of speech and hearing mechanisms and physical characteristics and measurement of acoustic stimuli; biological, neurological, and acoustic bases of communication; reading and interpreting audiograms and other audiologic assessments used in determining eligibility; knowledge of types, degrees, and effects of hearing loss on developmental domains; relevance of age of onset, age of identification of hearing loss, and age of amplification and intervention in speech and language development; ability to troubleshoot hearing aids, external components of cochlear implants, and other assistive listening devices;and ] ability to foster development of listening skills.

h. Collaboration: 3 semester hours. Includes skills in consultation, case management, co-teaching, and collaboration that includes understanding roles and responsibilities, knowledge and application of effective communication skills, of culturally responsive practices and strategies, and the ability to develop home, school, and community partnerships to address the needs of students who are deaf and hard of hearing.

i. Communication modalities: 3 semester hours. Includes introduction to the various communication modalities used by students who are deaf and hard of hearing, including listening and spoken language, cued speech, speech reading, and through the air communication including use of American Sign Language (ASL) and contact varieties of signed language and coursework to learn ASL.

8VAC20-23-540. Special education early childhood (birth-age five years).

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in early childhood special education; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in early childhood special education or 27 semester graduate hours in early childhood special education, including at least one course in each of the following:

a. Foundations and legal aspects of special education: 3 semester hours;

b. Assessment for diagnosis, program planning, and curriculum-based measurement to document progress for young children with typical development, disabling, and at-risk conditions: 3 semester hours;

c. Curriculum and instructional programming for preschool: 3 semester hours;

d. Speech and language development and intervention: 3 semester hours;

e. Medical aspects: 3 semester hours;

f. Social and emotional skills and behavior management for early childhood: 3 semester hours;

g. Consultation, co-teaching, coaching, and mentoring: 3 semester hours;

h. Family-centered intervention: 3 semester hours; and

i. Early childhood elective: 3 semester hours.

8VAC20-23-550. Special education – general curriculum K-12.

Endorsement requirements: The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved program in special education - general curriculum; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 27 semester hours in the education of students with disabilities distributed in the following areas:

a. Core coursework: 12 semester hours distributed among the following areas:

(1) Foundations: 3 semester hours. Characteristics that include knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include an understanding and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

(2) Assessment and evaluation: 3 semester hours. Includes an understanding and application of the foundation of assessment and evaluation related to best practice in special education, including types and characteristics of assessment, introduction to formal and informal assessment, and the use of assessments and other information to determine special education eligibility, service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities. Understanding of the current legal and ethical issues related to assessment selection and use, including comprehensive evaluation requirements, students with disabilities participation in the state and local accountability systems, assessment options, appropriate grading and testing accommodations, and assessment of students from diverse backgrounds.

(3) Collaboration that includes skills in consultation, case management, co-teaching, and collaboration: 3 semester hours. Includes understanding roles and responsibilities, knowledge and application of effective communication skills and of culturally responsive practices and strategies and the ability to develop home, school, and community partnerships to address the needs of students with disabilities.

(4) Management of classroom instruction and behaviors: 3 semester hours. Includes an understanding and knowledge of research-based classroom management techniques, positive behavior support, and individual interventions and a demonstrated ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environment, including classroom organization, instructional design, and establishment of classroom routines and procedures. Knowledge of the elements of effective instructional planning, differentiation of instruction, and other instructional approaches to enhance student engagement and achievement. Understanding of behavior assessments, data collection and analysis, development, and monitoring of behavior intervention plans.

b. General curriculum coursework: 15 semester hours distributed in the following areas:

(1) Characteristics: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall include the ability to demonstrate knowledge of definitions, characteristics, and learning and behavioral support needs of students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum at the elementary, middle, and high school levels, includingbut not limited to, ] students with learning disabilities, emotional disability, and intellectual disabilities; developmental delay; autism; other health impairments; traumatic brain injury; and multiple disabilities.

(2) Individualized education program development and implementation: 3 semester hours. Knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements of IEP development, ] including timelines, components, team composition, and roles and responsibilities. Skills in this area include the ability to apply knowledge of assessment and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques; to make decisions about student progress, instructional program, goal development, accommodations, placement, and teaching methodology for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and thestandards of learning Virginia Standards of Learning ]; and to demonstrate the use of assessment, evaluation, and other information to develop and implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels.

(3) Transitioning: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area include the ability to prepare students and work with families and community agencies to provide successful student transitions throughout the educational experience to include postsecondary education training, employment, and independent living that addresses an understanding of long-term planning, career development, life skills, community experiences and resources, self-advocacy, and self-determination, guardianship, and legal considerations.

(4) Instructional strategies in reading and writing: 3 semester hours.Skills in this area include: ]

(a) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in reading and writing.

(b) Knowledge of the general curriculum, English requirements and expectations, and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(c) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified reading needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in reading and writing instruction for students with disabilities.

(d) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(e) Knowledge and ability to utilize current assistive and instructional reading and writing technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(f) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized reading and writing assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as they relate to the curriculum design and delivery.

(g) Ability to model and directly teach reading and writing instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

(5) Instructional strategies in mathematics: 3 semester hours.Skills in this area include: ]

(a) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in mathematics.

(b) Knowledge of the general curriculum mathematics requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(c) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address calculations, reasoning, and problem-solving skills. Skills in this area include the ability to understand and use a range of specialized mathematics instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in mathematics instruction for students with disabilities.

(d) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(e) Knowledge of and ability to utilize current mathematics related assistive and instructional technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(f) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized mathematics assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as they relate to the mathematics curriculum design and delivery.

(g) Ability to model and directly teach mathematics instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the mathematics general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

8VAC20-23-560. Special education – general curriculum K-6 (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements: The candidatemust shall have ]:

1.Hold an earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with an endorsement in elementary education(i.e. ],such as ] early/primary education preK-3 or elementary education preK-6) ].

2.Have completed Completed ] 15 semester hours in the education of students with disabilities distributed in each of the following areas:

a. Foundations: 3 semester hours. Characteristics that include knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include an understanding and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

b. Individualized education program development and implementation: 3 semester hours. Knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements of IEP development, ] including timelines, components, team composition, and roles and responsibilities. Skills in this area include the ability to apply knowledge of assessment and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques; to make decisions about student progress, instructional, program, goal development, accommodations, placement, and teaching methodology for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and the Virginia Standards of Learning; and to demonstrate the use of assessment, evaluation, and other information to develop and implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels.

c. Assessment and evaluation: 3 semester hours. Includes an understanding and application of the foundation of assessment and evaluation related to best practice in special education, including types and characteristics of assessment, introduction to formal and informal assessment, and the use of assessments and other information to determine special education eligibility, service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities. Understanding of the current legal and ethical issues related to assessment selection and use, including comprehensive evaluation requirements, students with disabilities' participation in the state and local accountability systems, assessment options, appropriate grading and testing accommodations, and assessment of students from diverse backgrounds.

d. Instructional strategies in reading and writing: 3 semester hours.Skills in this area include: ]

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in reading and writing.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum, English requirements and expectations, and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified reading needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in reading and writing instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge and ability to utilize current assistive and instructional reading and writing technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized reading and writing assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as they relate to the curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach reading and writing instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

e. Instructional strategies in mathematics: (3 semester hours).Skills in this area include: ]

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in mathematics.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum mathematics requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address calculations, reasoning, and problem-solving skills. Skills in this area include the ability to understand and use a range of specialized mathematics instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in mathematics instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge of and ability to utilize current mathematics-related assistive and instructional technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized mathematics assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as they relate to the mathematics curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach mathematics instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the mathematics general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

3. Completed a practicum of at least 45 instructional hours. This practicum shall include a minimum of 45 instructional hours of successful teaching experiences with students with disabilities accessing the general curriculum in a public or an accredited nonpublic school. In lieu of the practicum, one year of successful, full-time teaching experience with students with disabilities accessing the general curriculum in a public or an accredited nonpublic school may be accepted provided the teacher is assigned a mentor holding a valid license with an endorsement in special education. ]

8VAC20-23-570. Special education – general curriculum middle grades 6-8 (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements: The candidatemust shall have ]:

1.Hold an earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with an endorsement in middle education(i.e. ],such as ] middle education 6-8 English, middle education 6-8 history and social sciences, middle education 6-8 mathematics, or middle education-sciences) ].

2.Have completed Completed ] 15 semester hours in the education of students with disabilities distributed in each of the following areas:

a. Foundations: 3 semester hours. Characteristics that include knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include an understanding and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

b. Individualized education program development and implementation: 3 semester hours. Knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements of IEP development, including timelines, components, team composition, and roles and responsibilities. Skills in this area include the ability to apply knowledge of assessment and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques; to make decisions about student progress, instructional, program, goal development, accommodations, placement, and teaching methodology for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and thestandards of learning Virginia Standards of Learning ]; and to demonstrate the use of assessment, evaluation, and other information to develop and implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels.

c. Transitioning: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area include the ability to prepare students and work with families and community agencies to provide successful student transitions throughout the educational experience to include postsecondary education training, employment, and independent living that addresses an understanding of long-term planning, career development, life skills, community experiences and resources, self-advocacy, and self-determination, guardianship, and legal considerations.

d. Instructional strategies in reading and writing: 3 semester hours.Skills in this area include: ]

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in reading and writing.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum, English requirements and expectations, and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified reading needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in reading and writing instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge and ability to utilize current assistive and instructional reading and writing technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized reading and writing assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as it relates to the curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach reading and writing instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

e. Instructional strategies in mathematics: (3 semester hours).Skills in this area include: ]

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in mathematics.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum mathematics requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address calculations, reasoning and problem-solving skills. Skills in this area include the ability to understand and use a range of specialized mathematics instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in mathematics instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge of and ability to utilize current mathematics-related assistive and instructional technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized mathematics assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as they relate to the mathematics curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach mathematics instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the mathematics general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

3. Completed a practicum of at least 45 instructional hours. This practicum shall include a minimum of 45 instructional hours of successful teaching experiences with students with disabilities accessing the general curriculum in a public or an accredited nonpublic school. In lieu of the practicum, one year of successful, full-time teaching experience with students with disabilities accessing the general curriculum in a public or an accredited nonpublic school may be accepted provided the teacher is assigned a mentor holding a valid license with an endorsement in special education. ]

8VAC20-23-580. Special education – general curriculum secondary grades 6-12 (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements: The candidatemust shall have ]:

1.Hold an earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with an endorsement in English, history and social sciences, mathematics, biology, chemistry, Earth science, or physics.

2.Have completed Completed ] 15 semester hours in the education of students with disabilities distributed in each of the following areas:

a. Foundations: 3 semester hours. Characteristics that include knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include an understanding and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

b. Individualized education program development and implementation: 3 semester hours. Knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements of IEP development, including timelines, components, team composition, and roles and responsibilities. Skills in this area include the ability to apply knowledge of assessment and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques; to make decisions about student progress, instructional, program, goal development, accommodations, placement, and teaching methodology for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and the Virginia Standards of Learning; and to demonstrate the use of assessment, evaluation, and other information to develop and implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels.

c. Transitioning: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area include the ability to prepare students and work with families and community agencies to provide successful student transitions throughout the educational experience to include postsecondary education training, employment, and independent living that addresses an understanding of long-term planning, career development, life skills, community experiences and resources, self-advocacy, and self-determination, guardianship, and legal considerations.

d. Instructional strategies in reading and writing: 3 semester hours.Skills in this area include: ]

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in reading and writing.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum, English requirements and expectations, and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified reading needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in reading and writing instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge and ability to utilize current assistive and instructional reading and writing technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized reading and writing assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as they relate to the curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach reading and writing instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

e. Instructional strategies in mathematics: (3 semester hours).Skills in this area include: ]

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in mathematics.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum mathematics requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address calculations, reasoning, and problem-solving skills. Skills in this area include the ability to understand and use a range of specialized mathematics instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in mathematics instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge of and ability to utilize current mathematics-related assistive and instructional technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized mathematics assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as they relate to the mathematics curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach mathematics instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the mathematics general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

3. Completed a practicum of at least 45 instructional hours. This practicum shall include a minimum of 45 instructional hours of successful teaching experiences with students with disabilities accessing the general curriculum in a public or an accredited nonpublic school. In lieu of the practicum, one year of successful, full-time teaching experience with students with disabilities accessing the general curriculum in a public or an accredited nonpublic school may be accepted provided the teacher is assigned a mentor holding a valid license with an endorsement in special education. ]

8VAC20-23-590. Speech communication (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.An earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

2.A Completed a ] minimum of 15 semester hours in speech communication.

8VAC20-23-600. Theatre arts preK-12.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in theatre arts; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in theatre arts or 33 semester hours distributed among the following areas:

a. Directing: 6 semester hours;

b. Technical theatre: 9 semester hours;

c. Cultural context and theatre history: 3 semester hours;

d. Performance: 6 semester hours; and

e. Dramatic literature: 9 semester hours.

B. Add-on endorsement requirements in theatre arts preK-12. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.An earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

2. Completed 15 semester hours distributed in the following areas:

a. Directing: 3 semester hours;

b. Technical theatre: 3 semester hours;

c. Cultural context and theatre history: 3 semester hours; and

d. Performance: 6 semester hours.

8VAC20-23-610. Visual arts preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in visual arts; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in visual arts or 36 semester hours in art distributed in the following areas:

a. Two-dimensional media: 12 semester hours;

b. Three-dimensional media: 12 semester hours;

c. Cultural context and art history: 6 semester hours;

d. Evaluation and criticism and aesthetics: 3 semester hours; and

e. Related areas of the fine arts: 3 semester hours.

Part VI
Licensure Regulations Governing Support Personnel

8VAC20-23-620. Administration and supervision preK-12.

A. An endorsement in administration and supervision preK-12 consists of Level I, which is required to serve as a building-level administrator or central office instructional supervisor, and Level II, which is an optional endorsement to which an experienced building-level administrator may aspire. Individualsmust shall ] meet the requirements for the administration and supervision preK-12 endorsement through one of the four options listed in this section. A school leader's assessment prescribed by the Virginia Board of Educationmust shall ] bemet passed ] for all individuals who are seeking an initial endorsement authorizing them to serve as principals and assistant principals in the public schools. Individuals seeking an initial administration and supervision endorsement who are interested in serving as central office instructional personnel are not required to take and pass the school leaders assessment prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

B. Level I, Option I: Approved program route to Level I administration and supervision preK-12 endorsement. To become eligible for a Level I endorsement under this option, the candidatemust shall ] have:

1. Earned a master's degree from a regionally accredited college or university;

2. Completed three years of successful, full-time experience in a public school or accredited nonpublic school in an instructional personnel position that requires licensure in Virginia;

3. Completed an approved program in administration and supervision from a regionally accredited college or university;

4. Completed a deliberately structured and supervised internship that is focused on student academic progress for all students and that:

a. Provides significant experiences within a school environment for candidates to synthesize and apply content knowledge and develop professional skills through school-based leadership experiences;

b. Shall occur in a public or accredited nonpublic school;

c. Provides exposure to five different multiple sites(i.e. ],such as ] elementary, middle, ] high, central office,and ] agency), ] with diverse student populations; and

d. Documents a minimum of 320 clock hours, of which 120 clock hours are embedded as experiential field-based opportunities experienced during coursework; and

5. Satisfied the requirements for the school leaders licensure assessment prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education. Individuals seeking an initial administration and supervision endorsement who are interested in serving as central office instructional personnel are not required to take and pass the school leaders assessment prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

C. Level I, Option II: Alternate route to Level I administration and supervision preK-12 endorsement restricted to the Virginia school division in which the superintendent submitted the recommendation for endorsement. This endorsement is valid only in the designated Virginia school division and would not be portable or reciprocal. In order to be eligible for Level I endorsement under this option, the candidatemust shall ] have:

1. Earned a master's degree from a regionally accredited college or university;

2. Completed graduate coursework in school law, evaluation of instruction, and other areas of study as required by an employing Virginia school superintendent. The graduate courseworkmust shall ] be taken from a regionally accredited college or university that has a state-approved administration and supervision program;

3. Completed three years of successful, full-time experience in a public school or accredited nonpublic school in an instructional personnel position that requires licensure in Virginia;

4. Satisfied the requirements for the school leaders licensure assessment specified by the Virginia Board of Education; and

5. Been recommended by the superintendent in the employing Virginia school division.

D. Level I, Option III: Alternate route to Level I administration and supervision preK-12 endorsement. In order to be eligible for Level I endorsement under this option, the candidatemust shall ] have:

1. Earned a master's degree from a regionally accredited college or university;

2. Completed graduate coursework in school law, evaluation of instructional personnel, special education, school finance, educational leadership, and other areas of study as required by an employing Virginia school superintendent, and the graduate courseworkmust shall ] be taken from a regionally accredited college or university that has a state-approved administration and supervision program, or the candidatemust shall ] have completed school law, school finance, and a research-based program approved by the Virginia Department of Education that includes organizational leadership, instructional leadership, instructional practices in content areas, data utilization, evaluation and instructional coaching, and creating positive school cultures;

3. Completed three years of successful, full-time experience in a public school or accredited nonpublic school in an instructional personnel position that requires licensure in Virginia;

4. Satisfied the requirements for the school leaders licensure assessment specified by the Virginia Board of Education; and

5. Been recommended by the superintendent in the employing Virginia school division.

E. Level I, Option IV: Out-of-state administration and supervision endorsement. Virginia does not issue a stand-alone license in administration and supervision. The endorsement is added to a license. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1. Earned a master's degree from a regionally accredited college or university;

2. Completed three years of successful, full-time experience in a public school or accredited nonpublic school in an instructional personnel position;

3. Satisfied the requirements for the school leaders licensure assessment specified by the Virginia Board of Education; and

4. A current, valid out-of-state license,which is (with ] full credential) ], with an endorsement in administration and supervision or completed an approved program in administration and supervision from a regionally accredited college or university leading to an endorsement as a building-level administrator.

F. Level II: Principal of Distinction endorsement in administration and supervision preK-12. A building-level administrator may seek the Principal of Distinction, Level II endorsement in administration and supervision preK-12 after successfully serving as a building-level administrator for at least five years in a public school or an accredited nonpublic school and successfully completing a formal induction program as a principal or assistant principal. In order to earn the Principal of Distinction, Level II endorsement, the candidatemust shall ] meet two or more of the following criteria as specified by the Virginia Board of Education and documented in a Virginia Department of Education approved format and be recommended by the employing Virginia school division superintendent:

1. Evidence of improved student achievement;

2. Evidence of effective instructional leadership;

3. Evidence of positive effect on school climate or culture;

4. Earned doctorate in educational leadership or evidence of formal professional development in the areas of school law, school finance, supervision, human resource management, and instructional leadership; or

5. Evidence ofa ] completion of a high-quality professional development project designed by the division superintendent.

8VAC20-23-630. Division Superintendent License.

An individual may be a candidate for the list of eligible division superintendents and the renewable Division Superintendent License through the completion of the requirements in one of the following four options:

1. Option I. The individualmust shall have ]:

a.Hold an earned Earned a ] doctorate degree in educational administration or educational leadership from a regionally accredited college or university; and

b.Have completed Completed ] five years of educational experience in a public or an accredited nonpublic school, two of whichmust shall ] be successful, full-time teaching experience at the preK-12 level and two of whichmust shall ] be in administration and supervision at the preK-12 level.

2. Option II. The individualmust shall have ]:

a.Hold an earned Earned a ] master's degree from a regionally accredited college or university andsuccessfully ] completed 30 graduate semester hours beyond the conferral date of the master's degree; and

b.Have completed Completed ] requirements for administration and supervision preK-12 endorsement that includes the demonstration of competencies in the following areas:

(1) Knowledge, understanding, and application of planning, assessment, and instructional leadership that builds collective professional capacity, including;

(a) Principles of student motivation, growth, and development as a foundation for age- appropriate and grade-appropriate curriculum, instruction, and assessment;

(b) Collaborative leadership in gathering and analyzing data to identify needs to develop and implement a school improvement plan that results in increased student learning;

(c) Planning, implementation, and refinement of standards-based curriculum aligned with instruction and assessment;

(d) Collaborative planning and implementation of a variety of assessment techniques, including examination of student work that yields individual, class, grade level, and school level data as a foundation for identifying existing competencies and targeting areas in need of further attention;

(e) Incorporation of differentiated and effective instruction that responds to individual learner needs, ] including appropriate response to cultural, ethnic, and linguistic diversity;

(f) Knowledge, understanding, and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities;

(g) Collaboratively working with parents and school personnel to ensure that students with disabilities are included as a valued part of the school community, and that they receive effective and appropriately intensive instruction to assist them in meeting the standards set for all students, ] as well as individual goals outlined in their individualized education programs;

(h) Integration of technology in curriculum and instruction to enhance learner understanding;

(i) Identification, analysis, and resolution of problems using effective problem-solving techniques; and

(j) Development, articulation, implementation, and stewardship of a vision of excellence linked to mission and core beliefs that promote continuous improvement consistent with the goals of the school division.

(2) Knowledge, understanding, and application of leadership and organizations, including;

(a) The change process of systems, organizations, and individuals, using appropriate and effective adult learning models;

(b) Aligning organizational practice, division mission, and core beliefs for developing and implementing strategic plans;

(c) Information sources and processing, including data collection and data analysis strategies;

(d) Using data as a part of ongoing program evaluation to inform and lead change;

(e) Developing a change management strategy for improved student outcomes;

(f) Developing distributed leadership strategies to create personalized learning environments for diverse schools; and

(g) Effective two-way communication skills including consensus building, negotiation, and mediation skills.

(3) Knowledge, understanding, and application of management and leadership skills that achieve effective and efficient organizational operations and sustain an instructional program conducive to student academic progress, including;

(a) Alignment of curriculum and instruction and assessment of the educational program to achieve high academic success at the school and division or district level;

(b) Principles and issues of supervising and leading others to ensure a working and learning climate that is safe, secure, and respectful of a diverse school community;

(c) Management decisions that ensure successful teaching and learning including, human resources management and development, theories of motivation, change in school culture, innovation and creativity, conflict resolution, adult learning, and professional development models;

(d) Knowledge, understanding, and application of Virginia's Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachers and Virginia's Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Principals;

(e) Principles and issues related to fiscal operations of school management;

(f) Principles and issues related to school facilities and use of space and time for supporting high-quality school instruction and student learning;

(g) Legal issues impacting school operations and management;

(h) Technologies that support management functions; and

(i) Application of data-driven decision making to initiate and continue improvement in school and classroom practices and student achievement.

(4) Knowledge, understanding, and application of the conditions and dynamics impacting a diverse school community, including:

(a) Emerging issues and trends within school and community relations;

(b) Working collaboratively with staff, families, and community members to secure resources and to support the success of a diverse population;

(c) Developing appropriate public relations and public engagement strategies and processes for building and sustaining positive relationships with families, caregivers, and community partners; and

(d) Integration of technology to support communication efforts.

(5) Knowledge, understanding, and application of the purpose of education and the role of professionalism in advancing educational goals, including:

(a) Philosophy of education that reflects commitment to principles of honesty, fairness, caring, and equity in day-to-day professional behavior;

(b) Integration of high-quality, content-rich, job-embedded professional learning that respects the contribution of all faculty and staff members in building a diverse professional learning community;

(c) Reflective understanding of moral and legal consequences of decision making in the school setting;

(d) Intentional and purposeful effort to model professional, moral, and ethical standards, ] as well as personal integrity in all interactions; and

(e) Intentional and purposeful effort to model continuous professional learning and to work collegially and collaboratively with all members of the school community to support the school's goals and enhance its collective capacity.

(6) Knowledge, understanding, and application of leadership theories and influences that impact schools, including:

(a) Concepts of leadership including systems theory, change theory, learning organizations, and current leadership theory;

(b)Identify Ability to identify ] and respond to internal and external forces and influences on a school;

(c)Identify Ability to identify ] and apply the processes of educational policy development at the state, local, and school level; and

(d)Identify Ability to identify ] and demonstrate ways to influence educational policy development at the state, local, and school level.

3. Option III. The individualmust shall have ]:

a.Hold an earned Earned a ] master's degree from a regionally accredited college or university;

b.Hold a A ] current, valid out-of-state license with an endorsement as a division or district superintendent; and

c.Have completed Completed ] five years ofsuccessful ] educational experience in a public or an accredited nonpublic school, two of which must besuccessful, ] full-time teaching experience at the preK-12 level and two of which must be insuccessful ] administration and supervision.

4. Option IV. The individualmust shall have ]:

a.Hold an earned Earned a ] master's degree or its equivalent from a regionally accredited college or university;

b.Have held A minimum of three years of successful, full-time experience in ] a senior leadership position, ] such as chief executive officer or senior military officer; and

c. Be recommended by aVirginia ] school board interested in employing the individual as superintendent.

8VAC20-23-640. Mathematics specialist for elementary education.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and an endorsement in a teaching area;

2. 1. ] Completed at least three years of successful, full-time teaching experience in a public or accredited nonpublic school in which the teaching of mathematics was an important responsibility; and

3. 2. ] Either:

a. Graduated froman a graduate-level ] approved mathematics specialistfor ] elementaryeducation ] preparation program - master'slevel degree from a regionally accredited college or university required ]; or

b. Completed amaster's graduate- ] level program in mathematics, mathematics education, or related education field- master’s degree from a regionally accredited college or university required - ] with at least 21 semester hours undergraduate or graduate mathematics coursework distributed in the following areas: (i) number and operations; (ii) rational numbers; (iii) geometry and measurement; (iv) probability and statistics; (v) algebra and functions; and (vi) at least nine semester hours of graduate coursework pertaining to mathematics education in mathematics instructional leadership, evaluation of mathematics curriculum and instruction, mathematical learning theory, and student assessment for mathematics.

8VAC20-23-650. Mathematics specialist forelementary and ] middle education.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and an endorsement in a teaching area;

2. 1. ] Completed at least three years of successful, full-time teaching experience in a public or accredited nonpublic school in which the teaching of mathematics was an important responsibility;

3. Hold 2. A Virginia license with a Mathematics – algebra I (add-on) or mathematics (secondary) ] teaching endorsement (6-12); and

4. 3. ] Either:

a. Graduated froman a graduate-level ] approved mathematics specialistfor elementary and ] middle education preparation program - master'slevel degree from a regionally accredited college or university required ]; or

b. Completed amaster's graduate- ] level program in mathematics, mathematics education, or related education field- master's degree from a regionally accredited college or university required - ] with at least 21 semester hours of undergraduate or graduate mathematics coursework distributed in the following areas; (i) number and operations; (ii) rational numbers; (iii) geometry and measurement; (iv) probability and statistics; (v) algebra and functions; and (vi) at least nine semester hours of graduate coursework pertaining to mathematics education in mathematics instructional leadership, evaluation of mathematics curriculum and instruction, mathematical learning theory, and student assessment for mathematics.

8VAC20-23-660. Reading specialist.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Completed Graduated from ] astate-approved ] graduate-level reading specialiststate-approved ] preparation program - master's degreefrom a regionally accredited college or university ] required - that includes course experiences of at least 30 semester hours of graduate coursework in the competencies for the endorsement, as well as a practicum experience in the diagnosis and remediation of reading difficulties.; ]

2. Satisfied the requirements for the reading specialist assessment specified by the Virginia Board of Education.; and ]

3. At least three years of successful classroom teaching experience in which the teaching of reading was an important responsibility.

8VAC20-23-670. School counselor preK-12.

Endorsement requirements.

1. Option I. The candidatemust shall ] have:

a. Earned a master's degree from a regionally accredited college or universityand completed an approved in a state-approved ] school counselor preparation program that shall include at least 100 clock hours of internship and practicum experiences in the preK-6 setting and 100 clock hours of internship and practicum experiences in the grades 7-12 setting; and

b. Two years of successful, full-time teaching experience or two years of successful, full-time experience in school counseling in a public or an accredited nonpublic school. Two years of successful, full-time experience in school counseling in a public or an accredited nonpublic school under anonrenewable ] Provisional License may be accepted to meet this requirement.

2. Option II. The candidatemust shall ] have:

a. Earned a master's degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed an approved school counselor preparation program that shall include at least 100 clock hours of internship and practicum experiences in the preK-6 setting and 100 clock hours of internship and practicum experiences in the grades 7-12 setting; and

b. Two years of successful, full-time teaching experience or two years of successful, full-time experience in school counseling in a public or an accredited nonpublic school. Two years of successful, full-time experience in school counseling in a public or an accredited nonpublic school under a nonrenewable Provisional License may be accepted to meet this requirement.

8VAC20-23-680. School manager license.

A. The school manager license is intended to provide for the differentiation of administrative responsibilities in a school setting. A school manager is licensed to administer noninstructional responsibilities in an educational setting. For example, a school manager is restricted from evaluating teachers, supervising instruction, developing and evaluating curriculum, and serving as a school's student disciplinarian.

B. To earn a school manager license, the candidatemust shall ]:

1. Have earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university;

2. Have three years successful, full-time managerial experience; and

3. Be recommended for the license by a Virginia school division superintendent.

8VAC20-23-690. School psychology.

Endorsement requirements:

1. Option I. The candidatemust shall ]:

a. Complete an approved program in school psychology;

b. Earn a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and complete 60 graduate-level hours, 54 of which are academic coursework, exclusive of field-based experiences, that culminate in at least a master's degree; and

c. Complete an internship that is documented by the degree-granting institution. The internship experience shall occur on a full-time basis over a period of one year or on a half-time basis over a period of two consecutive years. The internship shall occur under conditions of appropriate supervision, that is, the school-based supervisor shall be licensed as either a school or clinical psychologist. The internship shall include experiences at multiple age levels, at least one half of which shall be inan a public or ] accreditednonpublic ] school setting.

2. Option II. The candidatemust shall ] hold a currently valid certificate issued by the National School Psychology Certification Board.

8VAC20-23-700. School social worker.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1. Earned a master's of social work degree from a regionally accredited college or universityschool of social work ] with a minimum of 60 graduate-level semester hours;or earned an advanced standing master's of social work degree from a regionally accredited college or university with a minimum of 30 graduate-level semester hours; ]

2. A minimum of six graduate semester hours in education to include six semester hours from two of the following courses:

a.The Foundations of education and the ] teaching profession (3 semester hours);

b. Characteristics of special education (3 semester hours);

c. Human development and learning (3 semester hours); or

d. Classroom and behavior management (3 semester hours).

3. Completed a supervised practicum or field experience of a minimum of 400 clock hours in a public or an accredited nonpublic school discharging the duties of a school social worker. One year of successful, full-time experience as a school social worker in a public or an accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the school social work practicum.

8VAC20-23-710. Vocational evaluator.

Endorsement requirements:

1. Option I. The candidatemust shall ] be certified as a vocational evaluation specialist by holding a professional vocational evaluator (PVE) credential or a certified vocational evaluator (CVE) specialist credential, meeting all standards and criteria of the Commission on Certification of Work Adjustment and Vocational Evaluation Specialists (CCWAVES).

2. Option II. The candidatemust shall ] have earned a master's degree in vocational evaluation, career and technical education, special education, or rehabilitation counselingfrom a regionally accredited college or university ] and completed 15 graduate semester hours distributed in the following areas:

a. Tests and measurements: 3 semester hours;

b. Medical and educational aspects of disability: 3 semester hours;

c. Occupational information and job analysis: 3 semester hours;

d. Purposes and practices of vocational evaluation: 3 semester hours; and

e. Career, life planning, and transition services: 3 semester hours.

Part VII
Revocation, Cancellation, Suspension, Denial, and Reinstatement of
Teaching ] Licenses

8VAC20-23-720. Revocation.

A. A license issued by the Virginia Board of Education may be revoked for the following reasons:

1. Obtaining or attempting to obtainsuch a ] license by fraudulent means or through misrepresentation of material facts;

2. Falsification of school records, documents, statistics, or reports;

3. Conviction of any felony;

4. Conviction of any misdemeanor involving moral turpitude;

5. Conviction of any misdemeanor involving astudent or ] minorchild or drugs, not including alcohol ];

6. [ Conviction of any misdemeanor involving drugs (not alcohol);

7. ] Conduct with direct and detrimental effect on the health, welfare, discipline, or morale ofstudents a student or minor ];

7. 8. ] Misapplication of or failure to account for school funds or other school properties with which the licensee has been entrusted;

8. 9. ] Acts related to secure mandatory tests as specified in subsection A of § 22.1-292.1 of the Code of Virginia;

9. 10. ] Knowingly and willfully with the intent to compromise the outcome of an athletic competition procure, sell, or administer anabolic steroids or cause such drugs to be procured, sold, or administered to a student who is a member of a school athletic team, or fail to report the use of such drugs by a student to the school principal and division superintendent as required by clause (iii) of subsection A of § 22.1-279.3:1 of the Code of Virginia. Any person whose license is suspended or revoked by the board pursuant to this section shall be ineligible for three school years for employment in the public schools of the Commonwealth;

10. 11. ] Revocation, suspension, surrender, cancellation, invalidation, or denial of, or other adverse action against, a teaching, administrator, pupil personnel services, or other education-related certificate or license by another state, territory, or country;or denial of an application for any such certificate or license; ]

11. 12. ] Founded case of child abuse or neglect after allappeal rights administrative appeals ] have been exhausted;

12. 13. ] Notification of dismissal or resignation pursuant to subsection F of § 22.1-313 of the Code of Virginia; or

13. 14. ] Other good and just cause in the best interest of the public schools of the Commonwealth of Virginia.

B. Procedures.

1. A complaint may be filed by anyone, but it shall be the duty of a division superintendent, principal, or other responsible school employee to file a complaint in any case in which he has knowledge that aholder of a license is guilty of any offense basis for the revocation of a license exists, as ] set forth in subsection A of this section. The person making the complaint shall submit the complaint in writing to the appropriate division superintendent.If the subject of the complaint is the division superintendent, the person making the complaint may submit the complaint to the chair of the local school board. ]

2. Upon receipt of the complaint against the holder of a license, a division superintendent or his duly authorized representative shallimmediately and thoroughly ] investigate the complaint. If, on the basis of such investigation, the division superintendent finds the complaint to be without merit, he shall so notify the complaining party or parties in writing and then close his file on the matter. This action shall be final unless the local school board, on its own motion, votes to proceed to a hearing on the complaint.

C. Petition for revocation. Should the division superintendent or local school board conclude that there is reasonable cause to believe that acomplaint against the holder of a license is well founded basis for revocation of the license exists ], the license holder shall be notified of the complaint by a written petition for revocation of a license signed by the division superintendent. A copy of such petition shall be sent by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the license holder's last known address.

D. Form of petition. The petition for the revocation of a license shall set forth:

1. The name and last known address of the person against whom the petition is being filed;

2. The type of license and the license number held by the person against whom the petition is being filed;

3. Theoffenses alleged basis for revocation ] and the specificunderlying alleged ] actionsthat comprise the alleged offenses ];

4. A statement of rights of the personcharged under this chapter against whom the petition is being filed ]. The statement of rights shallnotify the person that any adverse action against a license, including revocation, will be reported to the division superintendents in Virginia and, through a national clearinghouse, to chief state school officers of the other states and territories of the United States. The statement also shall ] include notification to the person of the right to cancel the license if he chooses not to contest the allegations in the petition. The statementmust shall ] notify the individual that he shall receive a notice of cancellation that will include the statement: "The license holder voluntarily returned the license in response to a petition for revocation." The individual also shall be notified that the cancellation of the license will be reported to division superintendents in Virginia and, through a national clearinghouse, ] to chief state school officers of the other states and territories of the United States; and

5. Any other pertinent information.

E. Filing of petition. The original petition shall be entered in the files of the local school board where the license holder is or was last employed.

F. Response to petition. The license holder shall present his written answer to the petition, if any, within 14 days of delivery or attempted delivery of the petition as certified by the United States Postal Service.

1. If the license holder does not wish to contest the allegations in the petition, he maycancel request cancellation of ] the license by [ returning the license to the division superintendent with submitting ] a written, signed statement requesting cancellation in response to a petition for revocation. The division superintendent shall forward the request for cancellation along with the petition for revocation to the Superintendent of Public Instruction within 14 days of receipt. The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall cancel the license and send a notice of cancellation to the person by certified mail within 14 days of receipt of the request for cancellation.

2. If the license holder files a written answer admitting or denying the allegations in the petition or fails to file a written answer within 14 days of delivery or attempted delivery of the petition, ] as certified by the United States Postal Service, the local school board shallpromptly ] proceed to a hearingwithin 90 days of mailing the petition to the license holder and provide the Superintendent of Public Instruction a copy of the petition and investigative file at the time the local school board hearing is scheduled ]. The local school board shall provide a hearing at the time and place of its regular meeting or at such other reasonable time and place it may specify. The license holder or his representative, if any, shall be given at least 14 days' notice of the hearing.

3. At the hearing, the local school board shall receive the recommendation of the division superintendent and then either deny the petition or recommend license revocation or suspension. A decision to deny the petition shall be final, except as specified in subsection G of this section, and the investigative file on the petition shall be closed and maintained as a separate file. Any record or material relating to the allegations in the petition shall be placed in the investigative file. Should the local school board recommend the revocation or suspension of a license, the division superintendent shall forward the recommendation, petition, ] andthe ] investigative file to the Superintendent of Public Instruction within 14 days.

G. Revocation on motion of the Virginia Board of Education. The Virginia Board of Education reserves the right to act directly to revoke a license when the Virginia Board of Education has reasonable cause to believe that subsection A of this section is applicable. The Superintendent of Public Instruction may send a petition for revocation to the license holder as provided by subsection D of this section. The license holder shall have the opportunity torespond present his written answer, if any, ] to the petitionor request cancellation of the license ] within 14 days of delivery or attempted delivery of the petition, as certified by the United States Postal Service.

1.If the license holder does not wish to contest the allegations in the petition, he may request the cancellation of the license by submitting a written, signed statement requesting cancellation in response to a petition for revocation. The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall cancel the license and send a notice of cancellation to the person by certified mail within 14 day of receipt of the request for cancellation.

2. ] If the license holder files a written answer admitting the allegations in the petition or fails to file a written answer within 14 days of delivery or attempted delivery of the petition, ] as certified by the United States Postal Service, the petition shall be forwarded to the Virginia Board of Education for action. No revocation will be ordered without the involved license holder being given the opportunity to appear at a hearing specified in 8VAC20-23-780 C.

2. 3. ] If the license holder timely files his written answer denying the allegations in the petition, the Superintendent of Public Instruction shall schedule a hearing with the investigative panel provided in 8VAC20-23-780 A. The license holder or his representative, if any, shall be given at least 14 days' notice of the hearing. The investigative panel shall take action on the petition as specified in 8VAC20-23-780 A. No revocation will be ordered without the involved license holder being given the opportunity to appear at a hearing specified in 8VAC20-23-780 C.

H. Reinstatement of license. A license that has been revoked may be reinstated by the Virginia Board of Education after five years if the board is satisfied that reinstatement is in the best interest of the public schools of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The individual seeking reinstatementmust shall ] submit a written request and completed application to the board.The request for reinstatement will be reviewed by the Superintendent of Public Instruction's investigative panel pursuant to 8VAC20-23-780. ] Notification to all appropriate parties will be communicated in writing by the Virginia Department of Education.

8VAC20-23-730. Cancellation.

A. A license may be canceled by the voluntary return of the license by the license holderin response to a petition for revocation or suspension or pursuant to a court order ]. Reasons for cancellation are the same as those listed under 8VAC20-23-720 A.

B. The individual may voluntarily return the license to the division superintendent or the Superintendent of Public Instruction with a written, signed statement requesting cancellation. The individual shall acknowledge in the request that he understands that the notice of cancellation will include the statement: "The license holder voluntarilyreturned surrendered ] his teaching license and requested cancellation. Reasons for cancellation are the same as those for revocation."However, if the request for cancellation is in response to a petition for revocation, the The ] individual shallalso ] acknowledge that he understands that the notice of cancellation will include the statement: "The license holder voluntarilyreturned surrendered ] the license in response to a petition for revocationor suspension or a court order ]." The individual also shall acknowledge that he understands that the cancellation of the license will be reported to division superintendents in Virginia and, through a national clearinghouse, ] to chief state school officers of the other states and territories of the United States. The division superintendent shall forward any request for cancellation and, if applicable, the petition for revocationor suspension ] to the Superintendent of Public Instruction within 14 days of receipt. The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall cancel the license and send the person a notice of cancellation by certified mail within 14 days of receipt of the request for cancellation.

C. A license that has been canceled may be reinstated by the Virginia Board of Education if the board is satisfied that reinstatement is in the best interest of the public schools of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The individual seeking reinstatementmust shall ] submit a written request and completed application to the board.The request for reinstatement will be reviewed by the Superintendent of Public Instruction's investigative panel pursuant to 8VAC20-23-780 A. ] Notification to all appropriate parties will be communicated in writing by the Virginia Department of Education.

8VAC20-23-740. Suspension.

A. A license may be suspended for the following reasons:

1. Physical, mental, or emotional incapacity as shown by a competent medical authority;

2. Incompetence or neglect of duty;

3. Failure or refusal to comply with school laws and regulations, including willful violation of contractual obligations;

4. Acts related to secure mandatory tests as specified in subsection A of § 22.1-292.1 of the Code of Virginia;

5. Knowingly and willfully with the intent to compromise the outcome of an athletic competition procure, sell, or administer anabolic steroids or cause such drugs to be procured, sold, or administered to a student who is a member of a school athletic team, or fail to report the use of such drugs by a student to the school principal and division superintendent as required by clause (iii) of subsection A of § 22.1-279.3:1 of the Code of Virginia. Any person whose license is suspended or revoked by the board pursuant to this section shall be ineligible for three school years for employment in the public schools of the Commonwealth; or

6. Other good and just cause in the best interest of the public schools of the Commonwealth of Virginia.

B. Procedures.

1. A complaint may be filed by anyone, but it shall be the duty of a division superintendent, principal, or other responsible school employee to file a complaint in any case in which he has knowledge thatthe license holder has committed any offense a basis for suspension exists, as ] set forth in subsection A of this section. The person making the complaint shall submit the complaint in writing to the appropriate division superintendent.If the subject of the complaint is the division superintendent, the person making the complaint may submit the complaint to the chair of the local school board. ]

2. Upon receipt of the complaint against the holder of a license, a division superintendent or his duly authorized representative shallimmediately and thoroughly ] investigate the complaint. If, on the basis of such investigation, the division superintendent finds the complaint to be without merit, he shall so notify the complaining party or parties in writing and then close his file on the matter. This action shall be final unless the local school board on its own motion votes to proceed to a hearing on the complaint.

C. Petition for suspension. Should the division superintendent or local school board conclude that there is reasonable cause to believe that acomplaint against the holder of a license is well founded basis for suspension of the license exists ], the license holder shall be notified of the complaint by a written petition for suspension of a license signed by the division superintendent. A copy of such petition shall be sent by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the license holder's last known address.

D. Form of petition. The petition for the suspension of a license shall set forth:

1. The name and last known address of the person against whom the petition is being filed;

2. The type of license and the license number held by the person against whom the petition is being filed;

3. Theoffenses alleged basis for suspension ] and the specificunderlying alleged ] actionsthat comprise the alleged offenses ];

4. A statement of the rights of the person against whom the petition is being filed. The statement of rights shall notify the personthat the license may be suspended for up to five years with the period of suspension, as determined by the Virginia Board of Education. In addition, the statement shall notify the person that any adverse action against a license, including suspension, will be reported to the division superintendents in Virginia and, through a national clearinghouse, to chief state school officers of the other states and territories of the United States. The statement also shall notify the person ] of the right to cancel the license if he chooses not to contest the allegations in the petition . The statement also shall notify the individual that the license may be suspended for up to five years and that and notify the individual that if he cancels the license, ] he shall receive a notice of cancellation that will include the statement: "The license holder voluntarily returned the license in response to a petition for suspension." The individual also shall be notified that the cancellationand period of suspension ] will be reported to division superintendents in Virginia and, through a national clearinghouse, ] to chief state school officers of the other states and territories of the United States; and

5. Any other pertinent information.

E. Filing of petition. The original petition shall be entered in the files of the local school board where the license holder is or was last employed.

F. Response to petition. The license holder shall present his written answer to the petition, if any, within 14 days of delivery or attempted delivery of the petition, as certified by the United States Postal Service.

1. If the license holder does not wish to contest the allegations in the petition, he maycancel request cancellation of ] the license byreturning the license to the division superintendent with submitting ] a written and signed statement requesting cancellationin response to a petition for suspension to the division superintendent ]. The division superintendent shall forward the request for cancellation along with the petition for suspension to the Superintendent of Public Instruction within 14 days of receipt. The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall cancel the license and send the person a notice of cancellationto the person ] by certified mail within 14 days of receipt of the request for cancellation.

2. If the license holder files a written answer admitting or denying the allegations in the petition or fails to file a written answer within 14 days of delivery or attempted delivery of the petition, ] as certified by the United States Postal Service, the local school board shall promptly proceed to a hearing. The local school board shall provide a hearing at the time and place of its regular meeting or at such other reasonable time and place it may specify. The license holder or his representative, if any, shall be given at least 14 days' notice of the hearing.

3. At its hearing, the local school board shall receive the recommendation of the division superintendent and then either deny the petition or recommend suspension. A decision to deny the petition shall be final, except as specified in subsection G of this section, and the investigative file on the petition shall be closed and maintained as a separate file. Any record or material relating to the allegations in the petition shall be placed in the investigative file. Should the local school board recommend the suspension of a license, the division superintendent shall forward the recommendation and the investigative file to the Superintendent of Public Instruction within 14 days.

G. Suspension on motion of the Virginia Board of Education. The Virginia Board of Education reserves the right to act directly to suspend a license when the Virginia Board of Education has reasonable cause to believe that subsection A of this section is applicable. The Superintendent of Public Instruction may send a petition for suspension to the license holder as specified in subsection D of this section. The license holder shall have the opportunity torespond present his written answer ] to the petitionor request cancellation of the license, if any, ] within 14 days of delivery or attempted delivery of the petition, as certified by the United States Postal Service.

1.If the license holder does not wish to contest the allegations in the petition, he may request cancellation of the license by submitting a written, signed statement requesting cancellation in response to a petition for suspension. The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall cancel the license and send a notice of cancellation to the person by certified mail within 14 days of receipt of their request for cancellation.

2. ] If the license holder files a written answer admitting the allegations in the petition or fails to file a written answer within 14 days of delivery or attempted delivery of the petition, ] as certified by the United States Postal Service, the petition shall be forwarded to the Virginia Board of Education for action. No suspension will be ordered without the involved license holder being given the opportunity to appear at a hearing specified in 8VAC20-23-780 C.

2. 3. ] If the license holder timely files his written answer denying the allegations in the petition, the Superintendent of Public Instruction shall schedule a hearing with the investigative panel provided in 8VAC20-23-780 A. The license holder or his representative, if any, shall be given at least 14 days' notice of the hearing. The investigative panel shall take action on the petition as specified in 8VAC20-23-780 A. No suspension will be ordered without the involved license holder being given the opportunity to appear at a hearing specified in 8VAC20-23-780 C.

H. Reinstatement of license. A license may be suspended for a period of time not to exceed five years. The license may be reinstated by the Superintendent of Public Instruction, upon written request and application, with verification that allrequirements for license renewal all conditions for licensure ] have been satisfied. Notification to all appropriate parties will be communicated in writing by the Virginia Department of Education.

8VAC20-23-750. Denial.

A. ] A license may be denied for the following reasons:

1. Attempting to obtainsuch a ] license by fraudulent means or through misrepresentation of material facts;

2. Falsification of records or documents;

3. Conviction of any felony;

4. Conviction of any misdemeanor involving moral turpitude;

5. Conviction of any misdemeanor involving aminor child or drugs, not including alcohol student or minor ];

6.Conviction of any misdemeanor involving drugs (not alcohol);

7. ] Conduct witha ] direct and detrimental effect on the health, welfare, discipline, or morale ofstudents a student or minor ];

7. 8. ] Revocation, suspension, surrender, cancellation, invalidation, or denial of, or other adverse action against, a teaching, administrator, pupil personnel services, or other education-related certificate or license by another state, territory, or country, or denial of an application for any such certificate or license ];

8. 9. ] Founded case of child abuse or neglect, after allappeal rights administrative appeals ] have been exhausted; or

9. 10. ] Other good and just cause in the best interest of the public schools of the Commonwealth of Virginia.

B. Any denial of a license for a reason set forth in 8VAC20-23-750 A shall be reported to division superintendents in Virginia and, through a national clearinghouse, to chief state school officers of the other states and territories of the United States. ]

8VAC20-23-760. Expiredlicenses license ].

A. The holder of a license that has expired must apply for a license according to the procedures set forth in 8VAC20-23-40 or 8VAC20-23-110. Such application may be denied renewal by the Superintendent of Public Instruction for any of the reasons specified in 8VAC20-23-750. No such denial will be ordered unless the license holder is given the opportunity for the hearing specified in 8VAC20-23-780 C.

B. A Action against a ] license issued by the Virginia Board of Education may berevoked or suspended taken ] for any of the reasons listed in 8VAC20-23-720 Aor, ] 8VAC20-23-740 A,or 8VAC20-23-750 A ] even if the license is expired, as long as the basis for action occurred prior to the issuance of the license or while the license was active.

8VAC20-23-770. Right to counsel and transcript.

A license holder or applicant shall have the right, at his own expense, to be represented by an attorney or other representative at (i) any local school board hearing provided for in 8VAC20-23-720 F 2 or 8VAC20-23-740 F 2, (ii)the ] investigative panel hearing provided for in 8VAC20-23-780 A, or (iii)in ] proceedings before the Virginia Board of Education as specified in 8VAC20-23-780 C. The hearing before the local school board provided for in 8VAC20-23-720 F 2 or 8VAC20-23-740 F 2 and the investigative panel hearing provided for in 8VAC20-23-780 A shall be recorded, and, ] upon written request, ] the license holder or applicant shall be provided a transcript of the hearing at his own expense. Any such hearing before the Virginia Board of Education shall be recorded, and, ] upon written request, ] the license holder or applicant shall be provided a transcript of the hearing at no charge.

8VAC20-23-780. Action by the Superintendent of Public Instruction and the Virginia Board of Education.

A. Upon receipt of a petition, the Superintendent of Public Instruction will ensure that an investigative panel at the state level reviews the petition. The panel shall consist of three to five members selected by the Superintendent of Public Instruction. The applicant or license holder shall be given at least 14 days' notice of the date, time, and location of the investigative panel hearing when his case will be considered. The Virginia Department of Education shall ensure that the applicant or license holder receives all documentation that will be used during the investigative panel hearing prior to the hearing. Representatives of the local school division and the applicant or license holder are entitled to be present with counsel and witnesses if so desired. The investigative panel hearing shall be recorded. The recommendation of the investigative panel is made to the Superintendent of Public Instruction who will forward his recommendation and the documentation used during the investigative panel hearing to the Virginia Board of Education or its duly designated committeefor consideration ] at one of its scheduled meetings. The applicant or license holder shall be given at least 14 days' notice of the Virginia Board of Education meeting when his case will be considered. Following the investigative panel hearing, the Virginia Department of Education shall forward the recommendation of the investigative panel to the applicant or license holder as soon as practicable, but no later than 14 days prior to the scheduled Virginia Board of Education meeting when his case will be considered.

B. The Superintendent of Public Instruction is authorized to approve the issuance of licenses for individuals who have a misdemeanorconvictions conviction ] related to drugs, not including alcohol, based on a review of the cases. No individualwould will ] be denied a license without a hearing of the Virginia Board of Education as required in this section.

C.The applicant or license holder and representatives of the local school division are entitled to be present with counsel and witnesses, if so desired, at the hearing of the Virginia Board of Education. ] The Virginia Board of Education, or its duly designated committee, shall consider the recommendation of the Superintendent of Public Instruction and such relevant and material evidence as the applicant or license holderand representative of the local school division ] may desire to present at the hearing. At its discretion, the Virginia Board of Education may ask the applicant or license holder questions. At the conclusion of the hearing, the Virginia Board of Education will announce its decision.

D. The decision of the Virginia Board of Education shall be recorded in the minutes of the meeting, and the applicant or license holder and principal complainants will receive written notice of the decision.

8VAC20-23-790. Right of applicant or license holder to appear at hearing.

An applicant or a license holder shall have the right to appear in person at the hearings held by the local school board,the Superintendent's Investigative Panel, ] Virginia Board of Education, or board committee described in this part unless he is confined to jail or a penal institution. The local school board or Virginia Board of Education, at its discretion, may continue such hearings for a reasonable time if the applicant or license holder is prevented from appearing in person for reasons such asa ] documented medicalcondition ] or mental impairment.

8VAC20-23-800. Notification.

Notification of the revocation, suspension, cancellation, denial, or reinstatement of a license shall be made by the Superintendent of Public Instruction, or his designee, to division superintendents in Virginia and, through a national clearinghouse, ] to chief state school officers of the other states and territories of the United States.

VA.R. Doc. No. R13-3476; Filed July 3, 2018, 11:22 a.m.
TITLE 8. EDUCATION
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION
Final Regulation

Titles of Regulations: 8VAC20-22. Licensure Regulations for School Personnel (repealing 8VAC20-22-10 through 8VAC20-22-760).

8VAC20-23. Licensure Regulations for School Personnel (adding 8VAC20-23-10 through 8VAC20-23-800).

Statutory Authority: §§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Effective Date: August 23, 2018.

Agency Contact: Patty S. Pitts, Assistant Superintendent for Teacher Education and Licensure, Department of Education, P.O. Box 2120, Richmond, VA 23218, telephone (804) 371-2522, or email patty.pitts@doe.virginia.gov.

Summary:

The regulatory action repeals the existing regulation (8VAC20-22) and adopts a new regulation (8VAC20-23) regarding licensure for school personnel to align the regulation with recent changes in the Code of Virginia, current best practices in education, current educational research, and the revised Virginia Standards of Learning and the Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachers.

Substantive elements of the regulations (i) revise selected definitions to conform with changes in the regulations; (ii) modify prescribed licensure requirements, including reducing the number of years of work experience required for a career switcher provisional license from five to three and extending the international educator license from three to five years; (iii) add new endorsement areas in mathematics, engineering, and special education; and (iv) increase rigor in the requirements for selected endorsement areas.

Summary of Public Comments and Agency's Response: A summary of comments made by the public and the agency's response may be obtained from the promulgating agency or viewed at the office of the Registrar of Regulations.

CHAPTER 23
LICENSURE REGULATIONS FOR SCHOOL PERSONNEL

Part I
Definitions

8VAC20-23-10. Definitions.

The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the meanings indicated unless the context clearly implies otherwise:

"Accredited institution" means an institution of higher education accredited by a regional accrediting agency recognized by the United States Department of Education.

"Accredited virtual school or program" means a virtual school or program accredited by one of the accrediting agencies recognized by the Virginia Department of Education.School divisions operating as multi-division online providers may be deemed as meeting accreditation requirements if a majority of their schools are fully accredited by the Virginia Board of Education. ]

"Alternate route to licensure" means a nontraditional route to licensure available to individuals who meet the criteria specified in 8VAC20-23-90.

"Approved program" means a professional education program recognized as meeting state standards for the content and operation of such programs so that graduates of the program will be eligible for state licensure. The Virginia Board of Education has the authority to approve programs in Virginia.

"Cancellation" means the withdrawal of ateaching ] license following the voluntary return of the license by the license holder.

"Certifiedprogram ] provider" means a provider certified by the Virginia Department of Education to provide preparation and training for applicants seeking the Provisional License specified in 8VAC20-23-90.

"Collegiate Professional License" means a five-year, renewableteaching ] license available to an individual who has satisfied all requirements for licensure set forth in this chapter, including an earned baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and the professional teacher's assessments prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

"Content area coursework" means courses at the undergraduate level (i.e., two-year or four-year institution) or at the graduate level that will not duplicate previous courses, or the level of coursework, taken in humanities, English, history and social sciences, sciences, mathematics, health and physical education, and fine arts. These courses are usually available through the college or department of arts or sciences. ]

"Denial" means the refusal to grant ateaching ] licenseto a new applicant or to an applicant who is reapplying after the expiration of a license ].

"Division Superintendent License" means a five-year, renewable license available to an individual who has completed an earned master's degree from a regionally accredited college or university and meets the requirements specified in 8VAC20-23-630. The individual's name [ must shall ] be listed on the Virginia Board of Education's list of eligible division superintendents.

"Experiential learning" means a process of applying for an initial license through the alternate route as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education and meeting the criteria specified in 8VAC20-23-90 E to be eligible to request experiential learning credits in lieu of the coursework for the endorsement (teaching) content area.

"Industry certification credential" means an active career and technical education credential that is earned by successfully completing a Virginia Board of Education-approved industry certification examination, being issued a professional license in the Commonwealth, or successfully completing an occupational competency examination. ]

"International Educator License" meansa five-year cultural exchange opportunity for Virginia students and international teachers. The International Educator License is ] a professional teaching license issued for no more than five years to an exchange teacher with citizenship in a nation other than the United States of Americaand who meets requirements by a state-approved, federally-designated Exchange Visitor Program and who is ] employed asa ] teacher in a Virginia public school or an accredited nonpublic school.

"Licensure by reciprocity" means a process used to issue a license to an individual coming into Virginia from another state when that individual meets certain conditions specified in this chapter.

"Mentor" means a classroom teacher hired by the local school division who has achieved continuing contract status or other instructional personnel including retired teachers who meet local mentor selection criteria. The mentor should work in the same building as the beginning teacher or be instructional personnel who is assigned solely as a mentor. A mentor should be assigned a limited number of teachers at any time. Instructional personnel who are not assigned solely as mentors should not be assigned to more than four teachers at any time. Mentors guide teachers in the program through demonstrations, observations, and consultations.

"Online Teacher License" means a five-year, renewable license valid only for teaching online courses. Teachers who hold a five-year renewable license issued by the Virginia Board of Education may teach online courses for which they are properly endorsed and do not need to seek this license.

"Postgraduate Professional License" means a five-year, renewable license available to an individual who has qualified for the Collegiate Professional License and who holds an appropriate earned graduate degree from a regionally accredited college or university.

"Professional studies" means courses and other learning experiences designed to prepare individuals in the areas of human development and learning, curriculum and instruction, assessment of and for learning, classroom and behavior management, foundations of education and the teaching profession, language and literacy, and supervised clinical experiences. ]

"Professional teacher assessment" means those tests or other requirements mandated for licensure as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

"Provisional License" means a nonrenewable license valid for a specified period of time not to exceed three years issued to an individual who has allowable deficiencies for full licensure as set forth in this chapter. The individualmust shall ] have a minimum of anundergraduate earned baccalaureate ] degree from a regionally accredited college or university, with the exception of those individuals seeking the Technical Professional License. The Provisional Licensewill be issued for a three-year validity period ], with the exception ofthose individuals seeking licensure through a career switcher program who will be issued a one-year Provisional License, will be the Provisional (Career Switcher) License that will be initially issued for a one-year validity period and Teach For America Provisional License that will be initially ] issued fortwo years a two-year validity period ].Individuals may apply for a third year on the Provisional License by submitting documentation indicating that all licensure assessments prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education have been taken. ] Individualsmust shall ] complete all requirementsfor licensure ], including passing all licensure assessments, for a renewable license within the validity period of thelicense Provisional License ].

"Pupil Personnel Services License" means a five-year, renewable license available to an individual who has earned an appropriate graduate degree from a regionally accredited college or university with an endorsement as a school counselor, school psychologist, school social worker, or vocational evaluator. This license does not require teaching experience unless otherwise outlined under the specific endorsement's requirements.

"Renewable license" means a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education for five years to an individual who meets all requirements specified in this chapter.

"Revocation" means the withdrawal of ateaching ] license.

"School Manager License" means a five-year, renewable license intended to provide for a differentiation of administrative responsibilities in a school setting. A school manager is licensed to administer noninstructional responsibilities in an educational setting.For example, a A ] school manager is restricted from evaluating teachers, supervising instruction, developing and evaluating curriculum, and serving as a school’s student disciplinarian. The license is available to a candidate who holds a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university; has three years ofsuccess successful ] managerial experience; and is recommended for the license by a Virginia school division superintendent.

"Suspension" means the temporary withdrawal of ateaching ] license.

"Technical Professional License" means a five-year, renewable license available to an individual who has graduated froman a public or ] accreditednonpublic ] high school (or possesses aGeneral Educational Development Certificate Virginia Board of Education-approved high school equivalency credential ]); has exhibited academic proficiency, technical competency, and successful occupational experience; and meets the requirements specified insubdivision 4 of ] 8VAC20-23-50  [ A 4 ].

"Teach For America License" means a two-year provisional license available to an individual who is a participant in Teach For America and meets the requirements specified in 8VAC20-23-50. ]

Part II
Administering the Regulations

8VAC20-23-20. Administering this chapter.

A. In administering this chapter, modifications may be made in exceptional cases by the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Proposed modifications shall be made in writing to the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Commonwealth of Virginia, Virginia Department of Education, P.O. Box 2120, Richmond, Virginia 23218-2120.

B. In administering this chapter, competencies required for endorsement areas are outlined in the Regulations Governing the Review and Approval of Education Programs in Virginia (8VAC20-543). This document should be referenced for detailed information regarding coursework content for endorsements. Individualsmust shall ] complete the semester hours required for endorsement areas, or the equivalent, thatmust shall ] be documented and approved by theVirginia ] Department of Education.

C. Virginia school divisions may submit requests to the Virginia Department of Education for determination of appropriate endorsements for blended or integrated course options.

D. Upon the effective date of this chapter, the Virginia Board of Education grants a one-year transition period for the implementation of this chapter. ]

Part III
Licensure

8VAC20-23-30. Purpose and responsibility for licensure.

The primary purpose for licensing teachers and other school personnel is to maintain standards of professional competence. The responsibility for licensure is set forth in § 22.1-298.1 of the Code of Virginia, which states that the Virginia Board of Education shall prescribe by regulation the requirements for licensure of teachers.

8VAC20-23-40. Conditions for licensure.

A. Applicants for licensuremust shall ]:

1. Be at least 18 years of age;

2. Pay the appropriate fees as determined by the Virginia Board of Education and complete the application process;

3. Have earned a baccalaureate degree, with the exception of the Technical Professional License, from a regionally accredited college or university and meet requirements for the license sought. Persons seeking initial licensure through approved programs from Virginia institutions of higher education shall only be licensed as instructional personnelby the Virginia Board of Education if the professional education programs offered at such institutions have been accredited by a national accrediting agency and the education (endorsement) programs have final approval by the if the education endorsement programs have approval by the ] Virginia Board of Education;individuals who have earned a degree from an institution in another country shall hold the equivalent of a regionally accredited college or university degree in the United States, as verified by a Virginia Department of Education-approved credential evaluation agency, for the required degree for the license; ] and

4. Possess good moral character(i.e., and be ] free of conditions outlined in Part VII (8VAC20-23-720 et seq.) of this chapter.

B. All candidates who hold at least a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and who seek an initial Virginia teaching licensemust shall ] obtain passing scores on professional teacher's assessments prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education. With the exception of the career switcher program that requires assessments as prerequisites, individualsmust shall ] complete the professional teacher'sassessments assessment ] requirements within the three-year validity of the initial provisional license. Candidates seeking a Technical Professional License, International Educator License, School Manager License, or Pupil Personnel Services License are not required to take the professional teacher's assessments. Individuals who hold a valid out-of-state license (full credential without deficiencies) and who have completed a minimum of three years of full-time, successful teaching experience in a public or an accredited nonpublic school, kindergarten through grade 12, outside of Virginia are exempt from the professional teacher's assessment requirements. Documentationmust shall ] be submitted to verify the school's status as a public or an accredited nonpublic school.

C. All individuals seeking an initial endorsement in early/primary education preK-3, elementary education preK-6, special education-general curriculum, special education-deaf and hard of hearing, special education-blindness and visual impairments, and individuals seeking an endorsement as a reading specialistmust shall ] obtain passing scores on a reading instructional assessment prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

D. Licensure by reciprocity is set forth in 8VAC20-23-100. A school leaderslicensure ] assessment prescribed by the Virginia Board of Educationmust shall ] be met for all individuals who are seeking an endorsement authorizing them to serve as principals and assistant principals in the public schools. Individuals seeking an initial administration and supervision endorsement who are interested in serving as central office instructional personnel are not required to take and pass the school leaderslicensure ] assessment prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

E. Individuals seeking initial licensuremust shall ] demonstrate proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction, complete study in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Services, and receive professional development in instructional methods tailored to promote student academic progress and effective preparation for theVirginia ] Standards of Learning end-of-course and end-of-grade assessments.

F. Every person seeking initial licensure shall provide evidence of completion of certification or training in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and use of automated external defibrillators. The certification or training program shall be based on the current national evidenced-based emergency cardiovascular care guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the use of an automated external defibrillator, such as a program developed by the American Heart Association or the American Red Cross. The Virginia Board of Education shall provide a waiver for this requirement for any person with a disability whose disability prohibits such person from completing the certification or training.

G. The teacher of record for verified credit courses for high school graduationmust shall ] hold a Virginia license with the appropriate content endorsement.

H. Every teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education shall have an industry certification credential, as defined in 8VAC20-23-10, in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential.

I. Effective July 1, 2017, every person seeking renewal of a license shall complete awareness training, provided by the Virginia Department of Education, on the indicators of dyslexia, as that term is defined by the Virginia Board of Education pursuant to regulations, and the evidence-based interventions and accommodations for dyslexia. ]

8VAC20-23-50. Types of licenses; dating licenses.

A. The following types of licenses are available:

1. Provisional License. The Provisional License is a nonrenewable license valid for a period not to exceed three years issued to an individual who has allowable deficiencies for full licensure as set forth in this chapter. The Provisional License will be issued fortwo years a three-year validity period ], with theexception exceptions ] ofthose individuals seeking a the ] Provisional(Career Switcher) ] Licensethrough a career switcher program that will initially be issued for a one-year validity period and the Provisional Teach For America License issued for a two year validity period ].Individuals may apply for a third year on the Provisional License by submitting documentation indicating that all licensure assessments prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education (http://doe.virginia.gov/teaching/licensure/prof_teacher_assessment.pdf) have been taken. The Provisional (Career Switcher) License will be dated as set forth in 8VAC20-23-90 A 2. ] Individualsmust shall ] completethe all ] requirements [ for licensure, ] including passing all licensure assessments, forthe a ] renewablefive-year ] license within the validity period of the Provisional License. The individualmust shall ] have a minimum of anundergraduate earned baccalaureate ] degree from a regionally accredited college or university, with the exception of those individuals seeking the Technical Professional License.

2. Collegiate Professional License. The Collegiate Professional License is a five-year, renewable license available to an individual who has satisfied all requirements for licensure, including an earnedundergraduate baccalaureate ] degree from a regionally accredited college or university and the professional teacher's assessments prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

 

3. Postgraduate Professional License. The Postgraduate Professional License is a five-year, renewable license available to an individual who has qualified for the Collegiate Professional License and who holds an appropriate earned graduate degree from a regionally accredited college or university.

4. Technical Professional License. The Technical Professional License is a five-year, renewable license available to a person who has graduated froma public or ] an accreditednonpublic ] high school or possesses aGeneral Educational Development Certificate Virginia Board of Education-approved high school equivalency credential ]; has exhibited academic proficiency, skills in literacy and communication, technical competency, and successful occupational experience;and ] has completed nine semester hours of specialized professional studies credit from a regionally accredited college or university; and has completed one year of successful, full-time teaching experience in a public school or accredited nonpublic school in the area of endorsement ]. The nine semester hours of professional studies courseworkmust shall ] include three semester hours of human development and learning, three semester hours of curriculum and instruction, and three semester hours of applications of instructional technology or classroom and behavior management. The Technical Professional License is issued at the recommendation ofan a Virginia ] employing educational agency in the areas of career and technical education, educational technology, and military science. Individuals seeking an endorsement to teach military sciencemust shall ] have the appropriate credentials issued by the United States military. The employing Virginia educational agencymust shall ] ensure the credentials issued by the United States military are active during the period the individual is teaching. In addition to demonstrating competency in the endorsement area sought, the individualmust shall ]:

a. Hold a valid license issued by the appropriate Virginia board for those program areas requiring a license and a minimum of two years of successful experience at the journeyman level or an equivalent. The employing Virginia educational agencymust shall ] ensure that the valid license issued by the appropriate Virginia board for the occupational program area is active during the period the individual is teaching;

b. Have completed a registered apprenticeship program and two years of successful experience at the journeyman level or an equivalent level in the trade; or

c. Have four years of successful work experience at the management or supervisory level or equivalent or have a combination of four years of training andsuccessful ] work experience at the management or supervisory level or equivalent.

Individuals holding the Technical Professional License who seek the Collegiate Professional or Postgraduate Professional Licensemust shall ] meet the requirements of the respective licenses.

5. School Manager License. The school manager license is a five-year, renewable license intended to provide for the differentiation of administrative responsibilities in a school setting. A school manager is licensed to administer noninstructional responsibilities in an educational setting.For example, a A ] school manager is restricted from evaluating teachers, supervising instruction, developing and evaluating curriculum, and serving as a school's student disciplinarian. The license is available to a candidate who holds a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university, has three years of successful managerial experience, and is recommended for the license by a Virginia school division superintendent.

6. Pupil Personnel Services License. The Pupil Personnel Services License is a five-year, renewable license available to an individual who has earned an appropriate graduate degree from a regionally accredited college or university with an endorsement for school counselor, school psychologist, school social worker, or vocational evaluator. This license does not require teaching experience, unless otherwise outlined under the specific endorsement's requirements.

7. Division Superintendent License. The Division Superintendent License is a five-year, renewable license available to an individual who has completed an earned master's degree from a regionally accredited college or university and meets the requirements specified in 8VAC20-23-630. The individual's namemust shall ] be listed on the Virginia Board of Education's list of eligible division superintendents.

8. International Educator License. The International Educator License provides a five-year cultural exchange opportunity for Virginia students and international teachers. The International Educator License is a professional teaching license issuedfor no more than five years ] to an exchange teacher with citizenship in a nation other than the United States of Americaand ] who is employed as a teacher in a Virginia public or accredited nonpublic school. To be issued the five-year, nonrenewable International Educator License, an individual serving as a cultural exchange teacher in Virginiamust shall ]:

a. Be employed by a Virginia public or an accredited nonpublic school;

b. Hold non-United States citizenship and be a nonpermanent resident; and

c. Meet the following requirements as verified by a state-approved, federally-designated Exchange Visitor Program (22 CFR Part 62):

(1) Be proficient in written and spoken English;

(2) Demonstrate competence in the appropriate academic subject area or areas by meeting the credential requirements for a qualified teacher in the exchange country;

(3) Hold the United States equivalent of a baccalaureate degree or higher as determined by an approved credentialevaluation ] agency; and

(4) Complete at least two years of successful full-time teaching experience that enables the educator to fulfill a similar assignment in his home country or is comparable to those requirements for Virginia teachers.

If an individual meets requirements of subdivisions 8 a, 8 b, 8 c (1), 8 c (2), and 8 c (3) of this subsection and has completed at least one year, but less than two years, of successful full-time teaching experience thatenables would enable ] the educator to fulfill a similar assignment in his home country or is comparable to those requirements for Virginia teachers, the International Educator License will be issued for three years with an option to extend the nonrenewable International Educator License for the additional two years uponmeeting passing ] all teacher assessments prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education and a recommendation of the Virginia employing school division or accredited nonpublic school.

Individuals who have been issued an International Educator License who seek a five-year, renewable licensewill need to shall ] meet all licensure and endorsement requirements, includingpassing ] applicable assessments prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

9. Online Teacher License. The Online Teacher License is a five-year, renewable license valid only for teaching online courses. Teachers who hold a five-year renewable license issued by the Virginia Board of Education may teach online courses for which they are properly endorsed and do not need to seek this license.

a.The In order to be issued an Online Teacher License, the ] individualis required to shall ] meetthe ] requirements for an endorsement in a content (teaching) area, and ] professional studiesrequirements, ] andachieve ] qualifying scores on professional teacher's assessments as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education. In addition, the individualmust shall ] complete a three-semester-hour course in online instructional procedures.

Online instructional procedures:3 Three ] semester hours. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skillsin and ] the ability to use the Internet for teaching, learning, and management; design, deliver, and support instruction in an online environment; adapt strategies for a variety of course models(e.g. ],such as ] synchronous and asynchronous) ]; select, adapt, and create rich multimedia for instruction; adapt individualized education program requirements to online course practices, as appropriate; use data to meet individualstudents student's ] needs; and employ innovative teaching strategies in an online environment. Demonstrated proficiency of advanced skills in the followingmust areas shall ] be addressed: use of communication technologies to interact with and engage students, parents, and mentors; use of education technologies; management of instructional activities in a technology-mediated environment; and nontraditional content delivery methods.

b. Online teaching experience is not acceptable to meet the full-time teaching experience for other license types, such as a Division Superintendent License, or for endorsements, such as for the reading specialist, school counselor, or administration and supervision endorsements. The Online Teacher License may be issued if requirements have been met as one of the following licenses to individuals teaching only online courses:

(1) Online Teacher (Postgraduate Professional) License - a five-year, renewable license available to an individual who has qualified for the Online Teacher (Collegiate Professional) License and who holds an appropriate earned graduate degree from a regionally accredited college or university.

(2) Online Teacher (Collegiate Professional) License - a five-year, renewable teaching license available to an individual who has satisfied all requirements for licensure, including an earned baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university, endorsement and professional studies requirements, andpassed ] the professional teacher's assessments prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education, or

(3) Online Teacher (Technical Professional) License - a five-year, renewable teaching license available to an individual who has graduated froma public or ] an accreditednonpublic ] high school or possesses aGeneral Educational Development Certificate Virginia Board of Education-approved high school equivalency credential ]; has exhibited academic proficiency, technical competency, and occupational experience; and meets the requirements specified in subdivision 4 of this subsection. An individual seeking an Online Teacher (Technical Professional) Licensemust shall ] be recommended for the license by a Virginia public school, a Virginia accredited nonpublic school, or an accredited virtual school program.

c. A nonrenewable Online Teacher (Provisional) License may be issued for a period not to exceed three years to an individual who has allowable deficiencies for full licensure as set forth in 8VAC20-23-90 B. The Online (Provisional) License will be issued fortwo three ] years.Individuals may apply for a third year on the Online (Provisional) License by submitting documentation indicating that all licensure assessments prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education have been taken. ] The individualmust shall ] have a minimum of anundergraduate earned baccalaureate ] degree from a regionally accredited college or university, with the exception of those individuals seeking the Technical Professional License. Individualsmust shall ] complete all requirements for a renewable Online Teacher License within the validity period of the license.

10. Teach For America License. The Teach For America License is a two-year provisional license.

a. This provisional license is available to any participant in Teach For America, a nationwide nonprofit organization focused on closing the achievement gaps between students in high-income and low-income areas, who submits an application and meets the following requirements:

(1) Holds, at minimum, a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited institution of higher education;

(2) Has met the requirements prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education for all endorsements sought or has met the qualifying scores on the content area assessment prescribed by the board for the endorsements sought;

(3) Possesses good moral character according to criteria developed by the Virginia Board of Education;

(4) Has been offered and has accepted placement in Teach For America;

(5) Has successfully completed preservice training and is participating in the professional development requirements of Teach For America, including teaching frameworks, curricula, lesson planning, instructional delivery, classroom management, assessment and evaluation of student progress, classroom diversity, and literacy development;

(6) Has an offer of employment from a local school board to teach in a public elementary or secondary school in the Commonwealth or a preschool program that receives state funds pursuant to subsection C of § 22.1-199.1 of the Code of Virginia; and

(7) Receives a recommendation from the employing school division for a Teach For America License in the endorsement area in which the individual seeks to be licensed.

b. In addition to the criteria set forth in subdivision 10 a of of this subsection, any individual who seeks an endorsement in early childhood, early/primary, or elementary education shall either (i) agree to complete such coursework in the teaching ofreading language and literacy ] as may be prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education pursuant to 8VAC20-23-130 during the first year of employment or (ii) achieve a passing score on a reading instructional assessment prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

c. Teachers issued a Teach For America provisional license shall not be eligible for continuing contract status while employed under the authority of a Teach For America license and shall be subject to the probationary terms of employment specified in § 22.1-303 of the Code of Virginia.

d. The Virginia Board of Education may extend any Teach For America License for one additional year upon request of the employing school division, provided that no Teach For America License shall exceed a total of three years in length.

e. Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, upon completion of at least two years of full-time teaching experience in a public elementary or secondary school in the Commonwealth or a preschool program that receives state funds pursuant to subsection C of § 22.1-199.1 of the Code of Virginia, an individual holding a Teach For America License shall be eligible to receive a renewable license if he has (i) achieved satisfactory scores on all professional teacher assessments required by the Virginia Board of Education and (ii) received satisfactory evaluations at the conclusion of each year of employment.

f. Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, the Virginia Board of Education shall issue a Teach For America License to any individual who (i) has completed two years of successful teaching in the Teach For America program in another state, (ii) is not eligible to receive a renewable license, and (iii) meets the criteria set forth in subdivision 10 a of this subsection.

B. All licenses will be effective from July 1 in the school year in which the application is made. An employing Virginia public school division, agency, or accredited nonpublic school is required to notify employees in writing at the time of employment of the need to meet appropriate assessment requirements for licensure.

8VAC20-23-60. Designations on licenses for career paths to teaching.

A. Designations on licenses will reflect stages in the professional development of teachers and promote continuing growth and career paths as educators.

B. Teaching licenses may be issued with one of the following designations, and the designation will be processed as an add-on endorsement. These designations will not apply to the Division Superintendent License, School Manager License, International Educator License, or Pupil Personnel Services License.

1. Career Teacher: This voluntary teacher designation will be issued on a renewable teaching license for individuals who have gained continuing contract status in Virginia and who apply for the Career Teacher designation.

2. Mentor Teacher: This voluntary teacher designation will be issued on a renewable teaching license for individuals who have (i) achieved the Career Teacher designation, (ii) received a recommendation for the designation from an employing Virginia school division superintendent or designee or accredited nonpublic school head, (iii) served at least three years as a mentor teacher in Virginia, (iv) documented responsibilities as a mentor, and (v) completed a local or state mentor teacher training program in accordance with the Virginia Board of Education requirements for mentor teachers in theVirgnia Virginia ] Board of Education Mentor Teacher Guidelines(http://www.doe.virginia.gov/teaching/career_resources/mentor/program_creation_guidelines.pdf) ].

3. Teacher as Leader: This voluntary teacher designation will be issued on a renewable teaching license for individuals who have (i) achieved the Career Teacher designation; (ii) completed at least five years of successful, full-time teaching experience in a Virginia public school or accredited nonpublic school; (iii) receivedthe a ] recommendation from an employing Virginia school division superintendent or designee or an accredited nonpublic school head; (iv) and completed one of the following:

a. National Board Certification or a nationally recognized certification program approved by the Virginia Board of Education and a recommendation from an employing Virginia school division superintendent or designee or accredited nonpublic school head and documentation, ] in an approvedVirginia ] Department of Education format, ] verifying the individual's demonstrated skills and abilities as a school leader and direct contributions to school effectiveness and student achievement; or

b. A recommendation from an employing Virginia school division superintendent or designee or accredited nonpublic school head and documentation, ] in an approvedVirginia ] Department of Education format, ] verifying the individual's demonstrated skills and abilities as a school leader and direct contributions to school effectiveness and student achievement.

8VAC20-23-70. Additional endorsements.

A. An individual who holds a teaching license may add an additional teaching endorsement to the license by passing a rigorous academic subject test for endorsements in which a test is prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education. This testing option does not apply to individuals (i) who are seeking an early/primary education preK-3 or elementary education preK-6 endorsement, special education endorsements, or a reading specialist endorsement or (ii) who hold a Technical Professional License, Vocational Evaluator License, Pupil Personnel Services License, School Manager License, or Division Superintendent License.

B. One or more endorsements may be added to a license, ] providedthat ] specific endorsement requirements have been met. Written requests may be made by the licensed professional and should be directed to the Virginia employing educational agency(if the individual has such employment) ] or college or university. If the request is not acted upon by the local educational agency or college or university within 30 days or is disputed, the license holder may make a written request for an additional endorsement directly to the Office of Professional Licensure, Virginia Department of Education. Written requests should be submitted by January 15 to be in effect by July 1 of the samecalendar ] year.

8VAC20-23-80. Deletion of an endorsement.

An endorsement may be deleted from a license at the request of the licensed professional. Written requests are made by the licensed professional and should be directed to the employing educational agency. If the request is not acted upon by the local educational agency within 30 days or is disputed, the license holder may make a written request for the deletion of an endorsement directly to the Office of Professional Licensure, Virginia Department of Education. Written requests should be submitted by January 15 to be in effect on July 1 of thatcalendar ] year. Individuals who wish to add an endorsement that has been deletedmust shall ] meet requirements for that endorsement at the time it is requested.

8VAC20-23-90. Alternate routes to licensure.

A. Career switcher alternate route to licensure for careerprofessions professionals ] - Provisional (Career Switcher) License. An alternate route is available to career switchers who seek teaching endorsements preK through grade 12 with the exception of special education.

1. An individual seeking a Provisional (Career Switcher) License through the career switcher programmust shall ] meet the following prerequisite requirements:

a. An application process;

b. An earned baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university;

c. The completion of requirements for an endorsement in a teaching area or the equivalent through verifiable experience or academic study;

d. At leastfive three ] years ofsuccessful ] full-time work experience or its equivalent; and

e. Virginia qualifying scores on the professional teacher's assessments as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

2. The Provisional (Career Switcher) License is awarded at the end of Level I preparationfor an initial validity period of one school year ]. All components of the career switcher alternate route for careerprofessions must professionals shall ] be completed by the candidate.

3. The Level I requirementsmust shall ] be completed during the course of a single year and may be offered through a variety of delivery systems, including distance learning programs. If an employing agency recommends extending the Provisional (Career Switcher) License for a second year, the candidate will enter Level III of the program. Career switcher programsmust be certified shall submit program documentation as set forth by the Virginia Department of Education for review and be certified every seven years ] by the Virginia Department of Education.

a. Level I preparation. Intensive Level I preparation includes a minimum of 180 clock hours of instruction, including field experience. This phase includes, but is not limited to, human development and learning; ] curriculum and instruction, including technology, reading, and other; language and literacy; ] specific course content relating to theVirginia ] Standards of Learning;differentiation of instruction foundations of education and the teaching profession ]; classroom and behavior management;instructional design based on assessment data; and human development and learning and assessment of and for learning ].

b. Level II preparation during first year of employment.

(1) Candidate seeks employment in Virginia with the one-year Provisional (Career Switcher) License.

(2) Continued Level II preparation during the first year of employment with a minimum of five seminars that expand the intensive preparation requirements listed in subdivision 3 a of this subsection. The five seminars will include a minimum of 20 cumulative instructional hours. A variety of instructional delivery techniques will be utilized to implement the seminars.

(3) One year of successful, full-time teaching experience in a Virginia public or accredited nonpublic school under a one-year Provisional (Career Switcher) License. A trained mentormust shall ] be assigned to assist the candidate during the first year of employment. Responsibilities of the mentor include, but are not limited to, ] the following:

(a) Collaborate with the beginning teacher in the development and implementation of an individualized professional development plan;

(b) Observe, assess, coach, and provide opportunities for constructive feedback, including strategies for self-reflection;

(c) Share resources and materials;

(d) Share best instructional, assessment, and organizational practices; classroom and behavior management strategies; and techniques for promotingvaried and ] effectivemethods of ] communicationwith and among students ]; and

(e) Provide general support and direction regarding school policies and procedures.

(4) Uponsuccessful ] completion ofthe ] Levels I and IIpreparation requirements ] of the career switcher alternate route to licensure program and submission of a recommendation from theemploying ] Virginia educationalemploying ] agency, the candidate will be eligible to apply for a five-year, renewable license. Renewal requirements for the regular license will be subject to current regulations of the Virginia Board of Education.

c. Level III preparation, if required.

(1) Post preparation, if required, will be conducted by theemploying ] Virginiaemploying ] educational agency to address the areas where improvement is needed as identified in the candidate's professional improvement plan; and

(2) Uponsuccessful ] completion of Levels I, II, and, if required, Level ] III of the career switcher alternate route to licensure program and submission of a recommendation from theemploying ] Virginia educationalemploying ] agency, the candidate will be eligible to receive a five-year renewable license.

4. Verification of program completion will be documented by the certified program provider and the division superintendent or designee.

5. Certified providers implementing a career switcher program may charge a fee for participation in the program.

B. An alternate route is available to individuals employed byan a Virginia ] educational agency who seek teaching endorsements preK through grade 12. The employing Virginia educational agency may request a nonrenewable Provisional License on behalf of the individual if the individual has completed an allowable portion of professional studies and endorsement requirements.An employed teacher may demonstrate meeting the teaching endorsement requirements by passing a rigorous academic subject test for endorsements in which a test is prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education. This testing option does not apply to individuals (i) who are seeking an early/primary education preK-3 or elementary education preK-6 endorsement, special education endorsements, or a reading specialist endorsement or (ii) who hold a Technical Professional License, Vocational Evaluator License, Pupil Personnel Services License, School Manager License, or Division Superintendent License. ] This routeis ] alsoapplicable is available ] to individuals who are employed by a Virginia public school, a Virginia accredited nonpublic school, or an accredited virtual school or program and who are seeking the Online Teacher License that is issued to teachers who teach only online courses. The Provisional License will be issued fortwo a validity period not to exceed three ] years.Individuals may apply for a third year on the Provisional License by submitting documentation indicating that all licensure assessments prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education have been taken. ] The Provisional License is a nonrenewable teaching license valid for a period not to exceed three years. Individualsmust shall ] complete all licensure requirements to become eligible for the five-year, renewable license.

1. An individual seeking a license through this alternate routemust shall ] have met the following requirements:

a. Entered the teaching field through the alternate route to licensure upon the recommendation of theemploying ] Virginiaemploying ] educational agency. For the Online Teacher Provisional License, individualsmust shall ] be employed by a Virginia public school division, a Virginia accredited nonpublic school, or an accredited virtual school or program;

b. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university with the exception of individuals seeking the Technical Professional License;

c. Have met requirements for the endorsement area; and

d. Need to complete an allowable portion of professional studies and licensure requirements.

2. The professional studies requirements for the appropriate level of endorsement soughtmust shall ] be completed. A Virginia educational agency may submit to the Superintendent of Public Instruction for approval an alternate program to meet the professional studies requirements. The alternate programmust shall ] include training(e.g., such as ] seminar, internship,or ] coursework, etc.) ] in human development and learning; curriculum and instruction, including technology; assessment of and for learning; classroom and behavior management;foundations of education and ] the teaching profession, including legal status of teachers and students, federal and state laws, and teacher evaluation as prescribed byVirginia's Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachers the Virginia Board of Education's guidelines for performance standards and evaluation criteria established pursuant to § 22.1-253.13:5 B of the Code of Virginia ] andreading language and literacy ].

3. One year of successful, full-time teaching experience in the appropriate teaching area in a Virginia public or an accredited nonpublic schoolmust shall ] be completed. For the Online Teacher License only, one year of successful online teaching experience in the endorsement area in a public school division, an accredited nonpublic school, or an accredited virtual school or program may be accepted in lieu of the supervised teaching experience. A fully licensed experienced teachermust shall ] be available in the school building to assist the beginning teacher employed through the alternate route.

C. Alternate route in special education. The Provisional (Special Education) License is a nonrenewable teaching license issuedfor a validity period not to exceed three years ] to an individual employed as a special education teacher in a public school or a nonpublicspecial education ] school in Virginia who does not hold the appropriate special education endorsement. The Provisional (Special Education) License will be issuedfor two years. Individuals may apply for a third year on the Provisional License by submitting documentation indicating that all licensure assessments prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education have been taken only with endorsements in special education ]. The Provisional License is a nonrenewable teaching license valid for a period not to exceed three years. This alternate route to special educationendorsement ] is not applicable to individuals seeking the Online Teacher License. To be issued the Provisional (Special Education) License through this alternate route, an individualmust meet the requirements through one of the two following options shall ]:

1.Option I. The individual must hold a full, valid Collegiate Professional or Postgraduate Professional License and must: a. ] Be employed by a Virginia public oraccredited ] nonpublic school as a specialeducator education teacher ] and have the recommendation of the employing educational agency;

b. 2. ] Have earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university;

c. 3. ] Have an assigned mentor with an active Virginia teaching license with an endorsement in special education; and

d. 4. ] Have a planned program of study in the assigned endorsement area, make progress toward meeting the endorsement requirements each of the three years of the license, and have completed at least three semester hours of coursework in the competencies of foundations for educating students with disabilities andhave ] an understanding and application of the legal aspects and regulatory requirements associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities. A survey course integrating these competencies would satisfy this requirement.

The Provisional (Special Education) Licenseissued ] through this alternate route shall not be issued without the completion of these prerequisites.

2. Option II. The individual must:

a. Be employed by a Virginia public or nonpublic school as a special educator and have the recommendation of the employing educational agency;

b. Have earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university;

c. Have an assigned mentor endorsed in special education; and

d. Have a planned program of study in the assigned endorsement area, make progress toward meeting the endorsement requirements each of the three years of the license, and have completed nine semester hours including courses in the following: characteristics of students with disabilities, individualized education program implementation, and classroom and behavior management.

The Provisional (Special Education) License through this alternate route shall not be issued without the completion of these prerequisites. ]

D. Alternate programs at institutions of higher education or Virginia school divisions. Alternate programs developed by institutions of higher education (i) recognize the unique strengths of prospective teachers from nontraditional backgrounds and (ii) prepare these individuals to meet the same standards that are established for others who are granted a license through an alternate route.

E. Experiential learning. Individuals applying for an initial teaching license through the alternate route as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Educationmust shall ] meet the following criteria to be eligible to requestthat ] experiential learningto ] satisfy the coursework for the endorsement (teaching) content area:

1. Have earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university;

2. Have at leastfive three ] years of documentedsuccessful ] full-time work experience that may include specialized training related to the endorsement sought; and

3. Have met theVirginia ] qualifying score on the content knowledge assessment prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

Experiential learning does not apply to individuals seeking special education andelementary education (i.e., ] preK-3 and preK-6) ] endorsements or endorsements in which there is no Virginia Board of Education- ] prescribed content or subject assessment.

8VAC20-23-100. Conditions for licensure for out-of-state candidates by reciprocity.

A. An individual coming into Virginia from any state may qualify for a Virginia teaching license with comparable endorsement areas if the individual (i) has completed a state-approved teacher preparation program through a regionally accredited four-year college or university or (ii) holds a valid out-of-state teaching license(i.e., full (full ] credential without deficiencies) thatmust shall ] be in force at the time the application for a Virginia license is made.An individual shall meet licensure requirements set forth in the Code of Virginia. ] An individual seeking licensuremust shall ] establish a file in theVirginia ] Department of Education by submitting a complete application packet that includes official student transcripts. Unless exempted by the criteria in subsection C of this section, professional teacher'sassessments assessment requirements ] prescribed by the Virginia Board of Educationmust shall ] be satisfied.

B. An individual coming into Virginia will qualify for a Virginia teaching license with comparable endorsement areas if the individual holds an active national certification from the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) or a nationally recognized certification program approved by the Virginia Board of Education.

C. Individuals who hold a valid out-of-state license(i.e., full (full ] credential without deficiencies) and who have completed a minimum of three years of full-time, successful teaching experience in a public or an accredited nonpublic school, kindergarten through grade 12, outside of Virginia are exempt from the professional teacher's assessment requirements. Documentationmust shall ] be submitted to verify the school's status as a public or accredited nonpublic school.

8VAC20-23-110. Requirements for renewing a license.

A. The Division Superintendent, Postgraduate Professional, Collegiate Professional, Technical Professional, Pupil Personnel Services, Online Teacher, and School Manager Licenses may be renewed upon the completion of 180 professional development points within a five-year validity period based on an individualized professional development plan that includes ongoing, sustained, and high-quality professional development.Every person seeking renewal of a license shall complete all renewal requirements, including professional development in a manner prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education, except that no person seeking renewal of a license shall be required to satisfy any such requirement by completing coursework and earning credit at an institution of higher education. ]

B. An individualwho holds an expired license must seeking renewal shall ] submit a completed licensure application at the time alicensure ] renewal request is submitted.

C. Virginia public school divisions and public education agencies must report annually to the Virginia Department of Education that instructional personnel have completed high-quality professional development each year as set forth by the Virginia Department of Education.

D. C. ] Any individual licensed and endorsed to teach (i) middle school civics or economics or (ii) high school government or history who is seeking renewal of such license is required to demonstrate knowledge of Virginia history or state and local government by completing a module or professional development course specifically related to Virginia history or state and local government that has a value of five professional development points.This requirement applies for purposes of the individual's next or initial renewal occurring after July 1, 2014.

E. If the requirement has not been met for initial licensure or licensure renewal, individuals D. Every person ] seeking renewal of a license shall provide evidence of completion of certification or training in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators. The certification or training program shall be based on the current national evidence-based emergency cardiovascular care guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the use of an automated external defibrillator, such as a program developed by the American Heart Association or the American Red Cross. The Virginia Board of Education shall provide a waiver for this requirement for any person with a disability whose disability prohibits such person from completing the certification or training.

F. E. Every person seeking renewal of a license shall demonstrate proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction.

F. Every person seeking renewal of a license shall complete awareness training, provided by the Virginia Department of Education, on the indicators of dyslexia, as that term is defined by the Virginia Board of Education pursuant to regulations, and the evidence-based interventions and accommodations for dyslexia.

G. Training in instructional methods tailored to promote academic progress and effective preparation for the Virginia Standards of Learning tests and end-of-grade assessments is required for licensure renewal.

H. Every person seeking renewal or initial license shall complete a study in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Services.

I. When provided by the state, individuals shall complete other professional development activities prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

J. ] Professional development points may be accrued by the completion of professional development activities to improve and increase instructional personnel's knowledge of the academic subjects the teachers teach or the area assigned from one or more of the following eight options.

1. College credit. Acceptable coursework offers content that provides new information and is offered on campus, off campus, or through extension by any regionally accredited two-year or four-year college or university. College courseworkmust shall ] develop further experiences in subject content taught, teaching strategies, uses of technologies, leadership, and other essential elements in teaching to high standards and increasing student learning.Instructional personnel must complete coursework to improve and increase the knowledge of the academic subjects or endorsement areas in which they are assigned. Individuals who do not hold a graduate degree must refer to subsection G of this section. No person seeking renewal of a license shall be required to complete coursework and earn credit at an institution of higher learning. ]

2. Professional conference. A professional conference is a workshop, institute, or seminar of four or more hours that contributes to ongoing, sustained, and high-quality professional development.

3. Curriculum development. Curriculum development is a group activity in which the license holder contributes to the improvement of the curriculum of a school, a school division, or aneducation educational ] institution in the teaching area assigned. This includes the alignment of curriculum frameworks, instructional materials, and assessments to provide a system with clear expectations of what is to be taught and learned.

4. Publication of article. The articlemust shall ] contribute to the education profession or to the body of knowledge of the license holder's teaching area or instructional position.This article shall be published in a recognized professional journal. ] Grant reports that present the results of educational research are acceptable provided the license holder had an active role in planning, analyzing, interpreting, demonstrating, disseminating, or evaluating the study or innovation.The article must be published in a recognized professional journal. ]

5. Publication of book. Booksmust shall ] be published for purchase andmust shall ] contribute to the education profession or to the body of knowledge of the license holder's teaching area or instructional position. The published bookmust shall ] increase the field of content knowledge;provide information on ] planning and assessment for evaluating and providing students with feedback that encourages student progress and measures student achievement;reference ] instruction, safety, and learning environment;expand upon ] and communication and community relations working with students, parents, and members of the community to promote broad support for student learning. Points will not be awarded for self-published books.

6. Mentorship. Mentoring is the process by which an experienced professional who has received mentorship training provides assistance to one or more persons for the purpose of improving their performance. Assistance may involve role modeling, direct instruction, demonstration, observation with feedback, developing of plans, and consultation to promote instructional excellence and increased student achievement. Mentoring may include the supervision of a field experience of a pre-service student teacher or an intern in an approved teacher or principal preparation program, as well as mentoring as part of the induction process for a beginning teacher or a first-year administrator. Individuals serving in this role and submitting documentation for license renewal based on the mentorship option shall receive training as a mentor prior to the assignment and at least once during the five-year renewal cycle.

7. Educational project. Educational projectsmust shall ] be planned, focused projects based on high standards of teaching and learning. Projectsmust shall ] result in a written report or other tangible product. Projectsmust shall ] contribute to the education profession or to the body of knowledge of the license holder's teaching area or instructional position. A project could include participation in new professional responsibilities, such as leading a school improvement initiative.

8. Professional development activity. Professional development activitiesmust shall ] focus on student learning and achievement, schoolwide educational improvement, leadership, subject content, teaching strategies, and use of technologiesand or ] other essential elements in teaching to high standards. Activitiesmust shall ] be planned, rigorous, systematic, and promote continuous inquiry and reflection. Local employing educational agencies are encouraged to design professional development activities that are conducted in school settings and linked to student learning and achievement.

G. A minimum of 90 points (i.e., three semester hours in a content area) at the undergraduate (i.e., two-year or four-year institution) or graduate level earned from a regionally accredited college or university in the license holder's endorsement areas shall be required of license holders without a master's degree. With prior approval, exceptions to the content course requirement may be made by the division superintendent or principal. Special education coursework designed to assist classroom teachers and other school personnel in working with students with disabilities, a course in gifted education, a course in educational technology, or a course in English as a second language may be completed to satisfy the content course requirement. Professional development activities designed to support the Virginia Standards of Learning, Standards of Accreditation, and state assessments may be accepted in lieu of the content course. An individual without a master's degree who holds a renewable Online Teacher License may complete pedagogy of online instruction coursework to meet this requirement. The substance of the activities must clearly support these initiatives and address one or more of the following areas: (i) new content knowledge to implement the Virginia Standards of Learning, (ii) curriculum development initiative designed to translate the standards from standards to classroom objectives, (iii) teaching beginning reading skills including phonemic awareness and the structure of language (i.e., phonics), (iv) staff development activities in assessment to assist classroom teachers in the utilization of test results to improve classroom instruction, and (v) professional development designed to implement the technology standards in the schools. Technical Professional License holders without baccalaureate degrees may satisfy the requirement through career and technical education workshops, career and technical education institutes, or through undergraduate coursework at two-year or four-year institutions.

H. Content area courses are courses at the undergraduate level (i.e., two-year or four-year institution) or at the graduate level that will not duplicate previous courses taken in the humanities, English, history and social sciences, sciences, mathematics, health and physical education, and fine arts. These courses are usually available through the college of or department of arts and sciences. License holders with elementary education, middle education, special education, or reading endorsements must satisfy the 90-point requirement through reading coursework or content coursework in one of the areas listed in this subsection. Courses available through a regionally accredited college's or university's department of education may be used to satisfy the content requirement for those license holders with endorsements in health and physical education, career and technical education, and library science education.

I. With prior approval of the division superintendent or principal, the 90 points in a content area also may be satisfied through coursework taken to obtain a new teaching endorsement or coursework taken because of a particular need of a particular teacher. ]

J. K. ] Theremaining 90 180 ] points may be accrued by activities drawn from one or more of the eight renewal options. Renewal work is designed to provide licensed personnel with opportunities for professional development relative to the grade levels or teaching fields to which they are assigned or for which they seek an added endorsement. Such professional development encompasses (i) responsible remediation of any area of an individual's knowledge or skills that fails to meet the standards of competency and (ii) responsible efforts to increase the individual's knowledge of new developments in his field and to respond to new curricular demands within the individual's area of professional competence.

K. L. ] The proposed work toward renewal in certain optionsmust shall ] be approved in advance by the chief executive officer or designee of the employing educational agency. Persons who are not employed by an educational agency may renewor reinstate ] their license by submitting to the Office of Professional Licensure,Virginia ] Department of Education,their a renewal application, fee, the ] individualized renewal record, ] and verification ofpoints the completion of all renewal requirements ], including official student transcripts of coursework taken at a regionally accredited two-year or four-year college or university.

L. Accrual of professional development points shall be determined by criteria set forth by the Virginia Department of Education in the Virginia Renewal Manual (http://doe.virginia.gov/teaching/licensure/licensure_renewal_manual.pdf).

M . Persons seeking license renewal as teachers must demonstrate proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction.

N. M. ] Virginia school divisions andaccredited ] nonpublic schoolswill shall ] recommend renewal of licenses using the renewal point system.The renewal recommendation must include verification of demonstrated proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction.

O. Training in instructional methods tailored to promote academic progress and effective preparation for the Standards of Learning tests and end-of-grade assessments is required for licensure renewal.

P. If they have not already met the requirement, persons seeking licensure renewal as teachers must complete study in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Services that are relevant to the specific teacher licensure routes. ]

Part IV
Licensure Regulations Governing Early/Primary Education, Elementary Education, and Middle Education Endorsements

8VAC20-23-120. Early/primary education, elementary education, and middle education endorsements.

Individuals seeking licensure with endorsements in early/primary education, elementary education, and middle education may meet requirements through the completion of an approved program, ] or if employed by a Virginia public oraccredited ] nonpublic school, ] through the alternate route to licensure. Components of the licensure program include a degree from a regionally accredited college or university in the liberal artsand or ] sciences, or equivalent; professional teacher's assessments requirement prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education; specific endorsement requirements; and professional studies requirements.

8VAC20-23-130. Professional studies requirementsfor early/primary education, elementary education, and middle education endorsements ].

Professional studies requirements for early/primary education, elementary education, and middle education: 21 semester hours. These requirements may be taught in integrated coursework or modules.

1. Human development and learning (birth through adolescence): 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the physical, social, emotional, speech and language, and intellectual development of children and the ability to use this understanding in guiding learning experiences and relating meaningfully to students.

b. The interaction of children with individual differences - economic, social, racial, ethnic, religious, physical, andmental cognitive ]- should be incorporated to include skills contributing to an understanding of developmental disabilities and developmental issues related to, ] but not limited to, ] low socioeconomic status,; ] attention deficit disorders,; ] developmental disorders,; ] gifted education, ] including the use of multiple criteria to identify gifted students,; ] substance abuse, child abuse,; trauma, including child abuse and neglect and other adverse childhood experiences; ] and family disruptions.

2. Curriculum and instruction: 3 semester hours.

a. Early/primary education preK-3 or elementary education preK-6 curriculum and instruction: 3 semester hours.

(1) Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology;varied and ] effectivemethods of ] communication with and among students; selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies; and selection, development, and use of appropriate curricula, methodologies, and materials that support and enhance student learning and reflect the research on unique, age-appropriate, and culturally relevant curriculum and pedagogy.

(2) Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instructionmust shall ] be included.

(3) Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners, includinglimited ] Englishproficient students learners ], gifted and talented students, andthose ] students with disabilities;, ] and appropriate for thelevel of endorsement (i.e., ] preK-3 or preK-6) sought endorsement ] shall be included.

(4) Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student engagement and student academic progress and effective preparation for theVirginia ] Standards of Learning assessments.

(5) Study in (i) methods of improving communication between schools and families,; ] (ii) communicating with families regarding social and instructional needs of children,; ] (iii) ways of increasing familyinvolvement engagement ] in student learning at home and in school,; ] (iv) the Virginia Standards of Learning,; ] and (v) Virginia Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds prepared by thedepartment's Virginia Department of Education's ] Office of Humanities and Early Childhood shall be included.

(6) Early childhood educatorsmust shall ] understand the role of families in child development and in relation to teaching educational skills.

(7) Early childhood educatorsmust shall ] understand the role of the informal and play-mediated settings for promoting students' skills and development andmust shall ] demonstrate knowledge and skill in interacting in such situations to promote specific learning outcomes as reflected in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds ].

(8) ] Demonstrated proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction shall beincluded required ].Persons seeking initial licensure as teachers and persons seeking licensure renewal as teachers for the first time shall complete study Study ] in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Servicesthat are relevant to the specific teacher licensure routes and training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators shall be included ].

(9) ] Pre-student teaching experiences [ ( i.e., field (field ] experiences) should be evident within these skills.

b. Middle education 6-8 curriculum and instruction: 3 semester hours.

(1) Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology;varied and ] effectivemethods of ] communication with and among students;and ] selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies; and evaluation of pupil performance ].

(2) Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instructionmust shall ] be included.

(3) Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners includinglimited ] Englishproficient students learners ], gifted and talented students, and students with disabilities, andmust shall ] be appropriate for the middle education endorsement shall be included.

(4) Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student engagement and student academic progress and effective preparation for the Virginia Standards of Learning assessments.

(5) Study in methods of improving communication between schools and families, ways of increasing familyinvolvement engagement ] in student learning at home and in school, andfamily engagement with ] theVirginia ] Standards of Learning shall be included.

(6) Demonstrated proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction shall be included.(7) Persons seeking initial licensure as teachers and persons seeking licensure renewal as teachers for the first time shall complete study Study ] in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Servicesthat are relevant to the specific teacher licensure routes and training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators shall be included ].

(7) ] Pre-student teaching experiences(i.e., field (field ] experiences) should be evident within these skills.

3. Classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding and application of research-based classroom and behavior management techniques, classroom community building, positive behavior supports, and individual interventions, including techniques that promote emotional well-being and teach and maintain behavioral conduct and skills consistent with norms, standards, and rules of the educational environment.

b. This area shall address diverse approaches based uponculturally responsive ] behavioral, cognitive, affective, social and ecological theory and practice.

c. Approaches should support professionally appropriate practices that promote positive redirection of behavior, development of social skills, and ofself discipline self-discipline ].

d. Knowledge and an understanding of various school crisis management and safety plans and the demonstrated ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environmentmust shall ] be included.

e. The link between classroom management and students' agesmust shall ] be understood and demonstrated in techniques used in the classroom.

4. Assessment of and for learning: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding and application of creating, selecting, and implementing valid and reliable classroom-based assessments of student learning, including formative and summative assessments. Assessments designed and adapted to meet the needs of diverse learnersmust shall ] be addressed.

b. Analytical skills necessary to inform ongoing planning and instruction, as well as to understand, ] and help students understand their own progress and growthmust shall ] be included.

c. Skillsshall ] also include theability to understand the ] relationships among assessment, instruction, and monitoring student progress to include student performance measures in grading practices, the ability to interpret valid assessments using a variety of formats in order to measure student attainment of essential skills in a standards-based environment, and the ability to analyze assessment data to make decisions about how to improve instruction and student performance.

d. Understanding of state assessment programs and accountability systems, including assessments used for student achievementgoal setting goal-setting ] as related to teacher evaluation and determining student academic progressmust shall ] be included.

e. Knowledge of legal and ethical aspects of assessment, ] and skills for developing familiarity with assessments used in preK-12 education(e.g. ],such as ] diagnostic, college admission exams, industry certifications, and placementassessments) must assessment shall ] be included.

5.The Foundations of education and the ] teaching profession: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding of the historical, philosophical, and sociological foundations underlying the role, development, and organization of public education in the United States.

b. Attentionmust shall ] be given to the legal status of teachers and students, including federal and state laws and regulations; school as an organization and culture; and contemporary issues and current trends in education, including the impact of technology on education. Local, state, and federal governance of schools, including the roles of teachers and schools in communities,must shall ] be included.

c. Professionalism and ethical standards, as well as personal integritymust shall ] be addressed.

d. Knowledge and understanding of Virginia's Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachersmust shall ] be included.

6.Reading Language and literacy ]: 6 semester hours.

a. Early/primary preK-3 and elementary education preK-6 - language acquisition and reading and writing: 6 semester hours. Skills listed for these endorsement areas represent the minimum competencies that a beginning teachermust shall ] be able to demonstrate. These skills are not intended to limit the scope of a beginning teacher's program. Additional knowledge and skills that add to a beginning teacher's competencies to deliver instruction and improve student achievement should be included as part of a quality learning experience.

(1) Language acquisition: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, ] as well as the complex nature of language acquisition as a precursor to literacy. Language acquisition shall follow the typical development of linguistic competence in the areas of phonetics, semantics, syntax, morphology, phonology, and pragmatics.

(2) Reading and writing: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, ] as well as the reciprocal nature of reading and writing. Reading shall include phonemicand other phonological ] awareness, concept of print, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension strategies. Writing shall include writing strategies and conventions as supportingthe ] composing andwriting written ] expression and usage and mechanics domains. Additional skills shall include proficiency in understanding the stages of spelling development, and ] the writing process, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading.

b. Middle education - language acquisition and reading development: 3 semester hours and literacy in the content areas: 3 semester hours.

(1) Language acquisition and reading development: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the complex nature of language acquisition and reading, to include phonemicand other phonological ] awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension strategies for adolescent learners. Additional skills shall include proficiency in writing strategies, ] as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading for adolescent learners.

(2) Literacy in the content areas: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart an understanding of vocabulary development and comprehension skills in English, mathematics, science, history and social science, and other content areas. Strategies include teaching students how to ask effective questions, summarize and retell both verbally and in writing, and to listen effectively. Teaching strategies include literal, interpretive, critical, and evaluative comprehension, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading for adolescent readers.

7. Supervised clinicalexperience experiences ]. Supervised clinical experiences shall be continuous and systematic and comprised of early field experiences and a minimum of 10 weeks ofsuccessful ] full-time student teachingin the endorsement area sought ] under the supervision of a cooperating teacher with demonstrated effectiveness in the classroom. The summative supervised student teaching experience shall include at least 150 clock hours spent in direct teaching at the level of endorsementin a public or accredited nonpublic school ]. One year of successful full-time teaching experience in the endorsement area in a public or accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the supervised teaching experience. For the Online Teacher License only, one year of successful online teaching experience in the endorsement area in a public school, an accredited nonpublic school, or an accredited virtual school or program may be accepted in lieu of the supervised teaching experience. A fully licensed, experienced teacher shall be available in the school building to assist a beginning teacher employed through the alternate route.

8VAC20-23-140. Early childhood for three-year-olds and four-year-olds (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1. An earned baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with an endorsement in elementary education(such, such ] as preK-3 orpreK-6) preK-6, ] or special education early childhood;

2. Completed 9 semester hours of graduate-level coursework in early childhood education; and

3. Completed a supervised practicum of at least 45 instructional hours in a preschool setting(i.e., three-year-olds (three-year-olds ] and four-year-olds) in a public school, an accredited nonpublic school, or another program approved by the Virginia Board of Education. One year of successful, full-time teaching experience in a public or accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the practicum.

4. The add-on endorsement to an elementary endorsement that includes preK is not required to teach preK(i.e., three-year-olds (three-year-olds ] and four-year-olds), but the endorsement recognizes the candidate's additional preparation in early childhood education.

8VAC20-23-150. Early/primary education preK-3.

Endorsement requirements.

1. The candidate must have graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in early/primary education preK-3; or

2. The candidate for the early/primary education preK-3 endorsement must have earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university in the liberal artsand or ] sciences, or equivalent, and completed coursework that covers the early/primary education preK-3 competencies andfulfills meets ] the following51 ] semester-hour requirements:

a. English(must (shall ] include composition, oral communication, and literature): 12 semester hours; or complete 6 semester hours in English and pass a rigorous elementary subject test prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education;

b. Mathematics(must (shall ] include algebra, geometry, probability and statistics, and methods in teaching elementary mathematics): 12 semester hours; or complete 6 semester hours in mathematics, complete a methods in teaching elementary mathematics course (3 semester hours), and pass a rigorous elementary subject test prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education;

c. Laboratory sciences: 12 semester hours (in at least two science disciplines and methods in teaching elementary science); or complete 6 semester hours in laboratory science (in two science disciplines), complete a methods in teaching elementary science course (3 semester hours), and pass a rigorous elementary subject test prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education;

d. History(must (shall ] include American history and world history): 6 semester hours, and Social Science(must (shall ] include geography and economics): 6 semester hours; or complete 3 semester hours in history, complete 3 semester hours in social science (geography or economics),complete a methods in teaching elementary history and social sciences course (3 semester hours), ] and pass a rigorous elementary subject test prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education; and

e. Arts: 3 semester hours.

8VAC20-23-160. Elementary education preK-6.

Endorsement requirements.

1. The candidate shall have graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in elementary education preK-6; or

2. The candidate for the elementary education preK-6 endorsementmust shall ] have earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university majoring in the liberal artsand or ] sciences (or equivalent) andfulfill meet ] the following57 ] semester-hour requirements:

a. English(must (shall ] include composition, oral communication, and literature): 12 semester hours; or complete 6 semester hours in English and pass a rigorous elementary subject test prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education;

b. Mathematics(must (shall ] include algebra, geometry, probability and statistics, and teaching elementary mathematics): 15 semester hours; or complete 6 hours in mathematics, complete a methods in teaching elementary mathematics course (3 semester hours), and pass a rigorous elementary subject test prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education;

c.Science (including a laboratory course) Laboratory sciences ]: 15 semester hours in at least three science disciplines and at least a three credit science methods course; or complete6 9 ] semester hours (in two science disciplines), complete a methods in teaching elementary science course (3 semester hours), and pass a rigorous elementary subject test prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education;

d. History(must (shall ] include American history and world history): 6 semester hours, and Social Science(must (shall ] include geography and economics): 6 semester hours; or complete 3 semester hours in history, complete 3 semester hours in social science (geography or economics),complete a methods in teaching elementary history and social sciences course (3 semester hours), ] and pass a rigorous elementary subject test prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education; and

e. Arts: 3 semester hours.

8VAC20-23-170. Middle education 6-8.

Endorsement requirements.

1. The candidatemust shall ] have graduated from an approved teacher preparation discipline-specific program in middle education 6-8 with at least one area of academic preparation from the areas of English, mathematics, science, and history and social sciences; or

2. An applicant seeking the middle education 6-8 endorsementmust shall ] have earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university in the liberal artsand or ] sciences, or equivalent; and completed the minimum number of semester hours, as indicated, in at least one area of academic preparation(i.e., concentration) (concentration) ] that will be listed on the license. The applicant will be restricted to teaching only in the area or areas of concentration listed on the teaching license.

a. English. English concentration(must (shall ] include coursework in language,for example such as ] history, structure, grammar, fiction and nonfiction texts, media literacy, advanced composition, and interpersonal communication or speech): 21 semester hours.

b. Mathematics. Mathematics concentration(must (shall ] include coursework in algebra, geometry, probability and statistics, applications of mathematics, and methods of teaching mathematics to include middle school mathematics content): 24 semester hours.

c. Science. Science Laboratory sciences. Laboratory sciences ] concentration(must (shall ] include courses in each of the following: biology, chemistry, physics, and Earth and space science; and a laboratory course is required intwo each ] of the four areas):21 24 ] semester hours.

d. History and social sciences. History and social sciences concentration(must (shall ] include a course in American history; world history; economics; American government, including state and local government; and geography): 21 semester hours.

Part V
Licensure Regulations Governing PreK-12
Endorsements ], Special Education, Secondary Grades 6-12Endorsements ], and Adult EducationEndorsements ]

8VAC20-23-180. PreK-12endorsements ], special education, secondary grades 6-12endorsements ], and adult educationendorsements ].

Individuals seeking licensure with preK-12endorsements ], special education, secondary grades 6-12endorsements ], or adult educationendorsements ] may meet requirements through the completion of an approved program, ] or if employed by a Virginia public oraccredited ] nonpublic school, ] through the alternate route to licensure. Components of the licensure program include a degree from a regionally accredited college or university in the liberal artsand or ] sciences, or equivalent; professional teacher's assessment requirements prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education; specific endorsement requirements; and professional studies requirements.

8VAC20-23-190. Professional studies requirementsfor PreK-12, special education, secondary grades 6-12, and adult education endorsements ].

Professional studies requirements foradult education, ] preK-12endorsements, and, ] secondary grades 6-12endorsements, and adult education endorsements ]: 18 semester hours. Professional studies requirements for special educationendorsements ]: 21 semester hours. These requirements may be taught in integrated coursework or modules.

1. Human development and learning (birth through adolescence): 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the physical, social, emotional, speech and language, and intellectual development of children and the ability to use this understanding in guiding learning experiencesand relating meaningfully to students ].

b. The interaction of children with individual differences - economic, social, racial, ethnic, religious, physical, andmental cognitive ] - should be incorporated to include skills contributing to an understanding of developmental disabilities and developmental issues related to, ] but not limited to, ] low socioeconomic status,; ] attention deficit disorders,; ] developmental disabilities,; ] gifted education, ] including the use of multiple criteria to identify gifted students,; ] substance abuse, child abuse,; trauma, including child abuse and neglect and other adverse childhood experiences; ] and family disruptions.

2. Curriculum and instruction: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology;varied and ] effectivemethods of ] communication with and among students; selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies; selection, development, and use of appropriate curricula, methodologies, and materials that support and enhance student learning and reflect the research on unique, age-appropriate, and culturally relevant curriculum and pedagogy.

b. Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instructionmust shall ] be included.

c. Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners, includinglimited ] Englishproficient students learners ]; gifted and talented students andthose ] students with disabilities; and appropriate for the level of endorsement sought shall be included.

d. Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student academic progress and effective preparation for the Virginia Standards of Learning assessments.

e. Methods of improving communication between schools and families, ways of increasing familyinvolvement engagement ] in student learning at home and in school, andfamily engagement with ] the Virginia Standards of Learning shall be included.

f. Demonstrated proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction shall be included.g. Persons seeking initial licensure as teachers and persons seeking licensure renewal as teachers for the first time shall complete study Study ] in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Servicesthat are relevant to the specific teacher licensure routes and training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators shall be included ].

h. g. ] Curriculum and instruction for secondary grades 6-12 endorsements shall include middle and secondary education.

h. ] Pre-student teaching experiences(i.e., field (field ] experiences) should be evident within these skills. For preK-12, field experiences shall be at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels.

3. Assessment of and for learning: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding and application of creating, selecting, and implementing valid and reliable classroom-based assessments of student learning, including formative and summative assessments. Assessments designed and adapted to meet the needs of diverse learnersmust shall ] be addressed.

b. Analytical skills necessary to inform ongoing planning and instruction, as well as to understand, and help students understand their own progress and growthmust shall ] be included.

c. Skillsshall ] also includethe ability to understand ] the relationships among assessment, instruction, and monitoring student progress to include student performance measures in grading practices, the ability to interpret valid assessments using a variety of formats in order to measure student attainment of essential skills in a standards-based environment, and the ability to analyze assessment data to make decisions about how to improve instruction and student performance.

d. Understanding of state assessment programs and accountability systems, including assessments used for student achievementgoal setting goal-setting ] as related to teacher evaluation and determining student academic progress, including knowledge of legal and ethical aspects of assessment shall be included ].

e.Develop Knowledge of legal and ethical aspects of assessment and skills for developing ] familiarity with assessments used in preK-12 education(e.g., such as ] diagnostic, college admission exams, industry certifications,and ] placement assessments) shall be included ].

4.The Foundations of education and the ] teaching profession: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding of the historical, philosophical, and sociological foundations underlying the role, development, and organization of public education in the United States.

b. Attentionmust shall ] be given to the legal status of teachers and students, including federal and state laws and regulations,; ] school as an organization and culture,; ] and contemporary issues and current trends in education, including the impact of technology on education. Local, state, and federal governance of schools, including the roles of teachers and schools in communitiesmust shall ] be included.

c. Professionalism and ethical standards, as well as personal integritymust shall ] be addressed.

d. Knowledge and understanding of Virginia's Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachersmust shall ] be included.

5. Classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding and application of research-based classroom and behavior management techniques, classroom community building, positive behavior supports, and individual interventions, including techniques that promote emotional well-being and teach and maintain behavioral conduct and skills consistent with norms, standards, and rules of the educational environment.

b. This area shall address diverse approaches based uponculturally responsive ] behavioral, cognitive, affective, social and ecological theory and practice.

c. Approaches should support professionally appropriate practices that promote positive redirection of behavior, development of social skills and of self-discipline.

d. Knowledge and an understanding of various school crisis management and safety plans and thedemonstrated ] ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environmentmust shall ] be included. The link between classroom management and the students' agesmust shall ] be understood and demonstrated in techniques used in the classroom.

6.Reading Language and literacy ].

a. Adult education, preK-12, and secondary grades 6-12 - literacy in the content areas: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart an understanding of vocabulary development and comprehension skills in English, mathematics, science, history and social science, and other content areas. Strategies include teaching students how to ask effective questions, summarize and retell both verbally and in writing, and listen effectively. Teaching strategies include literal, interpretive, critical, and evaluative comprehension, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading for adolescent learners.

b. Special education - language acquisition and reading and writing: 6 semester hours. Skills listed for these endorsement areas represent the minimum competencies that a beginning teachermust shall ] be able to demonstrate. These skills are not intended to limit the scope of a beginning teacher's program. Additional knowledge and skills that add to a beginning teacher's competencies to deliver instruction and improve student achievement should be included as part of a quality learning experience.

(1) Language acquisition: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, ] as well as the complex nature of language acquisition as a precursor to literacy. Language acquisition shall follow the typical development of linguistic competence in the areas of phonetics, semantics, syntax, morphology, phonology, and pragmatics.

(2) Reading and writing: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, ] as well as the reciprocal nature of reading and writing. Reading shall include phonemicand other phonological ] awareness, concept of print, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension strategies. Writing shall include writing strategies and conventions as supporting the composing andwriting written ] expression and usage and mechanics domains. Additional skills shall include proficiency in understanding the stages of spelling development, and ] the writing process, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading and the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading ].

7. Supervised classroom experience. Supervised clinical experiences shall be continuous and systematic and comprised of early field experiences and a minimum of 10 weeks ofsuccessful ] full-time student teachingin the endorsement area sought ] under the supervision of a cooperating teacher with demonstrated effectiveness in the classroom. The summative supervised student teaching experience shall include at least 150 clock hours spent in direct teaching at the level of endorsementin a public or accredited nonpublic school ].

If a preK-12 endorsement is sought, teaching activities shall be at the elementary and middle or secondary levels. Individuals seeking the endorsement in library media shall complete the supervised school library media practicum in a school library media setting. Individuals seeking an endorsement in an area of special education shall complete the supervised classroom experience requirement in the area of special education for which the endorsement is sought. One year of successful full-time teaching experience in the endorsement area in a public or an accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the supervised teaching experience. For the Online Teacher License only, one year of successful online teaching experience in the endorsement area in a public school, an accredited nonpublic school, or an accredited virtual school or program may be accepted in lieu of the supervised teaching experience. A fully licensed, experienced teacher shall be available in the school building to assist a beginning teacher employed through the alternate route.

8VAC20-23-200. Adult education.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university or hold a Collegiate Professional License(requires a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university) ]; and

2. A minimum of 15 semester hours in adult education thatmust shall ] include the following competencies and one semester of supervised successful full-time, or an equivalent number of hours of part-time experience, teaching of adults:

a. Understanding of the nature or psychology of the adult learner or adult development;

b. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes needed for the selection, evaluation, and instructional applications of the methods and materials foradult basic skills adults to become college and career ready, ] including:

(1) Curriculum development in adult basic education orGeneral Educational Development (GED) Virginia Board of Education-approved high school equivalency ] instruction;

(2)Beginning reading Literacy skills ] for adults;

(3)Beginning mathematics Numeracy skills ] for adults;

(4) Reading comprehension for adult education;and ]

(5) Foundations of adult education; and

(6) (5) ] Other adult basic skills instruction.

B. Individuals not holding a Collegiate Professional License or a Postgraduate Professional Licensemust shall ] meet the professional teacher's assessment requirements prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

8VAC20-23-210. Adult English as a second language (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in adult English as a second language; or

2.An earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with an endorsement in a teaching area; and

3. Completed 21 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Methods for teachingadult ] Englishas a second language to adults learners ]: 3 semester hours;

b. English linguistics: 3 semester hours;

c. Cross-cultural education: 3 semester hours;

d. Modern foreign language: 6 semester hours; and

e. Electives from the following areas: 6 semester hours:

(1) Cross-cultural communication;

(2) Second language acquisition;

(3) General linguistics;

(4) Teaching reading to adults;

(5) Adult Englishas a second language learner ] instruction; or

(6) Adult Englishas a second language learner ] curriculum development.

8VAC20-23-220. Career and technical education – agricultural education.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation programwith a minimum of a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university ] in agricultural education; or

2.Completed Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed ] 39 semester hours of coursework in agriculture, including at leastthree 3 ] semester hours in each of thefollowing ] areas in subdivisions 2 a through 2 fof this subsection, ] as well as a minimum ofnine 9 semester ] hours in one concentration area listed inthe following areas ] subdivisions 2 a through 2 f:

a. Plant science;

b. Animal science;

c. Agricultural mechanics and applied technology with a lab component;

d. Agricultural economics and management;

e. Forestry and wildlife management;

f. Horticulture; and

g. Supervised occupational experience, 3 semester hours, or one year of successful, full-time or the equivalentof relevant occupational experience ] (a minimum of 2,000 cumulative hours)relevant occupational experience ] within the past five years.

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential. ]

B. Technical Professional License. An endorsement in specialized areas may be granted to individuals who have:

1. Been recommended by an employing Virginia educational agency;

2. Completed two years of successful, full-time or the equivalent of occupational experience within the past five years in the teaching specialty sought;

3. Completed professional studies requirements (human development and learning: 3 semester hours; curriculum and instruction in career and technical education: 3 semester hours; and applications of instructional technology or classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours); and

4. Completed an agricultural education certificate or associate degree program in the teaching specialty area sought.

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential. ]

8VAC20-23-230. Career and technical education – business and information technology.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation programwith a minimum of a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university ] in business and information technology; or

2.Completed Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed ] a major in business education or 39 semester hours of coursework in business and information technology, including:

a. Accounting: 6 semester hours;

b. Economics: 3 semester hours;

c. Business law, business principles, management, marketing, or finance: 9 semester hours;

d. Communications and media to include oral, written, and presentationskills ]: 3 semester hours;

e. Information systems and technology to include computer software applications(e.g. ],such as ] word processing, spreadsheet, database, and presentation) ], information technology fundamentals, database management, communications systems, programming, software development, security, and networking: 12 semester hours;

f. Input technologies to include touch keyboarding (required, or documented demonstrated mastery of the touch keyboarding skill), audio input devices, video input devices, pointing devices, touch screens, or other emerging input technologies: 3 semester hours; and

g. Supervised business experience: 3 semester hours;, ] or one year of successful full-time or the equivalent(i.e., (a minimum of ] 2,000part-time cumulative ] hours) relevant occupational experience within the last five years.

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential. ]

B. Technical Professional License. An endorsement in a highly specialized business and information technology area, such as networking,administration, communications systems, ] programming, database management, Internet application development, medical office procedures, legal office procedures, network administration, and other emerging highly specialized areas may be granted to individuals who have:

1. Been recommended by an employing Virginia educational agency;

2. Completed two years of successful, full-time or the equivalent occupational experience within the last five years in the teaching specialty area sought;

3. Completed a business certificate or associate degree program from a regionally accredited institution in the teaching specialty area sought; and

4. Completed professional studies requirements (human development and learning: 3 semester hours; curriculum and instruction in career and technical education: 3 semester hours; and applications of instructional technology or classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours).

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential. ]

8VAC20-23-240. Career and technical education – family and consumer sciences.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation programwith a minimum of a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university ] in family and consumer sciences; or

2.Completed Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed ] a major in family and consumer sciences education or 39 semester hours of coursework in family and consumer sciences distributed in the following areas:

a. Development of individuals through the lifespan and the family life cycleand family ]: 9 semester hours;

b. Resource management, personal and family finance, and consumer economics: 6 semester hours;

c. Food, nutrition, dietetics, wellness, and food science: 9 semester hours;

d. Housing, home furnishing, and equipment: 3 semester hours;

e. Apparel and textiles: 6 semester hours;

f. Occupational program management: 3 semester hours; and

g. Supervised occupational experience related to family and consumer sciences, 3 semester hours, or one year of successful, full-time or the equivalentof (a minimum of 2,000 cumulative hours) ] relevant occupational experience within the last five years.

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential. ]

B. Technical Professional License. An endorsement in a specialized family and consumer sciences area, such as child care occupations, consumer services, family and human services, fashion design occupations, food occupations, hospitality occupations, interior design occupations,and ] home furnishings occupations, and home and institutional services, may be granted to individuals who have:

1. Been recommended by an employing Virginia educational agency.; ]

2. Completed at least two years of successful, full-time occupational experience or the equivalent within the past five years in the teaching specialty for which they are seeking endorsement.; ]

3. Completed a family and consumer sciences certificate or associate degree programfrom a regionally accredited college or university, ] where applicable in the area of endorsement sought.; and ]

4. Completed professional studies requirements (human development and learning: 3 semester hours; curriculum and instruction in career and technical education: 3 semester hours; and applications of instructional technology or classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours).

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential. ]

8VAC20-23-250. Career and technical education – health and medical sciences.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved program of studywith a minimum of a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university ] in a health care program of study and hold a current license or certification as a professional practitioner in the area in which one is to be teaching; or

2.A Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a ] current license or certification as a professional practitioner in the area in which one is to be teaching and completed two years of successful, full-time or the equivalent of occupational experience within the past five years in an area related to the teaching specialty sought.

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential. ]

B. Technical Professional License. An endorsement in a specialized health occupations area may be granted to individuals who have:

1. Been recommended by an employing Virginia educational agency;

2. A license orbe are ] certified as a professional practitioner in the area in which one is to be teaching;

3. Completed two years of full-time or the equivalent of occupational experience within the past five years in the teaching specialty sought;

4. Completed a health occupations certificate or associate degree program from a regionally accredited institution in the teaching specialty area sought; and

5. Completed professional studies requirements (human development and learning: 3 semester hours; curriculum and instruction in career and technical education: 3 semester hours; and applications of instructional technology or classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours).

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential. ]

8VAC20-23-260. Career and technical education – marketing education.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation programwith a minimum of a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university ] in marketing education; or

2.Completed Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed ] a major in marketing education or a minimum of 39 semester hours of coursework in marketing to include;: ]

a. Marketing processes and environment: 3 semester hours;

b. Management and supervision: 6 semester hours;

c. Economics: 3 semester hours;

d. Merchandising and operations: 3 semester hours;

e. Advertising and promotion: 3 semester hours;

f. Sales and selling: 3 semester hours;

g. Communication theory and techniques: 3 semester hours;

h. Consumer behavior: 3 semester hours;

i. International (global) marketing: 3 semester hours;

j. Finance, accounting, or marketing mathematics: 3 semester hours;

k. Technology applications: 3 semester hours; and

l. Supervised marketing occupational experience, 3 semester hours, or one year ofsuccessful ] full-time work experience in the field of marketing may be accepted in lieu of the supervised marketing internship.

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential. ]

B. Technical Professional License. An endorsement in a specialized marketing area, such as apparel and accessories, hotel operations, international marketing, or restaurant, may be granted to individuals who have:

1. Been recommended by an employing Virginia educational agency;

2. Completed two years ofsuccessful ] full-time occupational experience, or the equivalent, within the last five years in the teaching specialty area sought; and

3. Completed professional studies requirements (human development and learning: 3 semester hours; curriculum and instruction in career and technical education: 3 semester hours; and applications of instructional technology or classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours).

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential. ]

8VAC20-23-270. Career and technical education – technology education.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation programfrom a regionally accredited college or university with a minimum of a baccalaureate degree ] in technology education; or

2.Completed Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed ] a major in technology education or 33 semester hours in technology education distributed in the following areas:

a. The nature of technology. Experiences shall include those that promote an understanding of the characteristics, scope, and core concepts of physical, biological, and informational technologies, the relationships among these technologies, and their connections to other science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields: 6 semester hours;

b. Technology and society. Experiences shall include those that develop a working knowledge of the cultural, social, economic, and political effects of technology, its effect on the environment, and the role of society in the history, development, and use of physical, biological, and informational technologies: 3 semester hours;

c. Engineering. Experiences shall include those that develop comprehension of the attributes of technological design, inclusive of constraints, optimization, predictive analysis, problem solving, critical thinking, technical writing, and integrative mathematics and science: 6 semester hours;

d. Abilities for a technological world. Experiences shall include those that develop the capacity to utilize the design process, to use and maintain technological products and systems, and to assess their impact: 9 semester hours; and

e. The designed world. Experiences shall include those that promote an understanding of current and emerging physical, biological, and informational technologies: 9 semester hours; or

3. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university with a major in one of the following fields of study: architecture, design, engineering, engineering technology, industrial technology, or physics and completed a minimum of 15 semester hours of technology education content coursework, including at least 3 semester hours in each of the following areas:

a. The nature of technology;

b. Technology and society;

c. Engineering;

d. Abilities for a technological world; and

e. The designed world.

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential. ]

8VAC20-23-280. Career and technical education – trade and industrial education.

A. Endorsement requirements.

1. The candidatemust shall ] have graduated from an approved teacher preparation program with a minimum of a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university in trade and industrial education; or

2. A candidate who has graduated from an approved teacher preparation program that is not in the trade and industrial education program subject area for which the candidate is seeking endorsementmust shall ] have:

a. A current statelicensure license ] or industry certification based on the prescribed standard or examination, if applicable; and

b. Evidence of at least two years ofsuccessful ] full-time or equivalent occupational experience within the past five years in the teaching specialty for which the candidate is seeking endorsement. A candidate whose occupational experience has not been within the last five yearsmust shall ] participate in a supervised technical update related to the teaching specialty or area of endorsement or complete a supervised internship of work experience of not less than six weeks related to the area of endorsement or teaching specialty.

B. Technical Professional License. An endorsement in a specialized trade and industrial education area will be granted to an individual who has:

1. Been recommended by an employing Virginia educational agency;

2. A current license or is currently certified as a professional practitioner in the area in whichhe the individual ] is to be teaching, if applicable, or can demonstrate competency in the area of trade and industrial educationhe the individual ] is to be teaching;

3. Evidence of at least two years ofsuccessful ] full-time or the equivalent occupational experience within the past five years in the teaching specialty for which he is seeking endorsement. Candidates whose occupational experience has not been within the last five yearsmust shall ] participate in a supervised technical update related to the teaching specialty or area of endorsement or complete a supervised internship of work experience of not less than six weeks related to the area of endorsement or teaching specialty; and

4. Completed professional studies requirements (human development and learning: 3 semester hours; curriculum and instruction in career and technical education: 3 semester hours; and applications of instructional technology or classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours).

C. Add-on endorsement requirements. A candidatemust shall ]:

1. Hold an active Collegiate Professional or Postgraduate Professional License with a teaching endorsement;

2. Demonstrate competency in the trade or industrial area being sought;

3. Hold current state licensure or industry certification for the trade or industrial area for which endorsement is sought based upon the prescribed standard or examination;

4. Have completed two years or 4,000 clock hours of satisfactory, full-time occupational experience at the journeyman level or an equivalent level in the occupation within the last five years. Candidates whose occupational experience has not been within the last five yearsmust shall ] participate in a supervised technical update related to the teaching specialty or area of endorsement or complete a supervised internship of work experience of not less than six weeks related to the area of endorsement or teaching specialty; and

5. Have completed 3 semester hours in curriculum and instruction specific to vocational industrial education.

8VAC20-23-290. Career and technical education – transition and special needs (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation programwith a minimum of a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university ] intransition and ] special needseducation ]; or

2.Completed Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed ] a major in career and technical education or special education, pre-K-12 preK-12 ] with an endorsement in one area of career and technical education or special education preK-12, including 12 semester hours distributed in the following areas:

a. Overview of special needs programs and services: 3 semester hours;

b. Instructional methods, curriculum, and resources: 3 semester hours;

c. Career and life planning, transitioning, occupational information, and delivery of cooperative education programs: 3 semester hours; and

d. Purposes and practices and characteristics of special populations: 3 semester hours; and

3. Completed successful, supervised occupational experience, 3 semester hours, or one year of full-time or the equivalent of relevant occupational experience within the past five years.

8VAC20-23-300. Computer science.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in computer science; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 36 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Mathematics, including discrete mathematics;

b. Data structures and algorithm analysis;

c. Foundations of computer science; and

d. Programming in at least two distinct languages: 6 semester hours.

B. Add-on endorsement requirements in computer science. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.An earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

2. Completed 18 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Mathematics, including discrete mathematics;

b. Data structures and algorithm analysis;

c. Foundations of computer science; and

d. Programming in at least two distinct languages: 6 semester hours.

8VAC20-23-310. Dance arts preK-12.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in dance arts; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in dance arts or 24 semester hours with coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Development of movement language: 9 semester hours.

(1) A course in each area of ballet, folk, jazz, and modern dance: 6 semester hours; and

(2) Area of concentration in one area of ballet, folk, jazz, or modern dance beyond the entry level: 3 semester hours;

b. Composition, improvisation, and dance arts production,which ] may include stage lighting, stage costuming, or stage makeup: 3 semester hours;

c. Scientific foundations, including human anatomy, kinesiology, and injury prevention and care for dance arts: 9 semester hours; and

d. Cultural understanding, including cultural context and dance history: 3 semester hours.

B. Add-on endorsement requirements in dance arts. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.An earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

2. Completed 15 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Development of movement language: 9 semester hours.

(1) A course in each area of ballet, folk, jazz, and moderndance ]: 6 semester hours; and

(2) Area of concentration in one area of ballet, folk, jazz, or moderndance ] beyond the entry level: 3 semester hours;

b. Composition, improvisation, and dance arts production,which ] may include stage lighting, stage costuming, or stage makeup: 3 semester hours; and

c. Cultural understanding, including cultural context and dance history: 3 semester hours.

8VAC20-23-320. Driver education (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.An earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

2. Completed an approved teacher preparation program in driver education; or

3.Completed Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and completed ] 6 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Driver Task Analysis: to include, including ] instructional strategies as prescribed in the Curriculum and Administrative Guide for Driver Education in Virginia [ 2010 ] (http://www.doe.virginia.gov/instruction/driver_education/curriculum_admin_guide/index.shtml); understanding the highway transportation system; applying Virginia's motor vehicle laws; personal, legal, and emotional factors; visual and sensory perception; risk perception and risk management; space management and other defensive driving techniques; environmental, financial, and other vehicle ownership responsibilities; vehicle technologies; and the scientific principles of the driving tasks: 3 semester hours; and

b. Principles and methodologies of classroom and in-car instruction, including applying classroom and in-car teaching techniques for delivering concurrent instruction; applying perception, vehicle balance, speed control, and other risk management principles to the development of precision driving skills; and understanding program administrative tasks, including juvenile licensing laws and issuance of a driver's license; a minimum of 14 hours of actual behind-the-wheel supervised teaching experience demonstrating vehicle control skills and performance capabilities that includes 2 hours of basic evasive maneuvers; and a minimum of 14 hours of mentorship with a licensed, endorsed driver education teacher: 3 semester hours.

4. A current, valid Virginia driver's license.School divisions are to ensure that teachers of driver education hold a valid driver's license. ]

8VAC20-23-330. Engineering.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in engineering;

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in engineering or an engineering subspecialtyat in ] an Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET)-accredited college or university program;

3. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed an engineering technology, science, or technology education major with at least 12 semester hours of coursework in engineering courses, including:

a. Introduction to engineering design;

b. Statics or dynamics;

c. Circuits or fluid mechanics; and

d. Thermodynamics;

4.Completed Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed ] a science, mathematics, or technology education major with at least five years of successfulfull-time ] experience working in an engineering environment; or

5.Hold Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold ] a professional engineer's (P.E.) license.

8VAC20-23-340. English.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in English; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in English or a minimum of 36 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Literacy and reading: 12 semester hours. Coursesmust shall ] include:

(1) Survey of British literature;

(2) Survey of American literature;

(3) World literature; and

(4) Literary theory and criticism.

b. Language: 3 semester hours. Includes the development and nature of the English language.

c. Composition: 12 semester hours. Experiences shall include:

(1) A grammar course integrating grammar and writing;

(2) The teaching of writing, based on current knowledge and most effective practices, including the use of technology for this purpose;

(3) An advanced composition course emphasizing rhetorical practices of expository, persuasive, argumentative, and analytical writing; and

(4) Teaching research including ethical accessing, evaluating, organizing, crediting, and synthesizing information.

d. Oral language: 3 semester hours. Experiences shall include the teaching of public and presentation speaking, including nonverbal communication and the role of communication in small group and mass communication.

e. Electives from the areas listed inthis section this subdivision 2 ]: 6 semester hours.

8VAC20-23-350. English as a second language preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in English as a second language; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 24 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Teaching of reading and writing. Coursesmust shall ] includethe five areas of reading instruction: skills in ] phonemicand other phonological ] awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and text comprehension as well as the similarities and differences between reading in a first language and reading in a second language and a balanced literacy approach ];pre-reading, during reading, and post-reading strategies; vocabulary development; and guided reading. Ability to structure interactive tasks that engage students in using oral language to develop language and skills. Ability to determine students' reading levels and design instruction for multi-level classrooms by incorporating appropriate scaffolding or language supports; ] one coursemust shall ] address teaching reading to English language learners: 6 semester hours;

b. English linguistics:general and English linguistics ] 3 semester hours;

c. Cross-cultural education: 3 semester hours;

d. Second language acquisition: 3 semester hours;

e. Methods of English as a second language, to includeinstruction based on the understanding of ] the World-Class Instructional Design and Assessment (WIDA) English Language Development (ELD) Standards: 3 semester hours;

f. English as a second language assessment to include assessing comprehension and communication in English: 3 semester hours; and

g. Electives from the areas listed in [ this section this subdivision 2 ]: 3 semester hours.

8VAC20-23-360. Foreign language preK-12.

A. The specific language of the endorsement will be noted on the license.

B. Endorsement requirements for foreign language preK-12 - languages other than Latinand American Sign Language ]. The candidate [ must shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in a foreign language; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university, ] and completeda major in the foreign language or ] 30 semester hours of coursework above the intermediate level in the foreign language distributed in the following areas:

a. Advanced grammar and composition;

b. Conversation, culture and civilization, and literature; and

c. In addition to the 30 semester hours, completed a minimum of 3 semester hours of methods of teaching foreign languages at the elementary and secondary levels.

3. Endorsement in a secondforeign ] language may be obtainedwith by successfully completing ] 24 semester hours of coursework above the intermediate level.

4. Candidates who have learned a foreign language without formal academic credit in a regionally accredited college or universitymust shall ] complete the following requirements:

a. Achieve a qualifying score on a foreign language assessment in the appropriate language as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education; and

b. Earn a minimum of 3 semester hours of methods of teaching foreign languages at the elementary and secondary levels from a regionally accredited college or university in the United States or obtain teacher certification in another country with at least 3 semester hours of methods of teaching foreign languages at the elementary and secondary levels at a foreign institution.

C. Endorsement requirements for foreign language preK-12 - Latin. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in Latin; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 24 semester hours of Latin above the intermediate level. A maximum of six semester hours of Roman history, Roman life,Roman ] mythology, orRoman ] archaeology may be included in the total hours. A minimum of 3 semester hours of methods of teaching Latin at the elementary and secondary levels are required.

D. Endorsement requirements for foreign language preK-12 - American Sign Language.

1. The candidatemust shall ] have (i) graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in a foreign language - American Sign Language or (ii) earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in American Sign Language or 24 semester hours above the intermediate level in American Sign Language. The program shall include (i) courses in advanced grammar and syntax, conversation, and culture and (ii) a minimum of 3 semester hours of methods of teaching foreign languages at the elementary and secondary levels.

2. Native users or candidates who have learned American Sign Language without formal academic credit in a regionally accredited college or university, as explained in subdivision 1 of this subsection,must shall ] complete the following requirements:

a. Competency in American Sign Language demonstrated by written documentation of one of the following:

(1) Hold a current, valid Provisional, Qualified, or Professional certification by the American Sign Language Teachers' Association;

(2) Hold one of the following current, valid national certificates in interpreting:

(a) Registry of Interpreters for Deaf certification in at least one of the following: Certificate of Interpretation (CI), Certificate of Deaf Interpretation (CDI), Reverse Skills Certification (RSC), or Comprehensive Skills Certificate (CSC);

(b)Hold a A ] current, valid National Association for the Deaf Level IV certification or higher; or

(c)A ] National Interpreter Certification (NIC); or

(3) Complete requirements by achieving a qualifying score on an assessment demonstrating proficiency in American Sign Language prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

b.Completed a A ] minimum of 3 semester hours of methods of teaching foreign languages at the elementary and secondary levels from a regionally accredited college or university in the United States; and

c.Earned a A ] minimum of 6 semester hours in coursework, ] including grammar and syntax of American Sign Language.

8VAC20-23-370. Gifted education (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.An earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area;and ]

2.Completed Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed ] an approved teacher preparation program in gifted education; or

3. Completed the following requirements:

a. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and ]

a. b. ] Completed 12 semester hours of graduate-level coursework in gifted education distributed in the following areas:

(1)Academic and social-emotional characteristics and special populations of gifted learners Introduction and identification of giftedness ]: 3 semester hours;

(2)Curriculum models and differentiation of instruction for Social and emotional development and guidance of ] gifted learners: 3 semester hours;

(3)Identification and assessment of Curriculum and instructional strategies for ] gifted learners: 3 semester hours; and

(4)Current trends and issues in the field of gifted education Advanced course work in one of the following areas ]: 3 semester hours; and:

(a) Advanced curriculum, instruction, and assessment design;

(b) Advanced program development and evaluation; or

(c) Advanced study in underrepresented populations; and ]

b. c. ] Completed a practicum of at least 45 instructional hours. This practicum shall include a minimum of 45 instructional hours of successful teaching experiences with gifted students in a public or an accredited nonpublic school. In lieu of the practicum, one year of successful, full-time teaching experience with gifted students in a public or an accredited nonpublic school may be accepted, ] provided the teacher is assigned a mentor holding a valid license with an endorsement in gifted education.

8VAC20-23-380. Health and physical education preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in health and physical education; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in health and physical education or 45 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Personal healthand, ] safety, and care of athletic injuries ]: 3 semester hours;

b. Human anatomy, physiology,exercise physiology, ] andkinesiology biomechanics of human movement ]: 9 semester hours;

c. General health and physical education theory, including curriculum design and development in health and physical education: 3 semester hours;

d. Instructional methods and skills for secondary physical education: 3 semester hours;

e.Instructional Concepts of motor learning, instructional ] methods, ] and skills for elementary physical education: 3 semester hours;

f.School Instruction methods for elementary and secondary school ] healthmethods course ]: 3 semester hours;

g. Health and physical education electives: 9 semester hours;

h.Adapted Instructional methods and strategies for adapted ] physical education: 3 semester hours;

i. Technology in health and physical education: 3 semester hours;

j.Principles of human ] nutrition: 3 semester hours; and

k.Measurement Assesment ] and evaluation in the content area: 3 semester hours.

8VAC20-23-390. History and social sciences.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in history and social sciences; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 51 semester hours of coursework distributed ineach of ] the following areas:

a. History: a major in history or 18 semester hours in history(must (shall ] include coursework in American history, Virginia history, and world history);

b. Political science: a major in political science or 18 semester hours in political scienceto, which shall ] include coursework in American government (state and local government);

c. Geography: 9 semester hours; and

d. Economics: 6 semester hours.

B. Add-on endorsement requirements in history, political science, geography, and economics. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university andhave hold ] a teaching license with an endorsement in history, political science, geography, or economics; and

2. Completed 21 semester hours of coursework in the additional social science area(i.e., - ] history, political science, geography, or economics) for which the add-on endorsement is ] sought.

8VAC20-23-400. Journalism (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.An earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

2. Completed a minimum of 15 semester hours in journalism.

8VAC20-23-410. Keyboarding (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.An earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

2. Completed  6 semester hours in keyboarding. Three of the six semester hours may be from either formal keyboarding instruction or documented demonstrated mastery of the touch keyboarding skill, and three semester hoursmust shall ] include document formatting skills, word processing, and computer applications.

8VAC20-23-420. Library media preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved preparation program in school library media; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 24 semester hours distributed in the following areas:

a. Teaching for learning, including knowledge of learners and learning; effective and knowledgeable teaching; collaborative instructional partners; integration of learning standards and technologies; assessment of and for student learning; and the design and implementation of instruction that engages students interests and develops their ability to inquire, think critically, and gain and share knowledge: 3 semester hours;

b. Literacy and reading, including familiarity with children's, young adult, and professional literature in multiple formats; use of a variety of strategies to promote reading for enjoyment and information; collection development to support diverse learning needs; and collaboration to reinforce reading instructional strategies: 6 semester hours;

c. Information and knowledge, including efficient and ethical information-seeking behavior, ethical and equitable access to information, design and delivery of authentic learning through current and emerging technology, and the use of evidence-based action research to create and share knowledge: 6 semester hours;

d. Advocacy and leadership, including networking with the library community, commitment to professional development, leadership in articulating the role of the school library program in the educational community and in student learning, and advocacy for school library programs, resources, and services: 3 semester hours; and

e. Program management and administration, including planning, developing, implementing, and evaluating library programs, collections, and facilities; personnel; funding; organization of materials; professional ethics; and strategic planning and program assessment: 6 semester hours.

3. Supervised school library media practicum. Experiences shall include clinical experience to give the applicant an opportunity to apply the skills,understandings knowledge ], and competencies required for the endorsement. One year of successful, full-time experience as a school librarian in a public or accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the supervised practicum.

8VAC20-23-430. Mathematics.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in mathematics; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in mathematics or 36 semester hours of coursework distributed in each of the following areas:

a. Algebra. Experience shall include linear algebra (matrices, vectors, and linear transformations) and abstract algebra (ring, group, and field theory);

b. Geometry. Experience shall include Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries;

c. Analytic geometry;

d. Probability and statistics;

e. Discrete mathematics. Experience shall include the study of mathematical properties of finite sets and systems and linear programming;

f. Calculus. Experience shall include multivariable calculus;and ]

g. Mathematical modeling; and

h. Computer science, including two programming languages ].

8VAC20-23-440. Mathematics –Algebra algebra ] I (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.An earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

2. Either:

a. Completed an approved teacher preparation program in Algebra I; or

b. Completed 24 semester hours that include coursework in each of the following areas:

(1) Elementary functions, introductory college algebra, and trigonometry;

(2) Linear algebra;

(3) Calculus;

(4) Euclidean geometry;

(5) Probability and statistics;

(6) Discrete mathematics;

(7) Mathematical modeling; and

(8) Methods of teaching algebra.

8VAC20-23-450. Music education – instrumental preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in music education - instrumental; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 42 semester hours of coursework distributed ineach of ] the following areas:

a. Basic music knowledge. Experiences shall be related to music theory, music history, and literature: 18 semester hours.; ]

b. Musical performance. Experiences shall consist of developing competency in a primary performance medium (band or orchestral instrument), in a secondary performance medium (band, orchestral, or keyboard instrument), and in teaching, rehearsing, and conducting ensembles: 18 semester hours.; and ]

c. Electives with coursework selected from either of the two areas listed in subdivisions 2 a and 2 b of this section: 6 semester hours.

8VAC20-23-460. Music education – vocal/choral preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in music education - vocal/choral; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 42 semester hours of coursework distributed ineach of ] the following areas:

a. Basic music knowledge. Experiences shall be related to music theory, music history, and literature: 18 semester hours.; ]

b. Musical performance. Experiences shall consist of developing competency in a primary and secondary medium, selected from voice or keyboard, ] and in teaching, rehearsing, and conducting ensembles: 18 semester hours.; and ]

c. Electives with coursework selected from either of the two areas listed in subdivisions 2 a and 2 b of this section: 6 semester hours.

8VAC20-23-470. Science – biology.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in biology;

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in biology or 32 semester hours in biology, ] and at least one course in each of the followingareas ]: genetics, biochemistry/molecular biology, cell biology, botany, zoology, anatomy/physiology, ecology,  and evolutionary biology and other preparation consistent with the competencies for the endorsement; or

3. Earned an endorsement in another science discipline andcompleted ] at least 18 semester hours in biology, including at least one course in each of the following areas: genetics, biochemistry/molecular biology or cell biology, botanyor, ] zoology, anatomy/physiology, and evolutionary biology or ecology.

8VAC20-23-480. Science – chemistry.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in chemistry;

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in chemistry or 32 semester hours in chemistry, including at least one course in each of the followingareas ]: inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, biochemistry, and analytical chemistry and other preparation consistent with the competencies required for the endorsement; or

3. Earned an endorsement in another science discipline andcompleted ] at least 18 semester hours in chemistry, including at least one course in each of the following areas: inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, biochemistry, and analytical chemistry.

8VAC20-23-490. Science – Earth science.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in Earth science;

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in Earth science, geology, or environmental science with a minimum of 32 semester hours in Earth sciences, including at least one course in each of the followingareas ]: structural geology, petrology, paleontology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy/space science; or

3. Earned an endorsement in another science discipline andcompleted ] at least 18 semester hours in Earth sciences, including at least one course in each of the following areas: structural geology, petrology, paleontology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy/spaceor planetary ] science.

8VAC20-23-500. Science – physics.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in physics;

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in physics or 32 semester hours in physics, including the following coursework: mechanics, electricity and magnetism, optics, and modern physics and other preparation consistent with the competencies required for the endorsement; or

3. Earned an endorsement in another science discipline and at least 18 semester hours in physics, including preparation in each of the following areas: mechanics, electricity and magnetism, optics, and modern physics.

8VAC20-23-510. Special education – adapted curriculum K-12.

Endorsement requirements: The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved program in special education - adapted curriculum; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 27 semester hours in the education of students with disabilitiesas ] distributed in the following areas:

a. Core coursework: 12 semester hours distributed among the following areas:

(1) Foundations: 3 semester hours. Characteristics that include knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include an understanding and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities;

(2) Assessment and evaluation: 3 semester hours. Includes an understanding and application of the foundation of assessment and evaluation related to best practices in special education, including types and characteristics of assessment, introduction to formal and informal assessment, and the use of assessments and other information to determine special education eligibility, service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities. Understanding of the current legal and ethical issues related to assessment selection and use, including comprehensive evaluation requirements, students with disabilities participation in the state and local accountability systems, assessment options, appropriate grading and testing accommodations, and assessment of students from diverse backgrounds.

(3) Collaboration that includes skills in consultation, case management, co-teaching, and collaboration: 3 semester hours. Includes understanding roles and responsibilities, knowledge and application of effective communication skills and of culturally responsive practices and strategies, and the ability to develop home, school, and community partnerships to address the needs of students with disabilities.

(4) Management of classroom instruction and behaviors: 3 semester hours. Includes an understanding and knowledge of research-based classroom management techniques, positive behaviors supports, and individual interventions and a demonstrated ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environment, ] including classroom organization, instructional design, and establishment of classroom routines and procedures. Knowledge of the elements of effective instructional planning, differentiation of instruction, and other instructional approaches to enhance student engagement and achievement. Understanding of behavior assessments, data collection and analysis, and development and monitoring of behavior intervention plans.

b. Adapted curriculum coursework: 15 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

(1) Characteristics: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area include the ability to demonstrate knowledge of the characteristics, including medical and health conditions, and learning and support needs of students with disabilities (K-12) whose cognitive and functional skills are significantly different from typically developing peers and therefore require adaptations to the general curriculum for an appropriate education, including, but not limited to, students with autism spectrum disorders, developmental delay, intellectual disability, traumatic brain injury, and multiple disabilities including sensory, deaf-blindness, speech-language, orthopedicand/or and other ] health impairments as an additional disability to those referenced above.

(2) Individualized education program (IEP) implementation: 3 semester hours. Knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements of IEP development, including timelines, components, team composition, roles, and responsibilities. Skills in this area include the ability to apply knowledge of assessment and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques; to make decisions about student progress, instruction, program, goal development, modifications, adaptations, placement, and teaching methodology for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum andVirginia ] Standards of Learning through an aligned curriculum; and to demonstrate the use of assessment, evaluation, and other information to develop and implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities in an adapted curriculum across the K-12 grade levels.

(3) Transitioning: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area include the ability to prepare students and work with families to provide successful student transitions throughout the educational experience to include postsecondary education, training, employment, and independent living that addresses an understanding of long-term planning, age-appropriate transition assessments, career development, life skills, community experiences and resources, and self-determination to include goal setting, decision making, problem solving, self-awareness and self-advocacy, guardianship, and other legal considerations.

(4) Instructional methods and strategies for the adapted curriculum: 3 semester hours. An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities who need an adapted curriculum. Knowledge of the general curriculum requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs. Skills in this area include the ability to understand and use a range of modifications, adaptations, special instructional strategies, and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in reading, writing, and mathematics instruction for students with more significant disabilities; ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments; knowledge of available assistive and instructional technologies, including alternative communication methods and systems to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the adaptive curriculum and the ability to evaluate its effectiveness; ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized assessment to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional material and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as they relate to curriculum design and delivery; ability to modify and adapt instructional content in a variety of settings and collaborate with general education content teachers to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the adapted curriculum and monitor student progress.

(5) Individualized supports and specialized care of students with significant disabilities: 3 semester hours. Knowledge of and ability to implement adapted strategies to address the positioning, handling, communication, personal care, and medical needs of students with significant disabilities. Knowledge and understanding of the roles of related disciplines and service providers in collaborative planning and service delivery. Demonstration of the ability to develop and utilize a blended curriculum design to address disability-specific or unique needs such as feeding and communication while addressing the adapted curriculum requirements.

8VAC20-23-520. Special education blindness and visual impairments preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in special education visual impairments preK-12; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in special education blindness and visual impairments or 30 semester hours in education of students with visual impairments, distributed with at least one course in each of the following areas:

a. Characteristics of students with visual impairment: 3 semester hours ]. Provides an overview of the characteristics of and services to persons with visual impairments, including the impact of visual impairment on infant and child growth and development, child and adolescent emotional and social development, and family interaction patterns. Includes the educational, conceptual, psychosocial, and physical implications of a visual impairment.

b. Foundations: 3 semester hours ]. Includes knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include understanding and application of the regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

c. Braille code: 3 semester hours. Includes the literary code of Braille, its implications for educational and literacy programs for students with visual disabilities and how to teach the Braille code to students with visual impairments.

d. Braille reading and writing: 3 semester hours. Includes instruction in the various technologies used by students who use Braille; basic instruction on transcription of advanced Braille codes,including uncontracted and contracted Unified English Braille, ] including music, foreign language, chemistry,computer Braille, ] and Nemeth code (Braille mathematics code); techniques for teaching skills in each code; and technology tools used to create Braille and tactile materials in addition to other assistive technologies used for instruction in mathematics and science.

e. Medical and educational implications of visual impairment: 3 semester hours ]. Includes anatomy of the human eye, normal visual development, pathology of the eye, examination procedures for the identification of visual pathology, and the effects of pathology on visual learning and development.

f. Assistive technology for students with sensory impairment: 3 semester hours ]. Introduces specific technology and resources available to enhance and improve ability of individuals with sensory disabilities and includes literacy skill development of students who are blind or visually impaired using technology.

g. Curriculum and assessment: 3 semester hours ]. Includes knowledge of educational assessments used with students with visual impairments and additional disabilities including deaf-blindness. Addresses assessment of technology needs of students with visual impairments, including functional vision assessments, learning media assessments, assistive technology, and assessment in areas of the expanded core curriculum; application of assessment results to development of the individualized education program (IEP); planning for placement; and services and accommodations for students with visual impairments.

h. Positive behavior intervention supports: 3 semester hours ]. Includes understanding of research-based, positive behavior intervention supports and individual interventions; knowledge of the elements of effective instructional planning, differentiation of instruction, and other instructional approaches to enhance student engagement and achievement; and understanding of behavior assessments, data collection and analysis, development and monitoring of behavior intervention plans.

i. Collaboration: 3 semester hours ]. Includes skills in consultation, case management, co-teaching, and collaboration that include understanding roles and responsibilities, knowledge and application of effective communication skills, of culturally responsive practices and strategies, and the ability to develop home, school, and community partnerships to address the needs of students who are visually impaired.

j. Teaching methods: 3 semester hours ].Skills in this area include: ]

(1)Includes methods Methods ] of teaching compensatory skills, the core curriculum, and technology used by students who are blind and visually impaired; introduces individual family service plans (IFSPs); and includes understanding and application of development and implementation of the IEP, including service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students who are visually impaired.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in instruction for students who are visually impaired.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with theVirginia ] Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to assess student needs as they relate to curriculum design and delivery.

(6) Ability to model and directly teach instructional strategies in a variety of settings, and monitor student progress.

(7) Ability to adapt materials and procedures to meet the needs of students with visual impairments.

k. Orientation and mobility. Includes the components of orientation and mobility (O&M); how the need for independent travel in the blind population created the field of O&M; and the philosophy and history of O&M, including cane instruction, dog guides, and methods of travel. Addresses techniques in developing orientation skills and basic mobility instruction. Motor and concept skill development are emphasized.

8VAC20-23-530. Special education deaf and hard of hearing preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in special education deaf and hard of hearing; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in special education deaf and hard of hearing or 27 semester hours in education of students who are deaf and hard of hearing distributed in the following areas:

a. Foundations: 3 semester hours. Includes knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical and legal aspects that include understanding and application of the regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

b. Characteristics: 3 semester hours. Includes the ability to demonstrate knowledge of etiologies of hearing loss, definitions, characteristics, learning, and support needs of students who are deaf and hard of hearing from pre-K through secondary levels, who may be using various communication modalities/languages and who may have additional disabilities.

c. Assessment and evaluation: 3 semester hours. Includes an understanding and application of the foundation of assessment and evaluation related to best practices, including types and characteristics of assessments, formal and informal assessment, and the use of assessment information to determine special education eligibility and inform service delivery, curriculum, accommodations, instructional methods, and student progress. Understanding comprehensive evaluation requirements, participation of students with disabilities in state and local accountability systems, assessment options, appropriate testing accommodations, and assessment of students from diverse backgrounds.

d. Instructional planning: 3 semester hours.Includes the following: ]

(1) Familiarity with individual family service plans (IFSPs).

(2) An understanding and application of development and implementation of the individualized education program (IEP) including service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students who are deaf and hard of hearing andin ] transition.

(3) Knowledge of the general curriculum requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(4) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in instruction for students who are deaf and hard of hearing.

(5) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with theVirginia ] Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to assess student needs as they relate to the curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students who are deaf and hard of hearing, and monitor student progress.

e. Speech, language, and literacy development: 3 semester hours. Includes an understanding of the normal developmental sequence of speech, language (oral, signed, and written), auditory, and cognitive milestones, varying methodologies and strategies used in assessing language skills (through the air and spoken) of a student who is deaf and hard of hearing; demonstrate skills necessary to foster and enhance language development and communication skills in students who are deaf and hard of hearing including American Sign Language, cued speech, and listening and spoken language skills. Ability to model and directly teach instructional strategies that foster language and literacy development.

f. Classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours. Includes an understanding and knowledge of research-based classroom management techniques, positive behavior intervention supports and individual interventions; and demonstrated ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environment including classroom organization, instructional design, and establishment of classroom routines and procedures. Knowledge of the elements of effective instructional planning, differentiation of instruction, and other instructional approaches to enhance student engagement and achievement. Understanding of behavior assessments, data collection and analysis, development, and monitoring of behavior intervention plans

g. Audiology and speech and hearing science: 3 semester hours. Understanding of the basic principles of sound reception and production including neuroanatomy of speech and hearing mechanisms and physical characteristics and measurement of acoustic stimuli; biological, neurological, and acoustic bases of communication; reading and interpreting audiograms and other audiologic assessments used in determining eligibility; knowledge of types, degrees, and effects of hearing loss on developmental domains; relevance of age of onset, age of identification of hearing loss, and age of amplification and intervention in speech and language development; ability to troubleshoot hearing aids, external components of cochlear implants, and other assistive listening devices;and ] ability to foster development of listening skills.

h. Collaboration: 3 semester hours. Includes skills in consultation, case management, co-teaching, and collaboration that includes understanding roles and responsibilities, knowledge and application of effective communication skills, of culturally responsive practices and strategies, and the ability to develop home, school, and community partnerships to address the needs of students who are deaf and hard of hearing.

i. Communication modalities: 3 semester hours. Includes introduction to the various communication modalities used by students who are deaf and hard of hearing, including listening and spoken language, cued speech, speech reading, and through the air communication including use of American Sign Language (ASL) and contact varieties of signed language and coursework to learn ASL.

8VAC20-23-540. Special education early childhood (birth-age five years).

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in early childhood special education; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in early childhood special education or 27 semester graduate hours in early childhood special education, including at least one course in each of the following:

a. Foundations and legal aspects of special education: 3 semester hours;

b. Assessment for diagnosis, program planning, and curriculum-based measurement to document progress for young children with typical development, disabling, and at-risk conditions: 3 semester hours;

c. Curriculum and instructional programming for preschool: 3 semester hours;

d. Speech and language development and intervention: 3 semester hours;

e. Medical aspects: 3 semester hours;

f. Social and emotional skills and behavior management for early childhood: 3 semester hours;

g. Consultation, co-teaching, coaching, and mentoring: 3 semester hours;

h. Family-centered intervention: 3 semester hours; and

i. Early childhood elective: 3 semester hours.

8VAC20-23-550. Special education – general curriculum K-12.

Endorsement requirements: The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved program in special education - general curriculum; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 27 semester hours in the education of students with disabilities distributed in the following areas:

a. Core coursework: 12 semester hours distributed among the following areas:

(1) Foundations: 3 semester hours. Characteristics that include knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include an understanding and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

(2) Assessment and evaluation: 3 semester hours. Includes an understanding and application of the foundation of assessment and evaluation related to best practice in special education, including types and characteristics of assessment, introduction to formal and informal assessment, and the use of assessments and other information to determine special education eligibility, service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities. Understanding of the current legal and ethical issues related to assessment selection and use, including comprehensive evaluation requirements, students with disabilities participation in the state and local accountability systems, assessment options, appropriate grading and testing accommodations, and assessment of students from diverse backgrounds.

(3) Collaboration that includes skills in consultation, case management, co-teaching, and collaboration: 3 semester hours. Includes understanding roles and responsibilities, knowledge and application of effective communication skills and of culturally responsive practices and strategies and the ability to develop home, school, and community partnerships to address the needs of students with disabilities.

(4) Management of classroom instruction and behaviors: 3 semester hours. Includes an understanding and knowledge of research-based classroom management techniques, positive behavior support, and individual interventions and a demonstrated ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environment, including classroom organization, instructional design, and establishment of classroom routines and procedures. Knowledge of the elements of effective instructional planning, differentiation of instruction, and other instructional approaches to enhance student engagement and achievement. Understanding of behavior assessments, data collection and analysis, development, and monitoring of behavior intervention plans.

b. General curriculum coursework: 15 semester hours distributed in the following areas:

(1) Characteristics: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall include the ability to demonstrate knowledge of definitions, characteristics, and learning and behavioral support needs of students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum at the elementary, middle, and high school levels, includingbut not limited to, ] students with learning disabilities, emotional disability, and intellectual disabilities; developmental delay; autism; other health impairments; traumatic brain injury; and multiple disabilities.

(2) Individualized education program development and implementation: 3 semester hours. Knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements of IEP development, ] including timelines, components, team composition, and roles and responsibilities. Skills in this area include the ability to apply knowledge of assessment and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques; to make decisions about student progress, instructional program, goal development, accommodations, placement, and teaching methodology for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and thestandards of learning Virginia Standards of Learning ]; and to demonstrate the use of assessment, evaluation, and other information to develop and implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels.

(3) Transitioning: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area include the ability to prepare students and work with families and community agencies to provide successful student transitions throughout the educational experience to include postsecondary education training, employment, and independent living that addresses an understanding of long-term planning, career development, life skills, community experiences and resources, self-advocacy, and self-determination, guardianship, and legal considerations.

(4) Instructional strategies in reading and writing: 3 semester hours.Skills in this area include: ]

(a) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in reading and writing.

(b) Knowledge of the general curriculum, English requirements and expectations, and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(c) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified reading needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in reading and writing instruction for students with disabilities.

(d) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(e) Knowledge and ability to utilize current assistive and instructional reading and writing technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(f) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized reading and writing assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as they relate to the curriculum design and delivery.

(g) Ability to model and directly teach reading and writing instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

(5) Instructional strategies in mathematics: 3 semester hours.Skills in this area include: ]

(a) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in mathematics.

(b) Knowledge of the general curriculum mathematics requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(c) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address calculations, reasoning, and problem-solving skills. Skills in this area include the ability to understand and use a range of specialized mathematics instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in mathematics instruction for students with disabilities.

(d) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(e) Knowledge of and ability to utilize current mathematics related assistive and instructional technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(f) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized mathematics assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as they relate to the mathematics curriculum design and delivery.

(g) Ability to model and directly teach mathematics instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the mathematics general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

8VAC20-23-560. Special education – general curriculum K-6 (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements: The candidatemust shall have ]:

1.Hold an earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with an endorsement in elementary education(i.e. ],such as ] early/primary education preK-3 or elementary education preK-6) ].

2.Have completed Completed ] 15 semester hours in the education of students with disabilities distributed in each of the following areas:

a. Foundations: 3 semester hours. Characteristics that include knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include an understanding and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

b. Individualized education program development and implementation: 3 semester hours. Knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements of IEP development, ] including timelines, components, team composition, and roles and responsibilities. Skills in this area include the ability to apply knowledge of assessment and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques; to make decisions about student progress, instructional, program, goal development, accommodations, placement, and teaching methodology for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and the Virginia Standards of Learning; and to demonstrate the use of assessment, evaluation, and other information to develop and implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels.

c. Assessment and evaluation: 3 semester hours. Includes an understanding and application of the foundation of assessment and evaluation related to best practice in special education, including types and characteristics of assessment, introduction to formal and informal assessment, and the use of assessments and other information to determine special education eligibility, service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities. Understanding of the current legal and ethical issues related to assessment selection and use, including comprehensive evaluation requirements, students with disabilities' participation in the state and local accountability systems, assessment options, appropriate grading and testing accommodations, and assessment of students from diverse backgrounds.

d. Instructional strategies in reading and writing: 3 semester hours.Skills in this area include: ]

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in reading and writing.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum, English requirements and expectations, and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified reading needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in reading and writing instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge and ability to utilize current assistive and instructional reading and writing technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized reading and writing assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as they relate to the curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach reading and writing instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

e. Instructional strategies in mathematics: (3 semester hours).Skills in this area include: ]

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in mathematics.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum mathematics requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address calculations, reasoning, and problem-solving skills. Skills in this area include the ability to understand and use a range of specialized mathematics instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in mathematics instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge of and ability to utilize current mathematics-related assistive and instructional technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized mathematics assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as they relate to the mathematics curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach mathematics instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the mathematics general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

3. Completed a practicum of at least 45 instructional hours. This practicum shall include a minimum of 45 instructional hours of successful teaching experiences with students with disabilities accessing the general curriculum in a public or an accredited nonpublic school. In lieu of the practicum, one year of successful, full-time teaching experience with students with disabilities accessing the general curriculum in a public or an accredited nonpublic school may be accepted provided the teacher is assigned a mentor holding a valid license with an endorsement in special education. ]

8VAC20-23-570. Special education – general curriculum middle grades 6-8 (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements: The candidatemust shall have ]:

1.Hold an earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with an endorsement in middle education(i.e. ],such as ] middle education 6-8 English, middle education 6-8 history and social sciences, middle education 6-8 mathematics, or middle education-sciences) ].

2.Have completed Completed ] 15 semester hours in the education of students with disabilities distributed in each of the following areas:

a. Foundations: 3 semester hours. Characteristics that include knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include an understanding and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

b. Individualized education program development and implementation: 3 semester hours. Knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements of IEP development, including timelines, components, team composition, and roles and responsibilities. Skills in this area include the ability to apply knowledge of assessment and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques; to make decisions about student progress, instructional, program, goal development, accommodations, placement, and teaching methodology for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and thestandards of learning Virginia Standards of Learning ]; and to demonstrate the use of assessment, evaluation, and other information to develop and implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels.

c. Transitioning: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area include the ability to prepare students and work with families and community agencies to provide successful student transitions throughout the educational experience to include postsecondary education training, employment, and independent living that addresses an understanding of long-term planning, career development, life skills, community experiences and resources, self-advocacy, and self-determination, guardianship, and legal considerations.

d. Instructional strategies in reading and writing: 3 semester hours.Skills in this area include: ]

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in reading and writing.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum, English requirements and expectations, and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified reading needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in reading and writing instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge and ability to utilize current assistive and instructional reading and writing technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized reading and writing assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as it relates to the curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach reading and writing instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

e. Instructional strategies in mathematics: (3 semester hours).Skills in this area include: ]

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in mathematics.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum mathematics requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address calculations, reasoning and problem-solving skills. Skills in this area include the ability to understand and use a range of specialized mathematics instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in mathematics instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge of and ability to utilize current mathematics-related assistive and instructional technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized mathematics assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as they relate to the mathematics curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach mathematics instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the mathematics general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

3. Completed a practicum of at least 45 instructional hours. This practicum shall include a minimum of 45 instructional hours of successful teaching experiences with students with disabilities accessing the general curriculum in a public or an accredited nonpublic school. In lieu of the practicum, one year of successful, full-time teaching experience with students with disabilities accessing the general curriculum in a public or an accredited nonpublic school may be accepted provided the teacher is assigned a mentor holding a valid license with an endorsement in special education. ]

8VAC20-23-580. Special education – general curriculum secondary grades 6-12 (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements: The candidatemust shall have ]:

1.Hold an earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with an endorsement in English, history and social sciences, mathematics, biology, chemistry, Earth science, or physics.

2.Have completed Completed ] 15 semester hours in the education of students with disabilities distributed in each of the following areas:

a. Foundations: 3 semester hours. Characteristics that include knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include an understanding and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

b. Individualized education program development and implementation: 3 semester hours. Knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements of IEP development, including timelines, components, team composition, and roles and responsibilities. Skills in this area include the ability to apply knowledge of assessment and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques; to make decisions about student progress, instructional, program, goal development, accommodations, placement, and teaching methodology for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and the Virginia Standards of Learning; and to demonstrate the use of assessment, evaluation, and other information to develop and implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels.

c. Transitioning: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area include the ability to prepare students and work with families and community agencies to provide successful student transitions throughout the educational experience to include postsecondary education training, employment, and independent living that addresses an understanding of long-term planning, career development, life skills, community experiences and resources, self-advocacy, and self-determination, guardianship, and legal considerations.

d. Instructional strategies in reading and writing: 3 semester hours.Skills in this area include: ]

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in reading and writing.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum, English requirements and expectations, and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified reading needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in reading and writing instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge and ability to utilize current assistive and instructional reading and writing technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized reading and writing assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as they relate to the curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach reading and writing instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

e. Instructional strategies in mathematics: (3 semester hours).Skills in this area include: ]

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in mathematics.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum mathematics requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address calculations, reasoning, and problem-solving skills. Skills in this area include the ability to understand and use a range of specialized mathematics instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in mathematics instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge of and ability to utilize current mathematics-related assistive and instructional technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized mathematics assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as they relate to the mathematics curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach mathematics instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the mathematics general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

3. Completed a practicum of at least 45 instructional hours. This practicum shall include a minimum of 45 instructional hours of successful teaching experiences with students with disabilities accessing the general curriculum in a public or an accredited nonpublic school. In lieu of the practicum, one year of successful, full-time teaching experience with students with disabilities accessing the general curriculum in a public or an accredited nonpublic school may be accepted provided the teacher is assigned a mentor holding a valid license with an endorsement in special education. ]

8VAC20-23-590. Speech communication (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.An earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

2.A Completed a ] minimum of 15 semester hours in speech communication.

8VAC20-23-600. Theatre arts preK-12.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in theatre arts; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in theatre arts or 33 semester hours distributed among the following areas:

a. Directing: 6 semester hours;

b. Technical theatre: 9 semester hours;

c. Cultural context and theatre history: 3 semester hours;

d. Performance: 6 semester hours; and

e. Dramatic literature: 9 semester hours.

B. Add-on endorsement requirements in theatre arts preK-12. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.An earned Earned a ] baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

2. Completed 15 semester hours distributed in the following areas:

a. Directing: 3 semester hours;

b. Technical theatre: 3 semester hours;

c. Cultural context and theatre history: 3 semester hours; and

d. Performance: 6 semester hours.

8VAC20-23-610. Visual arts preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Graduated Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated ] from an approved teacher preparation program in visual arts; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in visual arts or 36 semester hours in art distributed in the following areas:

a. Two-dimensional media: 12 semester hours;

b. Three-dimensional media: 12 semester hours;

c. Cultural context and art history: 6 semester hours;

d. Evaluation and criticism and aesthetics: 3 semester hours; and

e. Related areas of the fine arts: 3 semester hours.

Part VI
Licensure Regulations Governing Support Personnel

8VAC20-23-620. Administration and supervision preK-12.

A. An endorsement in administration and supervision preK-12 consists of Level I, which is required to serve as a building-level administrator or central office instructional supervisor, and Level II, which is an optional endorsement to which an experienced building-level administrator may aspire. Individualsmust shall ] meet the requirements for the administration and supervision preK-12 endorsement through one of the four options listed in this section. A school leader's assessment prescribed by the Virginia Board of Educationmust shall ] bemet passed ] for all individuals who are seeking an initial endorsement authorizing them to serve as principals and assistant principals in the public schools. Individuals seeking an initial administration and supervision endorsement who are interested in serving as central office instructional personnel are not required to take and pass the school leaders assessment prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

B. Level I, Option I: Approved program route to Level I administration and supervision preK-12 endorsement. To become eligible for a Level I endorsement under this option, the candidatemust shall ] have:

1. Earned a master's degree from a regionally accredited college or university;

2. Completed three years of successful, full-time experience in a public school or accredited nonpublic school in an instructional personnel position that requires licensure in Virginia;

3. Completed an approved program in administration and supervision from a regionally accredited college or university;

4. Completed a deliberately structured and supervised internship that is focused on student academic progress for all students and that:

a. Provides significant experiences within a school environment for candidates to synthesize and apply content knowledge and develop professional skills through school-based leadership experiences;

b. Shall occur in a public or accredited nonpublic school;

c. Provides exposure to five different multiple sites(i.e. ],such as ] elementary, middle, ] high, central office,and ] agency), ] with diverse student populations; and

d. Documents a minimum of 320 clock hours, of which 120 clock hours are embedded as experiential field-based opportunities experienced during coursework; and

5. Satisfied the requirements for the school leaders licensure assessment prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education. Individuals seeking an initial administration and supervision endorsement who are interested in serving as central office instructional personnel are not required to take and pass the school leaders assessment prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

C. Level I, Option II: Alternate route to Level I administration and supervision preK-12 endorsement restricted to the Virginia school division in which the superintendent submitted the recommendation for endorsement. This endorsement is valid only in the designated Virginia school division and would not be portable or reciprocal. In order to be eligible for Level I endorsement under this option, the candidatemust shall ] have:

1. Earned a master's degree from a regionally accredited college or university;

2. Completed graduate coursework in school law, evaluation of instruction, and other areas of study as required by an employing Virginia school superintendent. The graduate courseworkmust shall ] be taken from a regionally accredited college or university that has a state-approved administration and supervision program;

3. Completed three years of successful, full-time experience in a public school or accredited nonpublic school in an instructional personnel position that requires licensure in Virginia;

4. Satisfied the requirements for the school leaders licensure assessment specified by the Virginia Board of Education; and

5. Been recommended by the superintendent in the employing Virginia school division.

D. Level I, Option III: Alternate route to Level I administration and supervision preK-12 endorsement. In order to be eligible for Level I endorsement under this option, the candidatemust shall ] have:

1. Earned a master's degree from a regionally accredited college or university;

2. Completed graduate coursework in school law, evaluation of instructional personnel, special education, school finance, educational leadership, and other areas of study as required by an employing Virginia school superintendent, and the graduate courseworkmust shall ] be taken from a regionally accredited college or university that has a state-approved administration and supervision program, or the candidatemust shall ] have completed school law, school finance, and a research-based program approved by the Virginia Department of Education that includes organizational leadership, instructional leadership, instructional practices in content areas, data utilization, evaluation and instructional coaching, and creating positive school cultures;

3. Completed three years of successful, full-time experience in a public school or accredited nonpublic school in an instructional personnel position that requires licensure in Virginia;

4. Satisfied the requirements for the school leaders licensure assessment specified by the Virginia Board of Education; and

5. Been recommended by the superintendent in the employing Virginia school division.

E. Level I, Option IV: Out-of-state administration and supervision endorsement. Virginia does not issue a stand-alone license in administration and supervision. The endorsement is added to a license. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1. Earned a master's degree from a regionally accredited college or university;

2. Completed three years of successful, full-time experience in a public school or accredited nonpublic school in an instructional personnel position;

3. Satisfied the requirements for the school leaders licensure assessment specified by the Virginia Board of Education; and

4. A current, valid out-of-state license,which is (with ] full credential) ], with an endorsement in administration and supervision or completed an approved program in administration and supervision from a regionally accredited college or university leading to an endorsement as a building-level administrator.

F. Level II: Principal of Distinction endorsement in administration and supervision preK-12. A building-level administrator may seek the Principal of Distinction, Level II endorsement in administration and supervision preK-12 after successfully serving as a building-level administrator for at least five years in a public school or an accredited nonpublic school and successfully completing a formal induction program as a principal or assistant principal. In order to earn the Principal of Distinction, Level II endorsement, the candidatemust shall ] meet two or more of the following criteria as specified by the Virginia Board of Education and documented in a Virginia Department of Education approved format and be recommended by the employing Virginia school division superintendent:

1. Evidence of improved student achievement;

2. Evidence of effective instructional leadership;

3. Evidence of positive effect on school climate or culture;

4. Earned doctorate in educational leadership or evidence of formal professional development in the areas of school law, school finance, supervision, human resource management, and instructional leadership; or

5. Evidence ofa ] completion of a high-quality professional development project designed by the division superintendent.

8VAC20-23-630. Division Superintendent License.

An individual may be a candidate for the list of eligible division superintendents and the renewable Division Superintendent License through the completion of the requirements in one of the following four options:

1. Option I. The individualmust shall have ]:

a.Hold an earned Earned a ] doctorate degree in educational administration or educational leadership from a regionally accredited college or university; and

b.Have completed Completed ] five years of educational experience in a public or an accredited nonpublic school, two of whichmust shall ] be successful, full-time teaching experience at the preK-12 level and two of whichmust shall ] be in administration and supervision at the preK-12 level.

2. Option II. The individualmust shall have ]:

a.Hold an earned Earned a ] master's degree from a regionally accredited college or university andsuccessfully ] completed 30 graduate semester hours beyond the conferral date of the master's degree; and

b.Have completed Completed ] requirements for administration and supervision preK-12 endorsement that includes the demonstration of competencies in the following areas:

(1) Knowledge, understanding, and application of planning, assessment, and instructional leadership that builds collective professional capacity, including;

(a) Principles of student motivation, growth, and development as a foundation for age- appropriate and grade-appropriate curriculum, instruction, and assessment;

(b) Collaborative leadership in gathering and analyzing data to identify needs to develop and implement a school improvement plan that results in increased student learning;

(c) Planning, implementation, and refinement of standards-based curriculum aligned with instruction and assessment;

(d) Collaborative planning and implementation of a variety of assessment techniques, including examination of student work that yields individual, class, grade level, and school level data as a foundation for identifying existing competencies and targeting areas in need of further attention;

(e) Incorporation of differentiated and effective instruction that responds to individual learner needs, ] including appropriate response to cultural, ethnic, and linguistic diversity;

(f) Knowledge, understanding, and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities;

(g) Collaboratively working with parents and school personnel to ensure that students with disabilities are included as a valued part of the school community, and that they receive effective and appropriately intensive instruction to assist them in meeting the standards set for all students, ] as well as individual goals outlined in their individualized education programs;

(h) Integration of technology in curriculum and instruction to enhance learner understanding;

(i) Identification, analysis, and resolution of problems using effective problem-solving techniques; and

(j) Development, articulation, implementation, and stewardship of a vision of excellence linked to mission and core beliefs that promote continuous improvement consistent with the goals of the school division.

(2) Knowledge, understanding, and application of leadership and organizations, including;

(a) The change process of systems, organizations, and individuals, using appropriate and effective adult learning models;

(b) Aligning organizational practice, division mission, and core beliefs for developing and implementing strategic plans;

(c) Information sources and processing, including data collection and data analysis strategies;

(d) Using data as a part of ongoing program evaluation to inform and lead change;

(e) Developing a change management strategy for improved student outcomes;

(f) Developing distributed leadership strategies to create personalized learning environments for diverse schools; and

(g) Effective two-way communication skills including consensus building, negotiation, and mediation skills.

(3) Knowledge, understanding, and application of management and leadership skills that achieve effective and efficient organizational operations and sustain an instructional program conducive to student academic progress, including;

(a) Alignment of curriculum and instruction and assessment of the educational program to achieve high academic success at the school and division or district level;

(b) Principles and issues of supervising and leading others to ensure a working and learning climate that is safe, secure, and respectful of a diverse school community;

(c) Management decisions that ensure successful teaching and learning including, human resources management and development, theories of motivation, change in school culture, innovation and creativity, conflict resolution, adult learning, and professional development models;

(d) Knowledge, understanding, and application of Virginia's Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachers and Virginia's Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Principals;

(e) Principles and issues related to fiscal operations of school management;

(f) Principles and issues related to school facilities and use of space and time for supporting high-quality school instruction and student learning;

(g) Legal issues impacting school operations and management;

(h) Technologies that support management functions; and

(i) Application of data-driven decision making to initiate and continue improvement in school and classroom practices and student achievement.

(4) Knowledge, understanding, and application of the conditions and dynamics impacting a diverse school community, including:

(a) Emerging issues and trends within school and community relations;

(b) Working collaboratively with staff, families, and community members to secure resources and to support the success of a diverse population;

(c) Developing appropriate public relations and public engagement strategies and processes for building and sustaining positive relationships with families, caregivers, and community partners; and

(d) Integration of technology to support communication efforts.

(5) Knowledge, understanding, and application of the purpose of education and the role of professionalism in advancing educational goals, including:

(a) Philosophy of education that reflects commitment to principles of honesty, fairness, caring, and equity in day-to-day professional behavior;

(b) Integration of high-quality, content-rich, job-embedded professional learning that respects the contribution of all faculty and staff members in building a diverse professional learning community;

(c) Reflective understanding of moral and legal consequences of decision making in the school setting;

(d) Intentional and purposeful effort to model professional, moral, and ethical standards, ] as well as personal integrity in all interactions; and

(e) Intentional and purposeful effort to model continuous professional learning and to work collegially and collaboratively with all members of the school community to support the school's goals and enhance its collective capacity.

(6) Knowledge, understanding, and application of leadership theories and influences that impact schools, including:

(a) Concepts of leadership including systems theory, change theory, learning organizations, and current leadership theory;

(b)Identify Ability to identify ] and respond to internal and external forces and influences on a school;

(c)Identify Ability to identify ] and apply the processes of educational policy development at the state, local, and school level; and

(d)Identify Ability to identify ] and demonstrate ways to influence educational policy development at the state, local, and school level.

3. Option III. The individualmust shall have ]:

a.Hold an earned Earned a ] master's degree from a regionally accredited college or university;

b.Hold a A ] current, valid out-of-state license with an endorsement as a division or district superintendent; and

c.Have completed Completed ] five years ofsuccessful ] educational experience in a public or an accredited nonpublic school, two of which must besuccessful, ] full-time teaching experience at the preK-12 level and two of which must be insuccessful ] administration and supervision.

4. Option IV. The individualmust shall have ]:

a.Hold an earned Earned a ] master's degree or its equivalent from a regionally accredited college or university;

b.Have held A minimum of three years of successful, full-time experience in ] a senior leadership position, ] such as chief executive officer or senior military officer; and

c. Be recommended by aVirginia ] school board interested in employing the individual as superintendent.

8VAC20-23-640. Mathematics specialist for elementary education.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and an endorsement in a teaching area;

2. 1. ] Completed at least three years of successful, full-time teaching experience in a public or accredited nonpublic school in which the teaching of mathematics was an important responsibility; and

3. 2. ] Either:

a. Graduated froman a graduate-level ] approved mathematics specialistfor ] elementaryeducation ] preparation program - master'slevel degree from a regionally accredited college or university required ]; or

b. Completed amaster's graduate- ] level program in mathematics, mathematics education, or related education field- master’s degree from a regionally accredited college or university required - ] with at least 21 semester hours undergraduate or graduate mathematics coursework distributed in the following areas: (i) number and operations; (ii) rational numbers; (iii) geometry and measurement; (iv) probability and statistics; (v) algebra and functions; and (vi) at least nine semester hours of graduate coursework pertaining to mathematics education in mathematics instructional leadership, evaluation of mathematics curriculum and instruction, mathematical learning theory, and student assessment for mathematics.

8VAC20-23-650. Mathematics specialist forelementary and ] middle education.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and an endorsement in a teaching area;

2. 1. ] Completed at least three years of successful, full-time teaching experience in a public or accredited nonpublic school in which the teaching of mathematics was an important responsibility;

3. Hold 2. A Virginia license with a Mathematics – algebra I (add-on) or mathematics (secondary) ] teaching endorsement (6-12); and

4. 3. ] Either:

a. Graduated froman a graduate-level ] approved mathematics specialistfor elementary and ] middle education preparation program - master'slevel degree from a regionally accredited college or university required ]; or

b. Completed amaster's graduate- ] level program in mathematics, mathematics education, or related education field- master's degree from a regionally accredited college or university required - ] with at least 21 semester hours of undergraduate or graduate mathematics coursework distributed in the following areas; (i) number and operations; (ii) rational numbers; (iii) geometry and measurement; (iv) probability and statistics; (v) algebra and functions; and (vi) at least nine semester hours of graduate coursework pertaining to mathematics education in mathematics instructional leadership, evaluation of mathematics curriculum and instruction, mathematical learning theory, and student assessment for mathematics.

8VAC20-23-660. Reading specialist.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1.Completed Graduated from ] astate-approved ] graduate-level reading specialiststate-approved ] preparation program - master's degreefrom a regionally accredited college or university ] required - that includes course experiences of at least 30 semester hours of graduate coursework in the competencies for the endorsement, as well as a practicum experience in the diagnosis and remediation of reading difficulties.; ]

2. Satisfied the requirements for the reading specialist assessment specified by the Virginia Board of Education.; and ]

3. At least three years of successful classroom teaching experience in which the teaching of reading was an important responsibility.

8VAC20-23-670. School counselor preK-12.

Endorsement requirements.

1. Option I. The candidatemust shall ] have:

a. Earned a master's degree from a regionally accredited college or universityand completed an approved in a state-approved ] school counselor preparation program that shall include at least 100 clock hours of internship and practicum experiences in the preK-6 setting and 100 clock hours of internship and practicum experiences in the grades 7-12 setting; and

b. Two years of successful, full-time teaching experience or two years of successful, full-time experience in school counseling in a public or an accredited nonpublic school. Two years of successful, full-time experience in school counseling in a public or an accredited nonpublic school under anonrenewable ] Provisional License may be accepted to meet this requirement.

2. Option II. The candidatemust shall ] have:

a. Earned a master's degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed an approved school counselor preparation program that shall include at least 100 clock hours of internship and practicum experiences in the preK-6 setting and 100 clock hours of internship and practicum experiences in the grades 7-12 setting; and

b. Two years of successful, full-time teaching experience or two years of successful, full-time experience in school counseling in a public or an accredited nonpublic school. Two years of successful, full-time experience in school counseling in a public or an accredited nonpublic school under a nonrenewable Provisional License may be accepted to meet this requirement.

8VAC20-23-680. School manager license.

A. The school manager license is intended to provide for the differentiation of administrative responsibilities in a school setting. A school manager is licensed to administer noninstructional responsibilities in an educational setting. For example, a school manager is restricted from evaluating teachers, supervising instruction, developing and evaluating curriculum, and serving as a school's student disciplinarian.

B. To earn a school manager license, the candidatemust shall ]:

1. Have earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university;

2. Have three years successful, full-time managerial experience; and

3. Be recommended for the license by a Virginia school division superintendent.

8VAC20-23-690. School psychology.

Endorsement requirements:

1. Option I. The candidatemust shall ]:

a. Complete an approved program in school psychology;

b. Earn a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and complete 60 graduate-level hours, 54 of which are academic coursework, exclusive of field-based experiences, that culminate in at least a master's degree; and

c. Complete an internship that is documented by the degree-granting institution. The internship experience shall occur on a full-time basis over a period of one year or on a half-time basis over a period of two consecutive years. The internship shall occur under conditions of appropriate supervision, that is, the school-based supervisor shall be licensed as either a school or clinical psychologist. The internship shall include experiences at multiple age levels, at least one half of which shall be inan a public or ] accreditednonpublic ] school setting.

2. Option II. The candidatemust shall ] hold a currently valid certificate issued by the National School Psychology Certification Board.

8VAC20-23-700. School social worker.

Endorsement requirements. The candidatemust shall ] have:

1. Earned a master's of social work degree from a regionally accredited college or universityschool of social work ] with a minimum of 60 graduate-level semester hours;or earned an advanced standing master's of social work degree from a regionally accredited college or university with a minimum of 30 graduate-level semester hours; ]

2. A minimum of six graduate semester hours in education to include six semester hours from two of the following courses:

a.The Foundations of education and the ] teaching profession (3 semester hours);

b. Characteristics of special education (3 semester hours);

c. Human development and learning (3 semester hours); or

d. Classroom and behavior management (3 semester hours).

3. Completed a supervised practicum or field experience of a minimum of 400 clock hours in a public or an accredited nonpublic school discharging the duties of a school social worker. One year of successful, full-time experience as a school social worker in a public or an accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the school social work practicum.

8VAC20-23-710. Vocational evaluator.

Endorsement requirements:

1. Option I. The candidatemust shall ] be certified as a vocational evaluation specialist by holding a professional vocational evaluator (PVE) credential or a certified vocational evaluator (CVE) specialist credential, meeting all standards and criteria of the Commission on Certification of Work Adjustment and Vocational Evaluation Specialists (CCWAVES).

2. Option II. The candidatemust shall ] have earned a master's degree in vocational evaluation, career and technical education, special education, or rehabilitation counselingfrom a regionally accredited college or university ] and completed 15 graduate semester hours distributed in the following areas:

a. Tests and measurements: 3 semester hours;

b. Medical and educational aspects of disability: 3 semester hours;

c. Occupational information and job analysis: 3 semester hours;

d. Purposes and practices of vocational evaluation: 3 semester hours; and

e. Career, life planning, and transition services: 3 semester hours.

Part VII
Revocation, Cancellation, Suspension, Denial, and Reinstatement of
Teaching ] Licenses

8VAC20-23-720. Revocation.

A. A license issued by the Virginia Board of Education may be revoked for the following reasons:

1. Obtaining or attempting to obtainsuch a ] license by fraudulent means or through misrepresentation of material facts;

2. Falsification of school records, documents, statistics, or reports;

3. Conviction of any felony;

4. Conviction of any misdemeanor involving moral turpitude;

5. Conviction of any misdemeanor involving astudent or ] minorchild or drugs, not including alcohol ];

6. [ Conviction of any misdemeanor involving drugs (not alcohol);

7. ] Conduct with direct and detrimental effect on the health, welfare, discipline, or morale ofstudents a student or minor ];

7. 8. ] Misapplication of or failure to account for school funds or other school properties with which the licensee has been entrusted;

8. 9. ] Acts related to secure mandatory tests as specified in subsection A of § 22.1-292.1 of the Code of Virginia;

9. 10. ] Knowingly and willfully with the intent to compromise the outcome of an athletic competition procure, sell, or administer anabolic steroids or cause such drugs to be procured, sold, or administered to a student who is a member of a school athletic team, or fail to report the use of such drugs by a student to the school principal and division superintendent as required by clause (iii) of subsection A of § 22.1-279.3:1 of the Code of Virginia. Any person whose license is suspended or revoked by the board pursuant to this section shall be ineligible for three school years for employment in the public schools of the Commonwealth;

10. 11. ] Revocation, suspension, surrender, cancellation, invalidation, or denial of, or other adverse action against, a teaching, administrator, pupil personnel services, or other education-related certificate or license by another state, territory, or country;or denial of an application for any such certificate or license; ]

11. 12. ] Founded case of child abuse or neglect after allappeal rights administrative appeals ] have been exhausted;

12. 13. ] Notification of dismissal or resignation pursuant to subsection F of § 22.1-313 of the Code of Virginia; or

13. 14. ] Other good and just cause in the best interest of the public schools of the Commonwealth of Virginia.

B. Procedures.

1. A complaint may be filed by anyone, but it shall be the duty of a division superintendent, principal, or other responsible school employee to file a complaint in any case in which he has knowledge that aholder of a license is guilty of any offense basis for the revocation of a license exists, as ] set forth in subsection A of this section. The person making the complaint shall submit the complaint in writing to the appropriate division superintendent.If the subject of the complaint is the division superintendent, the person making the complaint may submit the complaint to the chair of the local school board. ]

2. Upon receipt of the complaint against the holder of a license, a division superintendent or his duly authorized representative shallimmediately and thoroughly ] investigate the complaint. If, on the basis of such investigation, the division superintendent finds the complaint to be without merit, he shall so notify the complaining party or parties in writing and then close his file on the matter. This action shall be final unless the local school board, on its own motion, votes to proceed to a hearing on the complaint.

C. Petition for revocation. Should the division superintendent or local school board conclude that there is reasonable cause to believe that acomplaint against the holder of a license is well founded basis for revocation of the license exists ], the license holder shall be notified of the complaint by a written petition for revocation of a license signed by the division superintendent. A copy of such petition shall be sent by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the license holder's last known address.

D. Form of petition. The petition for the revocation of a license shall set forth:

1. The name and last known address of the person against whom the petition is being filed;

2. The type of license and the license number held by the person against whom the petition is being filed;

3. Theoffenses alleged basis for revocation ] and the specificunderlying alleged ] actionsthat comprise the alleged offenses ];

4. A statement of rights of the personcharged under this chapter against whom the petition is being filed ]. The statement of rights shallnotify the person that any adverse action against a license, including revocation, will be reported to the division superintendents in Virginia and, through a national clearinghouse, to chief state school officers of the other states and territories of the United States. The statement also shall ] include notification to the person of the right to cancel the license if he chooses not to contest the allegations in the petition. The statementmust shall ] notify the individual that he shall receive a notice of cancellation that will include the statement: "The license holder voluntarily returned the license in response to a petition for revocation." The individual also shall be notified that the cancellation of the license will be reported to division superintendents in Virginia and, through a national clearinghouse, ] to chief state school officers of the other states and territories of the United States; and

5. Any other pertinent information.

E. Filing of petition. The original petition shall be entered in the files of the local school board where the license holder is or was last employed.

F. Response to petition. The license holder shall present his written answer to the petition, if any, within 14 days of delivery or attempted delivery of the petition as certified by the United States Postal Service.

1. If the license holder does not wish to contest the allegations in the petition, he maycancel request cancellation of ] the license by [ returning the license to the division superintendent with submitting ] a written, signed statement requesting cancellation in response to a petition for revocation. The division superintendent shall forward the request for cancellation along with the petition for revocation to the Superintendent of Public Instruction within 14 days of receipt. The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall cancel the license and send a notice of cancellation to the person by certified mail within 14 days of receipt of the request for cancellation.

2. If the license holder files a written answer admitting or denying the allegations in the petition or fails to file a written answer within 14 days of delivery or attempted delivery of the petition, ] as certified by the United States Postal Service, the local school board shallpromptly ] proceed to a hearingwithin 90 days of mailing the petition to the license holder and provide the Superintendent of Public Instruction a copy of the petition and investigative file at the time the local school board hearing is scheduled ]. The local school board shall provide a hearing at the time and place of its regular meeting or at such other reasonable time and place it may specify. The license holder or his representative, if any, shall be given at least 14 days' notice of the hearing.

3. At the hearing, the local school board shall receive the recommendation of the division superintendent and then either deny the petition or recommend license revocation or suspension. A decision to deny the petition shall be final, except as specified in subsection G of this section, and the investigative file on the petition shall be closed and maintained as a separate file. Any record or material relating to the allegations in the petition shall be placed in the investigative file. Should the local school board recommend the revocation or suspension of a license, the division superintendent shall forward the recommendation, petition, ] andthe ] investigative file to the Superintendent of Public Instruction within 14 days.

G. Revocation on motion of the Virginia Board of Education. The Virginia Board of Education reserves the right to act directly to revoke a license when the Virginia Board of Education has reasonable cause to believe that subsection A of this section is applicable. The Superintendent of Public Instruction may send a petition for revocation to the license holder as provided by subsection D of this section. The license holder shall have the opportunity torespond present his written answer, if any, ] to the petitionor request cancellation of the license ] within 14 days of delivery or attempted delivery of the petition, as certified by the United States Postal Service.

1.If the license holder does not wish to contest the allegations in the petition, he may request the cancellation of the license by submitting a written, signed statement requesting cancellation in response to a petition for revocation. The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall cancel the license and send a notice of cancellation to the person by certified mail within 14 day of receipt of the request for cancellation.

2. ] If the license holder files a written answer admitting the allegations in the petition or fails to file a written answer within 14 days of delivery or attempted delivery of the petition, ] as certified by the United States Postal Service, the petition shall be forwarded to the Virginia Board of Education for action. No revocation will be ordered without the involved license holder being given the opportunity to appear at a hearing specified in 8VAC20-23-780 C.

2. 3. ] If the license holder timely files his written answer denying the allegations in the petition, the Superintendent of Public Instruction shall schedule a hearing with the investigative panel provided in 8VAC20-23-780 A. The license holder or his representative, if any, shall be given at least 14 days' notice of the hearing. The investigative panel shall take action on the petition as specified in 8VAC20-23-780 A. No revocation will be ordered without the involved license holder being given the opportunity to appear at a hearing specified in 8VAC20-23-780 C.

H. Reinstatement of license. A license that has been revoked may be reinstated by the Virginia Board of Education after five years if the board is satisfied that reinstatement is in the best interest of the public schools of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The individual seeking reinstatementmust shall ] submit a written request and completed application to the board.The request for reinstatement will be reviewed by the Superintendent of Public Instruction's investigative panel pursuant to 8VAC20-23-780. ] Notification to all appropriate parties will be communicated in writing by the Virginia Department of Education.

8VAC20-23-730. Cancellation.

A. A license may be canceled by the voluntary return of the license by the license holderin response to a petition for revocation or suspension or pursuant to a court order ]. Reasons for cancellation are the same as those listed under 8VAC20-23-720 A.

B. The individual may voluntarily return the license to the division superintendent or the Superintendent of Public Instruction with a written, signed statement requesting cancellation. The individual shall acknowledge in the request that he understands that the notice of cancellation will include the statement: "The license holder voluntarilyreturned surrendered ] his teaching license and requested cancellation. Reasons for cancellation are the same as those for revocation."However, if the request for cancellation is in response to a petition for revocation, the The ] individual shallalso ] acknowledge that he understands that the notice of cancellation will include the statement: "The license holder voluntarilyreturned surrendered ] the license in response to a petition for revocationor suspension or a court order ]." The individual also shall acknowledge that he understands that the cancellation of the license will be reported to division superintendents in Virginia and, through a national clearinghouse, ] to chief state school officers of the other states and territories of the United States. The division superintendent shall forward any request for cancellation and, if applicable, the petition for revocationor suspension ] to the Superintendent of Public Instruction within 14 days of receipt. The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall cancel the license and send the person a notice of cancellation by certified mail within 14 days of receipt of the request for cancellation.

C. A license that has been canceled may be reinstated by the Virginia Board of Education if the board is satisfied that reinstatement is in the best interest of the public schools of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The individual seeking reinstatementmust shall ] submit a written request and completed application to the board.The request for reinstatement will be reviewed by the Superintendent of Public Instruction's investigative panel pursuant to 8VAC20-23-780 A. ] Notification to all appropriate parties will be communicated in writing by the Virginia Department of Education.

8VAC20-23-740. Suspension.

A. A license may be suspended for the following reasons:

1. Physical, mental, or emotional incapacity as shown by a competent medical authority;

2. Incompetence or neglect of duty;

3. Failure or refusal to comply with school laws and regulations, including willful violation of contractual obligations;

4. Acts related to secure mandatory tests as specified in subsection A of § 22.1-292.1 of the Code of Virginia;

5. Knowingly and willfully with the intent to compromise the outcome of an athletic competition procure, sell, or administer anabolic steroids or cause such drugs to be procured, sold, or administered to a student who is a member of a school athletic team, or fail to report the use of such drugs by a student to the school principal and division superintendent as required by clause (iii) of subsection A of § 22.1-279.3:1 of the Code of Virginia. Any person whose license is suspended or revoked by the board pursuant to this section shall be ineligible for three school years for employment in the public schools of the Commonwealth; or

6. Other good and just cause in the best interest of the public schools of the Commonwealth of Virginia.

B. Procedures.

1. A complaint may be filed by anyone, but it shall be the duty of a division superintendent, principal, or other responsible school employee to file a complaint in any case in which he has knowledge thatthe license holder has committed any offense a basis for suspension exists, as ] set forth in subsection A of this section. The person making the complaint shall submit the complaint in writing to the appropriate division superintendent.If the subject of the complaint is the division superintendent, the person making the complaint may submit the complaint to the chair of the local school board. ]

2. Upon receipt of the complaint against the holder of a license, a division superintendent or his duly authorized representative shallimmediately and thoroughly ] investigate the complaint. If, on the basis of such investigation, the division superintendent finds the complaint to be without merit, he shall so notify the complaining party or parties in writing and then close his file on the matter. This action shall be final unless the local school board on its own motion votes to proceed to a hearing on the complaint.

C. Petition for suspension. Should the division superintendent or local school board conclude that there is reasonable cause to believe that acomplaint against the holder of a license is well founded basis for suspension of the license exists ], the license holder shall be notified of the complaint by a written petition for suspension of a license signed by the division superintendent. A copy of such petition shall be sent by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the license holder's last known address.

D. Form of petition. The petition for the suspension of a license shall set forth:

1. The name and last known address of the person against whom the petition is being filed;

2. The type of license and the license number held by the person against whom the petition is being filed;

3. Theoffenses alleged basis for suspension ] and the specificunderlying alleged ] actionsthat comprise the alleged offenses ];

4. A statement of the rights of the person against whom the petition is being filed. The statement of rights shall notify the personthat the license may be suspended for up to five years with the period of suspension, as determined by the Virginia Board of Education. In addition, the statement shall notify the person that any adverse action against a license, including suspension, will be reported to the division superintendents in Virginia and, through a national clearinghouse, to chief state school officers of the other states and territories of the United States. The statement also shall notify the person ] of the right to cancel the license if he chooses not to contest the allegations in the petition . The statement also shall notify the individual that the license may be suspended for up to five years and that and notify the individual that if he cancels the license, ] he shall receive a notice of cancellation that will include the statement: "The license holder voluntarily returned the license in response to a petition for suspension." The individual also shall be notified that the cancellationand period of suspension ] will be reported to division superintendents in Virginia and, through a national clearinghouse, ] to chief state school officers of the other states and territories of the United States; and

5. Any other pertinent information.

E. Filing of petition. The original petition shall be entered in the files of the local school board where the license holder is or was last employed.

F. Response to petition. The license holder shall present his written answer to the petition, if any, within 14 days of delivery or attempted delivery of the petition, as certified by the United States Postal Service.

1. If the license holder does not wish to contest the allegations in the petition, he maycancel request cancellation of ] the license byreturning the license to the division superintendent with submitting ] a written and signed statement requesting cancellationin response to a petition for suspension to the division superintendent ]. The division superintendent shall forward the request for cancellation along with the petition for suspension to the Superintendent of Public Instruction within 14 days of receipt. The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall cancel the license and send the person a notice of cancellationto the person ] by certified mail within 14 days of receipt of the request for cancellation.

2. If the license holder files a written answer admitting or denying the allegations in the petition or fails to file a written answer within 14 days of delivery or attempted delivery of the petition, ] as certified by the United States Postal Service, the local school board shall promptly proceed to a hearing. The local school board shall provide a hearing at the time and place of its regular meeting or at such other reasonable time and place it may specify. The license holder or his representative, if any, shall be given at least 14 days' notice of the hearing.

3. At its hearing, the local school board shall receive the recommendation of the division superintendent and then either deny the petition or recommend suspension. A decision to deny the petition shall be final, except as specified in subsection G of this section, and the investigative file on the petition shall be closed and maintained as a separate file. Any record or material relating to the allegations in the petition shall be placed in the investigative file. Should the local school board recommend the suspension of a license, the division superintendent shall forward the recommendation and the investigative file to the Superintendent of Public Instruction within 14 days.

G. Suspension on motion of the Virginia Board of Education. The Virginia Board of Education reserves the right to act directly to suspend a license when the Virginia Board of Education has reasonable cause to believe that subsection A of this section is applicable. The Superintendent of Public Instruction may send a petition for suspension to the license holder as specified in subsection D of this section. The license holder shall have the opportunity torespond present his written answer ] to the petitionor request cancellation of the license, if any, ] within 14 days of delivery or attempted delivery of the petition, as certified by the United States Postal Service.

1.If the license holder does not wish to contest the allegations in the petition, he may request cancellation of the license by submitting a written, signed statement requesting cancellation in response to a petition for suspension. The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall cancel the license and send a notice of cancellation to the person by certified mail within 14 days of receipt of their request for cancellation.

2. ] If the license holder files a written answer admitting the allegations in the petition or fails to file a written answer within 14 days of delivery or attempted delivery of the petition, ] as certified by the United States Postal Service, the petition shall be forwarded to the Virginia Board of Education for action. No suspension will be ordered without the involved license holder being given the opportunity to appear at a hearing specified in 8VAC20-23-780 C.

2. 3. ] If the license holder timely files his written answer denying the allegations in the petition, the Superintendent of Public Instruction shall schedule a hearing with the investigative panel provided in 8VAC20-23-780 A. The license holder or his representative, if any, shall be given at least 14 days' notice of the hearing. The investigative panel shall take action on the petition as specified in 8VAC20-23-780 A. No suspension will be ordered without the involved license holder being given the opportunity to appear at a hearing specified in 8VAC20-23-780 C.

H. Reinstatement of license. A license may be suspended for a period of time not to exceed five years. The license may be reinstated by the Superintendent of Public Instruction, upon written request and application, with verification that allrequirements for license renewal all conditions for licensure ] have been satisfied. Notification to all appropriate parties will be communicated in writing by the Virginia Department of Education.

8VAC20-23-750. Denial.

A. ] A license may be denied for the following reasons:

1. Attempting to obtainsuch a ] license by fraudulent means or through misrepresentation of material facts;

2. Falsification of records or documents;

3. Conviction of any felony;

4. Conviction of any misdemeanor involving moral turpitude;

5. Conviction of any misdemeanor involving aminor child or drugs, not including alcohol student or minor ];

6.Conviction of any misdemeanor involving drugs (not alcohol);

7. ] Conduct witha ] direct and detrimental effect on the health, welfare, discipline, or morale ofstudents a student or minor ];

7. 8. ] Revocation, suspension, surrender, cancellation, invalidation, or denial of, or other adverse action against, a teaching, administrator, pupil personnel services, or other education-related certificate or license by another state, territory, or country, or denial of an application for any such certificate or license ];

8. 9. ] Founded case of child abuse or neglect, after allappeal rights administrative appeals ] have been exhausted; or

9. 10. ] Other good and just cause in the best interest of the public schools of the Commonwealth of Virginia.

B. Any denial of a license for a reason set forth in 8VAC20-23-750 A shall be reported to division superintendents in Virginia and, through a national clearinghouse, to chief state school officers of the other states and territories of the United States. ]

8VAC20-23-760. Expiredlicenses license ].

A. The holder of a license that has expired must apply for a license according to the procedures set forth in 8VAC20-23-40 or 8VAC20-23-110. Such application may be denied renewal by the Superintendent of Public Instruction for any of the reasons specified in 8VAC20-23-750. No such denial will be ordered unless the license holder is given the opportunity for the hearing specified in 8VAC20-23-780 C.

B. A Action against a ] license issued by the Virginia Board of Education may berevoked or suspended taken ] for any of the reasons listed in 8VAC20-23-720 Aor, ] 8VAC20-23-740 A,or 8VAC20-23-750 A ] even if the license is expired, as long as the basis for action occurred prior to the issuance of the license or while the license was active.

8VAC20-23-770. Right to counsel and transcript.

A license holder or applicant shall have the right, at his own expense, to be represented by an attorney or other representative at (i) any local school board hearing provided for in 8VAC20-23-720 F 2 or 8VAC20-23-740 F 2, (ii)the ] investigative panel hearing provided for in 8VAC20-23-780 A, or (iii)in ] proceedings before the Virginia Board of Education as specified in 8VAC20-23-780 C. The hearing before the local school board provided for in 8VAC20-23-720 F 2 or 8VAC20-23-740 F 2 and the investigative panel hearing provided for in 8VAC20-23-780 A shall be recorded, and, ] upon written request, ] the license holder or applicant shall be provided a transcript of the hearing at his own expense. Any such hearing before the Virginia Board of Education shall be recorded, and, ] upon written request, ] the license holder or applicant shall be provided a transcript of the hearing at no charge.

8VAC20-23-780. Action by the Superintendent of Public Instruction and the Virginia Board of Education.

A. Upon receipt of a petition, the Superintendent of Public Instruction will ensure that an investigative panel at the state level reviews the petition. The panel shall consist of three to five members selected by the Superintendent of Public Instruction. The applicant or license holder shall be given at least 14 days' notice of the date, time, and location of the investigative panel hearing when his case will be considered. The Virginia Department of Education shall ensure that the applicant or license holder receives all documentation that will be used during the investigative panel hearing prior to the hearing. Representatives of the local school division and the applicant or license holder are entitled to be present with counsel and witnesses if so desired. The investigative panel hearing shall be recorded. The recommendation of the investigative panel is made to the Superintendent of Public Instruction who will forward his recommendation and the documentation used during the investigative panel hearing to the Virginia Board of Education or its duly designated committeefor consideration ] at one of its scheduled meetings. The applicant or license holder shall be given at least 14 days' notice of the Virginia Board of Education meeting when his case will be considered. Following the investigative panel hearing, the Virginia Department of Education shall forward the recommendation of the investigative panel to the applicant or license holder as soon as practicable, but no later than 14 days prior to the scheduled Virginia Board of Education meeting when his case will be considered.

B. The Superintendent of Public Instruction is authorized to approve the issuance of licenses for individuals who have a misdemeanorconvictions conviction ] related to drugs, not including alcohol, based on a review of the cases. No individualwould will ] be denied a license without a hearing of the Virginia Board of Education as required in this section.

C.The applicant or license holder and representatives of the local school division are entitled to be present with counsel and witnesses, if so desired, at the hearing of the Virginia Board of Education. ] The Virginia Board of Education, or its duly designated committee, shall consider the recommendation of the Superintendent of Public Instruction and such relevant and material evidence as the applicant or license holderand representative of the local school division ] may desire to present at the hearing. At its discretion, the Virginia Board of Education may ask the applicant or license holder questions. At the conclusion of the hearing, the Virginia Board of Education will announce its decision.

D. The decision of the Virginia Board of Education shall be recorded in the minutes of the meeting, and the applicant or license holder and principal complainants will receive written notice of the decision.

8VAC20-23-790. Right of applicant or license holder to appear at hearing.

An applicant or a license holder shall have the right to appear in person at the hearings held by the local school board,the Superintendent's Investigative Panel, ] Virginia Board of Education, or board committee described in this part unless he is confined to jail or a penal institution. The local school board or Virginia Board of Education, at its discretion, may continue such hearings for a reasonable time if the applicant or license holder is prevented from appearing in person for reasons such asa ] documented medicalcondition ] or mental impairment.

8VAC20-23-800. Notification.

Notification of the revocation, suspension, cancellation, denial, or reinstatement of a license shall be made by the Superintendent of Public Instruction, or his designee, to division superintendents in Virginia and, through a national clearinghouse, ] to chief state school officers of the other states and territories of the United States.

VA.R. Doc. No. R13-3476; Filed July 3, 2018, 11:22 a.m.
TITLE 8. EDUCATION
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION
Final Regulation

Titles of Regulations: 8VAC20-542. Regulations Governing the Review and Approval of Education Programs in Virginia (repealing 8VAC20-542-10 through 8VAC20-542-600).

8VAC20-543. Regulations Governing the Review and Approval of Education Programs in Virginia (adding 8VAC20-543-10 through 8VAC20-543-640).

Statutory Authority: §§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Effective Date: August 23, 2018.

Agency Contact: Patty S. Pitts, Assistant Superintendent for Teacher Education and Instruction, Department of Education, P.O. Box 2120, Richmond, VA 23218, telephone (804) 371-2522, or email patty.pitts@doe.virginia.gov.

Summary:

The regulatory action repeals existing regulations (8VAC20-542) and adopts new regulations (8VAC20-543) regarding educational programs that prepare instructional personnel to be accredited and approved for licensure by the Board of Education.

Substantive elements of the regulations focus on (i) revision of selected definitions to conform with changes in the regulations; (ii) modifications in administration of the regulations, including national accreditation for all approved Virginia professional education programs, increased rigor in biennial measures of accountability, and a new appeal process for programs falling below biennial standards to address areas of stipulation; (iii) addition of new educational program endorsement areas in mathematics, engineering, and special education; and (iv) increased rigor in professional studies requirements for selected education program endorsement areas.

Summary of Public Comments and Agency's Response: A summary of comments made by the public and the agency's response may be obtained from the promulgating agency or viewed at the office of the Registrar of Regulations.

CHAPTER 543
REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN VIRGINIA

Part I
Definitions

8VAC20-543-10. Definitions.

The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the meanings indicated unless the context implies otherwise:

"Accreditation" means a process for assessing and improving academic and educational quality through voluntary peer review. This process informs the public that an institution has a professional education program that has met national standards of educational quality.

"Accredited institution" means an institution of higher education accredited by a regional accrediting agency recognized by the United States Department of Education.

"Accredited program" means a Virginia professional education programnationally ] accredited by the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP), including CAEP/National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and CAEP/Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) ].

"Annualreport card:" education preparation program profile" ] means the Virginia Department of Education yearly datareport card education preparation program profile ] required of all professional education programs in Virginia that offer approved programs for the preparation of school personnel.

"Biennial accountability measures" means those specific benchmarks set forth in 8VAC20-543-40 to meet the standards required to obtain or maintain education endorsement program approval status.

"Biennial accountability measurement report" means the compliance report submitted to the Virginia Department of Education every two years by an accredited professional education program.

"Candidates" means individuals enrolled in education programs.

"Department" means the Virginia Department of Education.

"Diversity" means the wide range of differences among groups of people and individuals based on ethnicity, race, socioeconomic status, gender, exceptionalities, language, religion, and geographical area.

"Education endorsement program" means a state-approved course of study, the completion of which signifies that an enrollee has met all the state's educational and training requirements for initial licensure in a specified endorsement area.

"Field experiences" means program components that are (i) conducted in off-campus settings or on-campus settings dedicated to the instruction of children who would or could otherwise be served by school divisions in Virginia or accredited nonpublic schools and (ii) accredited for this purpose by external entities such as regional accrediting agencies. Field experiences include classroom observations, tutoring, assisting teachers and school administrators, and supervised clinical experiences (i.e., practica, student teaching, and internships).Field experiences are required for all programs. ]

"Indicators" means operational definitions that suggest the kinds of evidence that professional education programs shall provide to demonstrate that a standard is met.

"Instructional technology" means the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning and the use of computers and other technologies.

"Licensing" means the official recognition by a state governmental agency that an individual has met state requirements and is, therefore, approved to practice as a licensed professional.

"Professional education program" means the Virginia institution, college, school, department or other administrative body within a Virginia institution of higher education, or another Virginia entity, for a defined education program that is primarily responsible for the preparation of teachers and other professional school personnel.

"Professional studies" means courses and other learning experiences designed to prepare candidates to demonstrate competence in the areas of human development and learning, curriculum and instruction, assessment of and for learning, classroom and behavior management, thefoundations of education and the ] teaching profession, reading, and supervised clinical experiences.

"Program approval" means the process by which a state governmental agency reviews an education program to determine if it meets the state's standards for the preparation of school personnel.

"Program completers" means individuals who have successfully completed all coursework, required licensure assessments, including those prescribed by the Board of Education, and supervised student teaching orthe ] required internship.

"Program noncompleters" means individuals who have been officially admitted into an education program and who have taken, regardless of whether the individuals passed or failed, required licensure assessments andwho exit the program prior to completion have successfully completed all coursework, but who have not completed supervised student teaching or the required internship ]. Program noncompleters shall have been officially released in writing from an education endorsement program by an authorized administrator of the program. Program noncompleters who did not take required assessments are not included in biennial reporting pass rates.

"Regional accrediting agency" means one of the six accrediting associations recognized by the United States Department of Education as follows: New England Association of Schools and Colleges, Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities, Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, and Western Association of Schools and Colleges.

"Virginia ] Standards of Learning for Virginia public schools" means the Commonwealth's expectations for student learning and achievement in grades K-12 in English, mathematics, science, history/social science, technology, fine arts, foreign language, health and physical education, and driver education.

Part II
Accreditation and Administering this Chapter

8VAC20-543-20. Accreditation and administering this chapter.

A. Institutions of higher education seeking approval of an education endorsement program shall be accredited by a regional accrediting agency.

B. Professional education programs in Virginia shall obtain and maintain national accreditation from the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP), including CAEP/National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and CAEP/Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) ]. Professional education programs in Virginia seeking accreditation through CAEP shall adhere to procedures and timelines established by CAEP and the CAEP/Virginia Partnership Agreement. Professional education programs shall ensure and document that programs are aligned with standards set forth in 8VAC20-543-40 through 8VAC20-543-50 and meet competencies outlined in 8VAC20-543-60 through 8VAC20-543-640.

C. If a professional education program fails to maintain accreditation, enrolled candidates shall be permitted to complete their programs of study. Professional education programs that fail to maintain accreditation shall not admit new candidates. Candidates shall be notified of the education endorsement program's approval status.

D. Teacher candidates shall complete academic degrees in the arts and sciences, or equivalent, except in health, physical, and career and technical education. Candidates in early/primary education( ] preK-3) ], elementary education (preK-6), middle education (6-8), and special education programs may complete a major in interdisciplinary studies or its equivalent. Candidates seeking a secondary endorsement area must have earned a major, or the equivalent, in the area sought.

E. Professional studies coursework and methodology, including field experiences, required in this chapter shall be designed for completion withina baccalaureate degree an approved ] program.

F. Professional education programs shall ensure that candidates demonstrate proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction; complete study in child abuse recognition and intervention; and complete training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators.Candidates in education endorsement programs must demonstrate an understanding of competencies, including the core concepts and facts of the disciplines and the Virginia Standards of Learning, for the content areas they plan to teach. Professional education programs shall ensure that candidates demonstrate skills needed to help preK-12 students achieve college and career performance expectations. ]

G. Standards and procedures for the review and approval of each education endorsement program shall adhere to procedures for administering the chapter as defined in this section and in 8VAC20-543-40, 8VAC20-543-50, and 8VAC20-543-60. These procedures shall result in biennial recommendations to the Board of Education for one of the following three ratings: "approved," "approved with stipulations," or "approval denied."

H. Education endorsement programs shall be approved under this chapter biennially based on compliance with the criteria described in 8VAC20-543-40, 8VAC20-543-50, and 8VAC20-543-60.

I. The Department of Education will determine the timeline and procedures for applying for education endorsement program approval.

J. Education endorsement programs in Virginia shall address the competencies set forth in this chapter, and the curriculum for each program must be documented and submitted to the Department of Education for approval.

K. Professional education programs shall submit to the Department of Education on behalf of each education endorsement program under consideration a biennial accountability measurement report and an annualreport card education preparation program profile ] to include data prescribed by the Board of Education on education endorsement programs in accordance with department procedures and timelines.

L. The professional education program authorized administrator shall maintain copies of approved education endorsement programs and required reports.

M. The Department of Education may conduct onsite visits to review education endorsement programs and verify data.

N. The Advisory Board on Teacher Education and Licensure (ABTEL) is authorized to review and make recommendations to the Board of Education on approval of Virginia education endorsement programs for school personnel. The Board of Education has final authority on education endorsement program approval.

O.In administering this chapter, licensure requirements for Virginia are outlined in the Licensure Regulations for School Personnel (8VAC20-23) This document should be referenced for detailed information regarding requirements for Virginia licensure. An individual must meet licensure requirements set forth in the Code of Virginia.

P. ] Modifications may be made by the Superintendent of Public Instruction in the administration of this chapter. Proposed modifications shall be made in writing to the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Commonwealth of Virginia.

Q. Upon the effective date of this chapter, the Board of Education grants colleges and universities two years to align their existing approved programs with this chapter and allows only college and universities that on the effective date of this chapter are accredited by the Board of Education process four years to become accredited by the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) with the option of submitting a progress report to the Superintendent of Public Instruction to request an additional year, if needed. ]

Part III
Application for New Education Endorsement Programs

8VAC20-543-30. Application for new education endorsement programs.

A. Requests for new education endorsement programs shall be approved by the Virginia Board of Education.

B. The professional education program shall submit a request for the new program in a format provided by the Department of Education that shall address the following requirements:

1. Rationale for the new education endorsement program, to include local division or service area demand data and statements of support from the institution's dean, provost, president, or designee and Virginia school divisions. A summary of the stakeholders' involvement in the development of the education endorsement program must be included.

2. Capacity of the institution to offer the education endorsement program.

3. List of the requirements for the education endorsement program, to include the degree, major, and the curriculum.

4. Matrices demonstrating that the competencies set forth in this chapter have been incorporated in the education endorsement program.

5. Description of structured and integrated field experiences to include early clinical experiences and a summative supervised student teaching experience.

6. Description of the partnerships and collaborations based on preK-12 school needs.

Part IV
Standards for Biennial Approval of Education Endorsement Programs

8VAC20-543-40. Standards for biennial approval of education endorsement programs.

Education endorsement programs in Virginia shall be approved by the Board of Education and demonstrate achievement biennially of the accountability measures in this section. The institution of higher education must report evidence of the standards for Board of Education review biennially.

1. Candidate progress and performance on prescribed Board of Education licensure assessments. Candidate passing rates, reported by percentages, shall not fall below 80% biennially for program completers and program noncompleters. Program completers are individuals who have successfully completed all coursework, required licensure assessments, and supervised student teaching or required internship. Program noncompleters are those individuals who have been officially admitted into the education program and who have taken, regardless of whether the individual passed or failed, required licensure assessments, andwho exit the program prior to completion have successfully completed all coursework, but who have not completed supervised student teaching or the required internship ].  Program noncompleters shall have been officially released (in writing) from an education endorsement program by an authorized administrator of the program.

2. Candidate progress and performance on an assessment of basic skills as prescribed by the Board of Education for individuals seeking entry into an approved education endorsement program.

Indicators of the achievement of this standard shall include the following:

a. Results on Board of Education prescribed entry-level assessments;

b. Documentation that candidates enrolled in the program who fail to achieve a minimum score established by the Board of Education have the opportunity to address deficiencies; and

c. Documentation of the number of candidates admitted into the program who did not meet the prescribed admission assessment and the opportunities provided to the candidates to address deficiencies.

3. Structured and integrated field experiences to include early clinical experiences and a summative supervised student teaching experience.

Indicators of the achievement of this standard shall include the following:

a. Evidence that candidates receive quality clinically-based structured and integrated field experiences that prepare them to work in diverse educational environments; and

b. Evidence that supervised clinical experiences are continuous and systematic and comprised of early field experiences with a minimum of 10 weeks ofsuccessful ] full-time student teaching under the supervision of a cooperating teacher with demonstrated effectiveness in the classroom, as indicated by a proficient or exemplary evaluation rating. The supervised student teaching experience shall include at least 150 clock hours spent in direct teaching at the level of endorsement.

4. Evidence of opportunities for candidates to participate in diverse school settings that provide experiences with populations that include racial,gender, exceptionality, religion, geographic, ] economic, linguistic, and ethnic diversity throughout the program experiences.

The indicator of the achievement of this standard shall include evidence that the professional education program provides opportunities for candidates to have program experiences in diverse school settings that provide experiences with populations that include racial,gender, exceptionality, religion, geographic, ] economic, linguistic, and ethnic diversity within each biennial period.

5. Evidence of contributions to preK-12 student achievement by candidates completing the program.

Indicators of the achievement of this standard shall include the following:

a. Evidence to show that candidates know about, create, and use appropriate and effective data-driven assessments in teaching that shall provide dependable information about student achievement;

b. Evidence to document that faculty have made provisions for evaluating the effects that candidates have on preK-12 student learning in the context of teaching as they design unit assessment systems and assessments for each program; and

c. Evidence that the education program assesses candidates' mastery of exit criteria and performance proficiencies, including the ability to affect student learning, through the use of multiple sources of data such as a culminating experience, portfolios, interviews, videotaped and observed performance in schools, standardized tests, and course grades.

6. Evidence of employer job satisfaction withcandidates graduates ] completing the program.

Indicators of the achievement of this standard shall include:

a. Documentation that the professional education program has two years of evidence regardingcandidate graduates ] performance based on employer surveys.

b. Documented evidence of teacher effectiveness, including student academic progress.

7. Partnerships and collaborations based on preK-12 school needs.

Indicators of the achievement of this standard shall include the following:

a. Documented evidence that the education endorsement program has established partnerships reflecting collaboratively designed program descriptions based on identified needs of the preK-12 community.

b. Documented evidence that the administration and supervision program collaborates with partnering schools to identify and select candidates for school leadership programs who meet local needs, demonstrate both potential for and interest in school leadership, and meet the qualifications for admission to advanced programs.

Part V
Application of Standards for Biennial Approval of Education Endorsement Programs

8VAC20-543-50. Application of the standards.

A. As a prerequisite to education endorsement program approval, professional education programs in Virginia shall have national accreditation. Failure to do so will result in the education endorsement program being designated as "approval denied."

B. The education endorsement program's candidate passing rates, reported by percentages, shall not fall below 80% biennially for program completers and program noncompleters. Program completers are individuals who have successfully completed all coursework, required licensure assessments, and supervised student teaching orthe ] required internship. Program noncompleters are those individuals who have been officially admitted into the education program and who have taken, regardless of whether the individual passed or failed, required licensure assessments, andwho exit the program prior to completion have successfully completed all coursework, but who have not completed supervised student teaching or the required internship ]. Program noncompleters shall have been officially released (in writing) from an education endorsement program by an authorized administrator of the program.

C. The professional education program's authorized administrator is responsible to certify documented evidence that the following standards as set forth in 8VAC20-543-40 have been met by the education endorsement program:

1. The professional education program shall demonstrate candidate progress and performance on an assessment of basic skills as prescribed by the Board of Education for individuals seeking entry into an approved education endorsement program.

2. The professional education program shall provide structured and integrated field experiences.

3. The professional education program shall provide evidence of opportunities for candidates to participate in diverse school settings that provide experiences with populations that include racial,gender, exceptionality, religion, geographic, ] economic, linguistic, and ethnic diversity throughout the program experiences.

4. The professional education program shall provide evidence of contributions to preK-12 student achievement by candidates completing the program.

5. The professional education program shall provide evidence of employer job satisfaction withcandidates graduates ] completing the program.

6. The professional education program shall develop and provide evidence of biennial accountability measures for partnerships and collaborations based on preK-12 school needs.

D. After submitting to the Department of Education the information contained in 8VAC20-543-40, education endorsement programs in Virginia shall receive one of the following three ratings:

1. Approved. The education endorsement program has met all standards set forth in 8VAC20-543-40.

2. Approved with stipulations. The education endorsement program has met standards in subsections A and B of this section and is making documented progress toward meeting standards in subsection C of this section.Biennial Institutions with education endorsements programs that fall below the 80% biennial requirement shall submit to the Board of Education for approval an improvement plan to address the areas of stipulation, including measurable goals and timelines. Semiannual reports must be submitted to the Director of Teacher Education to document the progress in addressing the goals toward elimination of the stipulation until the next biennial review period. The biennial ] passing rates that fall below the 80% requirement for program completers and noncompleters shall result in the education endorsement program receiving a rating of "approved with stipulations." The passing rate for program completers and noncompleters must meet the 80% passing rate requirement by the end of the next biennial period for the program to be approved; if the 80% pass rate is not achieved, the program will be denied.However, if the education endorsement program has less than 10 program completers and noncompleters, the institution must submit an annual report attesting to continued progress in meeting the requirements. ]

3. Approval denied. Approval may be denied if:

a. The education endorsement program has not met standards in subsection A of this section;

b. The education endorsement program has met standards in subsection A of this section but has not met requirements in subsection B of this section for two consecutive biennial reporting periods. The program shall be denied and the public notified. The program may resubmit a request for approval at the end of the next biennial period.

Part VI
Professional Education Program Accountability

8VAC20-543-60. Biennial accountability measurement report.

The accredited professional education program shall report, every two years, in accordance with Virginia Department of Education procedures, those specific criteria set forth in 8VAC20-543-40 to meet the standards required to obtain or maintain education endorsement program approval status.

8VAC20-543-70. Annualreport card education preparation program profile ].

The accredited professional education program shall submit to the Virginia Department of Education a yearlydata report card education preparation program profile ] on the preparation of professional school personnel. Thereport card education preparation program profile ] shall be published on the department's website. The information required on thereport card education preparation program profile ] shall be approved by the Board of Education andwill shall ] include the following:

1. Institution's accreditation status;

2. Education endorsement program status;

3. Number of candidates admitted in education endorsement programs;

4.Number of candidates admitted in education endorsement programs who are in the top quartile of the college or university population. Comparison of candidates, admitted to education endorsement programs to overall college or university population; ]

5. Number of program completers, including number of program completers in critical shortage teaching areas for each endorsement program ];

6. Number of program noncompletersfor each endorsement program ];

7. Biennial accountability data results;

8.Number of candidates admitted into the program for the reporting year who did not meet the prescribed admission assessment requirement;

9. Number of program completers for the reporting year who were admitted without meeting the prescribed admission assessment requirement;

10. Number of program noncompleters for the reporting year who were admitted to the program without meeting the prescribed admission assessment requirement;

11. ] Satisfaction ratings by school administrators and clinical experience supervisorson of ] student teachers;

12. 9. ] Satisfaction ratings by employers of programcompleters graduates ];

13. 10. ] Satisfaction ratings of programcompleters graduates ] within two years of employment;and

11. Recognition of other program achievements; and

14. 12. ] Other data as required by the Board of Education.

Part VII
Competencies for Endorsement Areas
Article 1
General Competencies

8VAC20-543-80. Competencies and requirements for endorsement areas.

A. The professional education program develops, maintains, and continuously evaluates high quality education endorsement programs that are collaboratively designed and based on identified needs of the preK-12 community. Candidates in education endorsement programs shall demonstrate competence in the areas in which they plan to practice and complete professional studies requirements and applicable assessments, in addition to meeting requirements for specific licenses, pursuant to the Licensure Regulations for School Personnel(8VAC20-22) (8VAC20-23) ]. The Licensure Regulations for School Personnel set forth the required degrees from regionally accredited colleges or universities for licenses, endorsements, and prerequisite licenses or endorsements for add-on endorsements.

B. All education endorsement programs in early/primary education preK-3, elementary education preK-6, middle education 6-8, and history and social sciences must include local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia.

C. Candidates in education endorsement programs demonstrate an understanding of competencies, including the core concepts and facts of the disciplines and the Virginia Standards of Learning, for the content areas in which they plan to teach where required.

D. Candidates in early/primary education preK-3, elementary education preK-6, and special education complete a minimum of six semester hours of reading coursework as outlined in the reading competencies.

E. Candidates seeking an early/primary education preK-3 or an elementary education preK-6 endorsement must completea minimum of ] 12-15 ] semester hours each in English, history and social sciences, mathematics, and science addressing competencies set forth in this chapter or complete the following:

1. English: complete six semester hours in English and pass a rigorous assessment in elementary English prescribed by the Board of Education.

2. History and social sciences: complete six semester hours in history and social sciences, complete a methods of teaching elementary history and social sciences course, ] and pass a rigorous assessment in elementary history and social sciences prescribed by the Board of Education.

3. Mathematics: complete six semester hours in mathematics, complete a methods of teaching elementary mathematics course, and pass a rigorous assessment in elementary mathematics prescribed by the Board of Education.

4. Science: complete six semester hours in laboratory sciences in two science disciplines, complete a methods of teaching elementary science course, and pass a rigorous assessment in elementary science prescribed by the Board of Education.

F. Candidates seeking an endorsement in special education-general curriculum K-12 must have one area of specialization in English, history and social sciences, mathematics, or science with 12-15 semester hours in the specialization area.

G. F. ] Candidates seeking a middle education endorsement must have an area of concentration in English, history and social sciences, mathematics, or science with 21-24 ] semester hours in the concentration area.

Article 2
Early/Primary Education, Elementary Education, and Middle Education Endorsements

8VAC20-543-90. Professional studies requirements for early/primary education, elementary education, and middle education.

Professional studies requirements for early/primary education, elementary education, and middle education:

1. Human development and learning (birth through adolescence).

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the physical, social, emotional, speech and language, and intellectual development of children and the ability to use this understanding in guiding learning experiences and relating meaningfully to students.

b. The interaction of children with individual differences - economic, social, racial, ethnic, religious, physical, andmental– cognitive - ] should be incorporated to include skills contributing to an understanding of developmental disabilities and developmental issues related, ] but not limited to, ] low socioeconomic status,; ] attention deficit disorders,; ] developmental disorders,; ] gifted education, including the use of multiple criteria to identify gifted students,; ] substance abuse, child abuse,; trauma, including child abuse, and neglect and other adverse childhood experiences; ] and family disruptions.

2. Curriculum and instruction.

a. Early/primary education preK-3 or elementary education preK-6 curriculum and instruction.

(1) Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology;varied and ] effectivemethods of ] communication with and among students; selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies;and ] selection, development, and use of appropriate curricula, methodologies, and materials that support and enhance student learning and reflect the research on unique, age-appropriate, and culturally relevant curriculum and pedagogy.

(2) Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instructionmust shall ] be included.

(3) Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners, includinglimited English proficient students English learners ], gifted and talented students, and students with disabilities,; ] and appropriate for the level of endorsement (preK-3 or preK-6) sought shall be included.

(4) Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student engagement and student academic progress and effective preparation for theVirginia ] Standards of Learning assessments.

(5) Study in (i) methods of improving communication between schools and families, (ii) communicating with families regarding social and instructional needs of children, (iii) ways of increasing familyinvolvement engagement ] in student learning at home and in school, (iv) the Virginia Standards of Learning, and (v) Virginia Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds prepared by the department's Office of Humanities and Early Childhood shall be included.

(6) Early childhood educators must understand the role of families in child development and in relation to teaching educational skills.

(7) Early childhood educators must understand the role of the informal and play-mediated settings for promoting students' skills and development and must demonstrate knowledge and skill in interacting in such situations to promote specific learning outcomes as reflected in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds ].

(8) Demonstrated proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction shall be included.Persons seeking initial licensure as teachers and persons seeking licensure renewal as teachers for the first time shall complete study Study ] in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Servicesthat are relevant to the specific teacher licensure routes and training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators must be included.

(9) ] Pre-student teaching experiences (field experiences) should be evident within these skills.

b. Middle education 6-8 curriculum and instruction.

(1) Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology; effective communication with and among students, selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies;, and ] evaluation of pupil performance; and the relationships among assessment, instruction, and monitoring student progress to include student performance measures in grading practices, the ability to construct and interpret valid assessments using a variety of formats in order to measure student attainment of essential skills in a standards-based environment, and the ability to analyze assessment data to make decisions about how to improve instruction and student performance ].

(2) Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instructionmust shall ] be included.

(3) Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners includinglimited English proficient students English learners ], gifted and talented students, and students with disabilities, and must be appropriate for the middle education endorsement shall be included.

(4) Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student engagement and student academic progress and effective preparation for theVirginia ] Standards of Learning assessments.

(5) Study in methods of improving communication between schools and families, ways of increasing familyinvolvement engagement ] in student learning at home and in school, and theVirginia ] Standards of Learning shall be included.

(6) Demonstrated proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction shall be included.(7) Persons seeking initial licensure as teachers and persons seeking licensure renewal as teachers for the first time shall complete study Study ] in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Servicesthat are relevant to the specific teacher licensure routes and training or certification in emergency first aid cardiopulpmonary resuscitation and the use of automatic external defibrillators shall be included.

(7) ] Pre-student teaching experiences (field experiences) should be evident within these skills.

3. Classroom and behavior management. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding and application of research-based classroom and behavior management techniques, classroom community building, positive behavior supports, and individual interventions, including techniques that promote emotional well-being and teach and maintain behavioral conduct and skills consistent with norms, standards, and rules of the educational environment. This area shall address diverse approaches based uponculturally responsive ] behavioral, cognitive, affective, social, and ecological theory and practice. Approaches should support professionally appropriate practices that promote positive redirection of behavior, development of social skills, andself discipline development of self-discipline ]. Knowledge and an understanding of various school crisis management and safety plans and the demonstrated ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environmentmust shall ] be included. The link between classroom management and students' ages must be understood and demonstrated in techniques used in the classroom.

4. Assessment of and for learning.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding and application of creating, selecting, and implementing valid and reliable classroom-based assessments of student learning, including formative and summative assessments. Assessments designed and adapted to meet the needs of diverse learnersmust shall ] be addressed.

b. Analytical skills necessary to inform ongoing planning and instruction, as well as to understand, and help students understand their own progress and growthmust shall ] be included.

c. Skills also include the ability to understand the relationships among assessment, instruction, and monitoring student progress to include student performance measures in grading practices; the ability to interpret valid assessments using a variety of formats in order to measure student attainment of essential skills in a standards-based environment; and the ability to analyze assessment data to make decisions about how to improve instruction and student performance.

d. Understanding of state assessment programs and accountability systems, including assessments used for student achievement goal setting as related to teacher evaluation and determining student academic progress, including knowledge of legal and ethical aspects of assessment must be included ].

e.Skills include Knowledge of legal and ethical aspects, and skills for ] developing familiarity with assessments used in preK-12 education(e.g., (including ] diagnostic, college admission exams, industry certifications, placement assessments).

5.The Foundations of education and the ] teaching profession.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding of the historical, philosophical, and sociological foundations underlying the role, development, and organization of public education in the United States.

b. Attention must be given to the legal status of teachers and students, including federal and state laws and regulations; school as an organization and culture; and contemporary issues and current trends in education, including the impact of technology on education. Local, state, and federal governance of schools, including the roles of teachers and schools in communities,must shall ] be included.

c. Professionalism and ethical standards, ] as well as personal integritymust shall ] be addressed.

d. Knowledge and understanding of Virginia's Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachersmust shall ] be included.

6.Reading Language and Literacy ].

a. Early/primary education preK-3 and elementary education preK-6- ] language acquisition and reading and writing. Skills listed for these endorsement areas represent the minimum competencies that a beginning teacher must be able to demonstrate. These skills are not intended to limit the scope of a beginning teacher's program. Additional knowledge and skills that add to a beginning teacher's competencies to deliver instruction and improve student achievement should be included as part of a quality learning experience.

(1) Language acquisition: Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, ] as well as the complex nature of language acquisition as a precursor to literacy. Language acquisition shall follow the typical development of linguistic competence in the areas of phonetics, semantics, syntax, morphology, phonology, and pragmatics.

(2) Reading and writing: Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, ] as well as the reciprocal nature of reading and writing. Reading shall include phonemicand other phonological ] awareness, concept of print, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension strategies. Writing shall include writing strategies and conventions as supporting the composing and [ writing written ] expression and usage and mechanics domains. Additional skills shall include proficiency in understanding the stages of spelling development,and ] the writing process, ] as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction text and independent reading.

b. Middle education - language acquisition and reading development and literacy in the content areas.

(1) Language acquisition and reading development: Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the complex nature of language acquisition and reading, to include phonemicand other phonological ] awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension strategies for adolescent learners. Additional skills shall include proficiency in writing strategies, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction text and independent reading for adolescent learners.

(2) Literacy in the content areas: Skills in this area shall be designed to impart an understanding of vocabulary development and comprehension skills in areas of English, mathematics, science, history and social science, and other content areas. Strategies include teaching students how to ask effective questions, summarize and retell both verbally and in writing, and to listen effectively. Teaching strategies include literal, interpretive, critical, and evaluative comprehension, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction text and independent reading for adolescent readers.

7. Supervised clinical experiences. The supervised clinical experiences shall be continuous and systematic and comprised of early field experiences with a minimum of 10 weeks ofsuccessful ] full-time student teachingin the endorsement area sought ] under the supervision of a cooperating teacher with demonstrated effectiveness in the classroom. The summative supervised student teaching experience shall include at least 150 clock hours spent in direct teaching at the level of endorsementin a public or accredited nonpublic school ]. One year of successful full-time teaching experience in the endorsement area in any public school or accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the supervised student teaching experience. A fully licensed, experienced teacher shall be available in the school building to assist a beginning teacher employed through the alternate route.

8VAC20-543-100. Early childhood for three-year-olds and four-year-olds (add-on endorsement).

The program in early childhood education for three-year-olds and four-year-olds shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with an endorsement in elementary education(, ] such as preK-3 or preK-6) ] or special education early childhood issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding child growth and development from birth through age five, with a specific focus on three-year-olds and four-year-olds, including:

a. Knowledge of characteristics and developmental needs of three-year-olds and four-year-olds, including the ability to recognize indicators of typical and atypical development, in the domains of language, social, emotional, cognitive, physical, and gross and fine motor development;

b. Understanding of the multiple interacting influences on child development (biological and environmental), interconnectedness of developmental domains, the wide range of ages at which developmental skills are manifested, and the individual differences in behavioral styles; and

c. Knowledge of child development within the context of family, culture, and society.

2. Understanding principles of developmental practice, with a focus on three-year-olds and four-year-olds, including practices that are:

a.Appropriate to the Effective in supporting each ] child's age and stage of development;

b. Appropriate for children with a wide range of individual differences in abilities, interests, andlearning styles approaches to learning ]; and

c. Appropriate for the child's cultural background and experience.

3. Understanding health and nutritional practices that impact early learning including:

a. Practices and procedures that support health status conducive to optimal development(e.g. ],such as ] health assessment, prevention of the spread of communicable disease, oral hygiene, reduction of environmental hazards,protection from toxic stress ] injury prevention, and emergency preparedness) ];

b. Indicators of possible child abuse or neglect and the appropriate response if such indicators are observed;

c. Nutritional and dietary practices that support healthy growth and development while remaining sensitive to each family's preferences, dietary restrictions, and culture;

d. Skills for communicating with families about health and dietary concerns;

e. Community resources that supporthealthy living child and family health and well-being ]; and

f. Practices that allow children to become independent and knowledgeable about healthy living.

4. Understanding and application of formal and informal assessment procedures for documenting development and knowledge of how to use assessment to plan curriculum, including:

a. Age-appropriate and stage-appropriate methods for documenting, assessing, and interpreting development and learning;

b. Identifying and documenting children's interests, strengths, and challenges; and

c. Communicating with families to acquire and to share information relevant to assessment.

5. Understanding effective strategies for (i) facilitating positive reciprocal relationships with children for teachers, families, and communities through mutual respect, communication strategies, collaborative linkages among families, and community resources and (ii) nurturing the capacity of family members to serve as advocates on behalf of children.

6. Understanding strategies for planning, implementing, assessing, and modifying physical and psychological aspects of the learning environment to support language, physical, cognitive, and social, as well as emotional, well-being in children with a broad range of developmental levels, special needs, individual interests, and cultural backgrounds, including the ability to:

a. Utilize learning strategies that stimulate curiosity, promote thinking, and encourage participation in exploration and play;

b. Provide curriculum that facilitate learning goals in content areasof the Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds ] and provide opportunities to acquire concepts and skills that are precursors to academic content taught in elementary school;

c. Adapt tasksto the and interactions to maximize language development, conceptual understanding, and skill competences within each ] child's zone of proximal development;

d. Nurture children's development through firsthand experiences and opportunities to explore, examine, and investigate real materials in authentic context and engage in social interactions with peers and adults;

e. Select materials and equipment, arrange physical space, and plan schedules and routines to stimulate and facilitate development; and

f. Collaborate with families, colleagues, and members of the broader community to construct learning environments that promote a spirit of unity, respect, and service in the interest of the common good.

7. Understanding strategies that create positive and nurturing relationships with each child based on respect, trust, and acceptance of individual differences in ability levels, temperament, and other characteristics, including the ability to:

a. Emphasize the importance of supportive verbal and nonverbal communication;

b. Establish classroom and behavior management practices that are respectful, meet children's emotional needs, clearly communicate expectations for appropriate behavior, promoteself-regulation and ] pro-social behaviors, prevent or minimize behavioral problems through careful planning of the learning environment, teach conflict resolution strategies, and mitigate or redirect challenging behaviors; and

c. Build positive, collaborative relationships with children's families with regard to behavioral guidance.

8. The program shall include a practicum that shall include a minimum of 45 instructional hours of successful teaching experience in a public or accredited nonpublic school with children from three years old to age five. ]

8VAC20-543-110. Early/primary education preK-3.

The program for early/primary education preK-3 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Methods.

a. Understanding of the knowledge, skills,dispositions ] and processes to support learners in achievement of Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning in English, mathematics, history and social science, science, and computerand ] technology;

b. The ability to integrate English, mathematics, science, health, history and social sciences, art, music, drama, movement, and technology in learning experiences;

c. The use of differentiated instruction and flexible groupings to meet the needs of learners at different stages of development,approaches to learning ] abilities, and achievement;

d. The use of appropriate methods, ] including those in visual and performing arts, to help learners develop knowledge and basic skills, sustain intellectual curiosity, and problem-solve;

e. The ability to utilize effective classroom management skills through methods that build responsibility and self-discipline, promote self-regulation, ] and maintain a positive learning environment;

f. The ability to modify and manage learning environments and experiences to meet the individual needs of children, including children with disabilities, gifted children, childrenwith limited proficiency in English who are English learners ], and children with diverse cultural needs;

g. The ability to use formal and informal assessments to diagnose needs, plan and modify instruction, and record student progress;

h. A commitment to professional growth and development through reflection, collaboration, and continuous learning;

i. The ability to analyze, evaluate, and apply quantitative and qualitative research;and ]

j. The ability to use technology as a tool for teaching, learning, research, and communication; and

k. The ability to adapt task and interactions to maximize language development, conceptual understanding, and skill competence within each child's zone of proximal development ].

2. Knowledge and skills.

a. Reading and English. Understanding of the content, knowledge, skills,dispositions, ] and processes for teaching Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning for English, ] including oral language (speaking and listening), reading, and writing, and how these standards provide the core for teaching English in grades preK-3 (early/primary licensure).

(1) Assessment and diagnostic teaching. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the use of both formal and informal assessment as screening, diagnostic, and progress monitoring measures for the component of reading:phoneme phonemic ] awareness, letter recognition, decoding, fluency, vocabulary, reading levels, and comprehension; and

(b) Be proficient in the ability to use diagnostic data to inform instruction for acceleration, intervention, remediation, and differentiation.

(2) Oral communication. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching oral language(, such as ] speaking and listening) ];

(b) Be proficient in developing students' phonological awareness skills;

(c) Demonstrate effective strategies for facilitating the learning of standard English by speakers of other languages and dialects; and

(d) Demonstrate the ability to promote creative thinking and expression, such as through storytelling, drama, and choral and oral reading, etc ].

(3) Reading and literature. The individual shalldemonstrate the following competencies ]:

(a) Be proficient in explicit phonics instruction, including an understanding of sound and symbol relationships, syllables, phonemes, morphemes, word analysis, and decoding skills;

(b) Be proficient in strategies to increase vocabulary and concept development;

(c) Be proficient in the structure of the English language, including an understanding of syntax;

(d) Be proficient in reading comprehension strategies for (i) fiction and nonfiction text predicting, retelling, and summarizing and (ii) guiding students to make connections beyond the text;

(e) Demonstrate the ability to develop comprehension skills in all content areas;

(f) Demonstrate the ability to foster the appreciation of a variety of literature;

(g) Understand the importance of promoting independent reading by selecting fiction and nonfiction texts of appropriate yet engaging topics and reading levels; and

(h) Demonstrate effective strategies for teaching students to view, interpret, analyze, and represent information and concepts in visual form with or without the spoken or written word.

(4) Writing. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching writing, including the domains of composing, written expression,and ] usage and mechanics and the writing process of planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing;

(b) Understand the stages of spelling development, promoting the generalization of spelling study to writing, and be proficient in systematic spelling instruction, including awareness of the purpose and limitations of "invented spelling"; and

(c) Demonstrate the ability to teach students to write cohesively for a variety of purposes and to provide instruction on the writing process: of ] planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing in the narrative, descriptive, persuasive, and explanative modes.

(5) Technology. The individual shall demonstrate the ability to guide students in their use of technology for both process and product as they work with reading and writing.

b. Mathematics.

(1) Understanding of the mathematics relevant to the content identified in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching mathematics in grades preK-3. Experiences with practical applications and the use of appropriate technology and manipulatives should be used within the following content:

(a) Number systems and their structure, basic operations, and properties;

(b) Elementary number theory, ratio, proportion, and percent;

(c) Algebra: fundamental idea of equality; operations with monomials and polynomials; algebraic fractions; linear and quadratic equations and inequalities and linear systems of equations and inequalities; radicals and exponents; arithmetic and geometric sequences and series; algebraic and trigonometric functions; and transformations among graphical, tabular, and symbolic forms of functions;

(d) Geometry: geometric figures, their properties, relationships,and ] the Pythagorean Theorem; deductive and inductive reasoning; perimeter, area, and surface area of two-dimensional and three-dimensional figures; coordinate and transformational geometry; and constructions; and

(e) Probability and statistics: permutations and combinations; experimental and theoretical probability; prediction; data collection and graphical representations including box-and-whisker plots; and measures of center, spread of data, variability, range, and normal distribution.

(2) Understanding of the sequential nature of mathematics and vertical progression of mathematical standards.

(3) Understanding of the multiple representations of mathematical concepts and procedures.

(4) Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - reasoning mathematically, solving problems, communicating mathematics effectively, making mathematical connections, and using mathematical models and representations- ] at different levels of complexity.

(5) Understanding of the contributions of different cultures toward the development of mathematics and the role of mathematics in culture and society.

(6) Understanding of the appropriate use of calculators and technology in the teaching and learning of mathematics, including virtual manipulatives.

(7) Understanding of and the ability to use strategies to teach mathematics to diverse learners.

c. History and social sciences.

(1) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of history and the social science disciplines as defined in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the necessary foundation for teaching history and social sciences, including in:

(a) History.

(i) The contributions of ancient civilizations to American social and political institutions;

(ii) Major events in Virginia history from 1607 to the present;

(iii) Key individuals, documents, and events in United States history; and

(iv) The evolution of America's constitutional republic and its ideas, institutions, and practices.

(b) Geography.

(i) The use of maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information;

(ii) The relationship between human activity and the physical environment in the community and the world; and

(iii) Physical processes that shape the surface of the earth.

(c) Civics.

(i) The privileges and responsibilities of good citizenship and the importance of the rule of law for the protection of individual rights;

(ii) The process of making laws in the United States and the fundamental ideals and principles of a republican form of government;

(iii) The understanding that Americans are a people of diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions, who are united by the basic principles of a republican form of government and a common identity as Americans; and

(iv) Local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia.

(d) Economics.

(i) The basic economic principles that underlie the United States market economy;

(ii) The role of the individual and how economic decisions are made in the market place; and

(iii) The role of government in the structure of the United States economy.

(2) Understanding of the nature of history and the social sciences, and how the study of the disciplines assists students in developingcritical thinking skills in helping them to understand: historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision-making, and responsible citizenship by: ]

(a)The relationship between past and present Using artifacts and primary and secondary sources to understand events in history ];

(b)The use of primary sources such as artifacts, letters, photographs, and newspapers Using geographic skills to explain the interaction of people, places, and events to support an understanding of events in history ];

(c)How events in history are shaped both by the ideas and actions of people Using charts, graphs, and pictures to determine characteristics of people, places, or events in history ];

(d)Diverse cultures and shared humanity Asking appropriate questions and summarizing points to answer a question ];

(e)Civic participation in a democracy; and Comparing and contrasting people, places, and events in history; ]

(f)The relationship between history, literature, art, and music Recognizing direct cause and effect relationships in history;

(g) Explaining connections across time and place;

(h) Using a decision-making model to identify costs and benefits of a specific choice made;

(i) Practicing good citizenship skills and respect for rules and laws, and participating in classroom activities; and

(j) Developing fluency in content vocabulary and comprehension of verbal, written, and visual sources ].

d. Science.

(1) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, andprocesses practices ] of the four core science disciplinesof Earth sciences, biology, chemistry, and physics ] as defined in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these standards provide a sound foundation for teaching science in the early/primary grades.

(2) Understanding of the nature ofthe theory science ] and scientific inquiry, including the following:

(a) Function of research design and experimentation;

(b) Role and nature ofscience the theory ] in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

(c) Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling, argumentation with evidence, and contracting explanations;

(d) Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

(e) Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity, including peer review; and

(f) Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

(3) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and practices for conducting an active elementary science program, including the ability to:

(a) Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

(b) Implement classroom, field, ] and laboratory safety rules and procedures, and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

(c) Conduct research projects and experiments, including applications of the design process and technology;

(d) Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

(e) Organize key science content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

(f) Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

(g) Evaluate instructional materials, technologies, and teaching practices;

(h) Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

(i) Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance in science; and

(j) Ensure student competence in science.

(4) Understanding of the content,processes, and ] skills, and practices ] of the four core science areas, including Earth sciences, biology, chemistry, and physics supporting the teaching ofelementary school preK-3 ] science as defined by the Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and Virginia Science Standards of Learning and equivalent to academic course work in each of these four core science areas.

(5) Understanding of the core scientific disciplines of Earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics to ensure:

(a) The placement of the four core scientific disciplines in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

(b) The ability to teach the processes and crosscutting concepts common to thenatural Earth, biological, ] and physical sciences;

(c) The application of key science principles to solve practical problems; and

(d) A "systems" understanding of the natural world.

(6) Understanding of the contributions and significance of science, including:

(a) Its social, cultural, and economic significance;

(b) The relationship of science to mathematics, the design process, and technology; and

(c) The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

8VAC20-543-120. Elementary education preK-6.

The program in elementary education preK-6 may require that the candidate has completed an undergraduate major in interdisciplinary studies (focusing on the areas of English, mathematics, history and social sciences, and science) or in Virginia's core academic areas of English, mathematics, history and social sciences(i.e. ],such as ] history, government, geography, and economics) ], or science and demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Methods.

a. Understanding of the needed knowledge, skills,dispositions, ] and processes to support learners in achievement of Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning in English, mathematics, history and social science, science, and computerand ] technology;

b. Understanding of current research on the brain, its role in learning, and implications for instruction;

c. The ability to integrate English, mathematics, science, health, history and social sciences, art, music, drama, movement, and technology in learning experiences;

d. The use of differentiated instruction and flexible groupings to meet the needs of learners at different stages of development, abilities, and achievement;

e. The use of appropriate methods, including those in visual and performing arts, to help learners develop knowledge and basic skills, sustain intellectual curiosity, and problem-solve;

f. The ability to utilize effective classroom and behavior management skills through methods that build responsibility and self-disciplinepromote self-regulation, ] and maintain a positive learning environment;

g. The ability to modify and manage learning environments and experiences to meet the individual needs of children, including children with disabilities, gifted children,and ] childrenwith limited proficiency in English who are English learners ], and children with diverse cultural needs;

h. The ability to use formal and informal assessments to diagnose needs, plan and modify instruction, and record student progress;

i. A commitment to professional growth and development through reflection, collaboration, and continuous learning;

j. The ability to analyze, evaluate, and apply quantitative and qualitative research; and

k. Understanding of the Virginia Standards of Learning for Computer Technology and the ability to use technology as a tool for teaching, learning, research, and communication.; and

l. The ability to adapt task and interactions to maximize language development, conceptual understanding, and skill competence within each child's zone of proximal development. ]

2. Knowledge and skills.

a. Reading and English. Understanding of the content, knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning for English, ] including communication (speaking, listening, and media literacy), reading, writing, and research and how these standards provide the core for teaching English in grades preK-6( or ] elementary licensure) ].

(1) Assessment and diagnostic teaching. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the use of both formal and informal assessment as screening diagnostic, and progress monitoring measures for the components of reading:phoneme phonemic ] awareness, letter recognition, decoding, fluency, vocabulary, reading level, and comprehension; and

(b) Be proficient in the ability to use diagnostic data to inform instruction for acceleration, intervention, remediation, and differentiation.

(2) Communication: speaking, listening, and media literacy. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching communication(, such as ] speaking, listening, and media literacy) ];

(b) Be proficient in developing students' phonological awareness skills;

(c) Demonstrate the ability to teach students to identify the characteristics of and apply critical thinking to media messages and to facilitate students' proficiency in using various forms of media to collaborate and communicate;

(d) Demonstrate effective strategies for facilitating the learning of standard English by speakers of other languages and dialects; and

(e) Demonstrate the ability to promote creative thinking and expression, such as through storytelling, drama, choral and oral reading, etc ].

(3) Reading and literature. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in explicit and systematic phonics instruction, including an understanding of sound and symbol relationships, syllables, phonemes, morphemes, word analysis, and decoding skills;

(b) Be proficient in strategies to increase vocabulary and concept development;

(c) Be proficient in the structure of the English language, including an understanding of syntax and semantics;

(d) Be proficient in reading comprehension strategies for both fiction and nonfiction text, including questioning, predicting, inferencing, summarizing, clarifying, evaluating, and making connections;

(e) Demonstrate the ability to support students to read with fluency, accuracy, and meaningful expression (prosody);

(f) Demonstrate the ability to develop comprehension skills in all content areas;

(g) Demonstrate the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of literature;

(h) Understand the importance of promoting independent reading by selecting fiction and nonfiction texts of appropriate yet engaging topics and reading levels; and

(i) Demonstrate effective strategies for teaching students to view, interpret, analyze, and represent information and concepts in visual form with or without the spoken or written word.

(4) Writing. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching writing, including the domains of composing and written expression,and ] usage and mechanics and the writing process of planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing;

(b) Understand the stages of spelling development, promoting the generalization of spelling study to writing, and be proficient in systematic spelling instruction, including awareness of the purpose and limitations of "invented spelling";

(c) Demonstrate the ability to teach students to write cohesively for a variety of purposes and to provide instruction on the writing process: planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing in the narrative, descriptive, persuasive, and explanative modes; and

(d) Demonstrate the ability to facilitate student research and related skills such as accessing information, evaluating the validity of sources, citing sources, and synthesizing information.

(5) Technology. The individual shall demonstrate the ability to guide students in their use of technology for both process and product as they work with reading, writing, and research.

b. Mathematics.

(1) Understanding of the mathematics relevant to the content identified in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching mathematics in grades preK-6. Experiences with practical applications and the use of appropriate technology and concrete materials should be used within the following content:

(a) Number systems and their structure, basic operations, and properties;

(b) Elementary number theory, ratio, proportion, and percent;

(c) Algebra:fundamental idea of equality; ] operations with monomials and polynomials; algebraic fractions; linear and quadratic equations and inequalities and linear systems of equations and inequalities; radicals and exponents; arithmetic and geometric sequences and series; algebraic and trigonometric functions; and transformations among graphical, tabular, and symbolic forms of functions;

(d) Geometry: geometric figures, their properties, relationships,and ] the Pythagorean Theorem; deductive and inductive reasoning; perimeter, area, and surface area of two-dimensional and three-dimensional figures; coordinate and transformational geometry; and constructions;and ]

(e) Probability and statistics: permutations and combinations; experimental and theoretical probability;prediction; data collection and ] graphical representations including box-and-whisker plots;and data analysis and interpretation for predictions; ] measures of center,spread of data, variability, ] range, and normal distribution; and

(f) Computer science: terminology, simple programming, and software applications ].

(2) Understanding of the sequentialand developmental ] nature of mathematicsand vertical progression of mathematical standards ].

(3) Understanding of the multiple representations of mathematical concepts and procedures.

(4) Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - reasoning mathematically, solving problems, communicating mathematics effectively, making mathematical connections, and using mathematicalmodels and ] representations - at different levels of complexity.

(5) Understanding of the contributions of different cultures toward the development of mathematics and the role of mathematics in culture and society.

(6) Understanding of therole of technology and the ability to appropriate ] useof ] calculators andcomputers technology ] in the teaching and learning of mathematics, including virtual manipulatives ].

(7) Understanding of and the ability to use strategies to teach mathematics to diverse learners. ]

c. History and social sciences.

(1) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of history and the social sciences disciplines as defined in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the necessary foundation for teaching history and social sciences, including in:

(a) History.

(i) The contributions of ancient civilizations to modern social and political institutions;

(ii) Major events in Virginia history from 1607 to the present;

(iii) Key individuals, documents, and events in United States history; and

(iv) The evolution of America's constitutional republic and its ideas, institutions, and practices.

(b) Geography.

(i) The use of maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information;

(ii) The relationship between human activity and the physical environment in the community and the world; and

(iii) Physical processes that shape the surface of the earth.

(c) Civics.

(i) The privileges and responsibilities of good citizenship and the importance of the rule of law for the protection of individual rights;

(ii) The process of making laws in the United States and the fundamental ideals and principles of a republican form of government;

(iii) The understanding that Americans are a people of diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions, who are united by basic principles of a republican form of government and a common identity as Americans; and

(iv) Local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia.

(d) Economics.

(i) The basic economic principles that underlie the United States market economy;

(ii) The role of the individual and how economic decisions are made in the market place; and

(iii) The role of government in the structure of the United States economy.

(2) Understanding of the nature of history and social sciences and how the study of the disciplines assists students in developingcritical thinking skills in helping them to understand historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision-making, and responsible citizenship by ]:

(a)The relationship between past and present Using artifacts and primary and secondary sources to understand events in history ];

(b)The use of primary sources such as artifacts, letters, photographs, and newspapers Using geographic skills to explain the interaction of people, places, and events to support an understanding of events in history ];

(c)How events in history are shaped both by the ideas and actions of people Using charts, graphs, and pictures to determine characteristics of people, places, and events in history ];

(d)Diverse cultures and shared humanity Asking appropriate questions and summarizing points to answer a question ];

(e) Civic participation in a democracy; and

(f) The relationship between history, literature, art, and music.

(e) Comparing and contrasting people, places, and events in history;

(f) Recognizing direct cause and effect relationships in history;

(g) Explaining connections across time and place;

(h) Using a decision-making model to identify costs and benefits of a specific choice made;

(i) Practicing good citizenship skills and respect for rules and laws, and participating in classroom activities; and

(j) Developing fluency in content vocabulary and comprehension of verbal, written, and visual sources. ]

d. Science.

(1) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, andprocesses practices ] of the four core science disciplinesof Earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics ] as defined in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these standards provide a sound foundation for teaching science in the elementary grades.

(2) Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, including thefollowing ]:

(a) Function of research design and experimentation;

(b) Role and nature of the theory in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

(c) Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling, argumentation with evidence, and constructing explanations;

(d) Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

(e) Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity, including peer review; and

(f) Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

(3) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, andprocesses practices ] forconducting ] an active elementary science program including the ability to:

(a) Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

(b) Implement classroom, field, ] and laboratory safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

(c) Conduct research projects and experiments, including applications of the design process and technology;

(d) Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

(e) Organize key science content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

(f) Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

(g) Evaluate instructional materials, technologies, and teaching practices;

(h) Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

(i) Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance in science; and

(j) Ensure student competence in science.

(4) Understanding of the content,processes, and ] skills, and practices ] of the fourcore ] science areas, including Earth sciences, biology, chemistry, and physics supporting the teaching of preK-6 science as defined by the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and equivalent course work reflecting each of the four core science areas.

(5) Understanding of the core scientific disciplines of Earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics to ensure:

(a) The placement of the four core scientific disciplines in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

(b) The ability to teach theprocesses skills, practices, ] and crosscutting concepts common to the natural and physical sciences;

(c) The application of key science principles to solve practical problems; and

(d) A "systems" understanding of the natural world.

(6) Understanding of the contributions and significance of science including:

(a) Its social, cultural, and economic significance;

(b) The relationship of science to mathematics, the design process, and technology; and

(c) The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

8VAC20-543-130. Middle education 6-8.

The program in middle education 6-8 with at least one area of academic preparation shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Methods.

a. Understanding of the required knowledge, skills, and processes to support learners in achievement of the Virginia Standards of Learning for grades 6-8;

b. The use of appropriate methods, including direct instruction and inquiry-based instructional methods, to help learners develop knowledge and skills, sustain intellectual curiosity, and solve problems;

c. The ability to plan and teach collaboratively to facilitate interdisciplinary learning;

d. The use of differentiated instruction and flexible groupings to meet the needs of preadolescents at different stages of development, abilities, and achievement;

e. The ability to utilize effective classroom and behavior management skills through methods that build responsibility and self-discipline and maintain a positive learning environment;

f. The ability to modify and manage learning environments and experiences to meet the individual needs of preadolescents, including children with disabilities, gifted children, and childrenwith limited proficiency in the English language who are English learners; ]

g. The ability to use formal and informal assessments to diagnose needs, plan and modify instruction, and record student progress;

h. A commitment to professional growth and development through reflection, collaboration, and continuous learning;

i. The ability to analyze, evaluate, apply, and conduct quantitative and qualitative research;

j. The ability to use technology as a tool for teaching, learning, research, and communication;

k. An understanding of how to apply a variety of school organizational structures, schedules, groupings, and classroom formats appropriately for middle level learners;

l. Skill in promoting the development of all students' abilities for academic achievement and continued learning; and

m. The ability to use reading in the content area strategies appropriate to text and student needs.

2. English.

a. [ Be proficient in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching writing, including the domains of composing and written expression, usage and mechanics, and the writing process of planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing;

a. b. ] Possession of the skills necessary to teach the writing process, to differentiate among the forms of writing (narrative, descriptive, informational, and persuasive), and to use computers and other available technology;

b. c. ] Understanding of and knowledge in grammar, usage, and mechanics and its integration in writing;

c. d. ] Understanding and the nature and development of language and its impact on vocabulary development and spelling;

d. e. ] Understanding of and knowledge in techniques and strategies to enhance reading comprehension and fluency;

e. f. ] Understanding of and knowledge in the instruction of speaking, listening, collaboration, and media literacy;

f. g. ] Knowledge of varied works from current and classic young adult literature appropriate for English instruction of fiction, nonfiction, and poetry; and

g. h. ] Skills necessary to teach research techniques, including evaluating, organizing, crediting, and synthesizing information.

3. History and social sciences.

a. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of history and the social science disciplines as defined by the Virginia History and Social Sciences Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching history and social sciences, including in:

(1) United States history.

(a) The evolution of the American constitutional republic and its ideas, institutions, and practices from the colonial period to the present; the American Revolution, including ideas and principles preserved in significant Virginia and United States historical documents as required by § 22.1-201 of the Code of Virginia (the Declaration of American Independence; the general principles of the Constitution of the United States; the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom; the charters of The Virginia Company of April 10, 1606, May 23, 1609, and March 12, 1612; and the Virginia Declaration of Rights); and historical challenges to the American political system(i.e. ],including ] slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and civil rights) ];

(b) The influence of religious traditions on the American heritage and on contemporary American society;

(c) The changing role of America around the world; the relationship between domestic affairs and foreign policy; and the global political and economic interactions;

(d) The influence of immigration on American political, social, and economic life;

(e) Origins, effects, aftermath and significance of the two world wars, the Korean and Vietnam conflicts, and the post-Cold War era;

(f) Social, political, and economic transformations in American life during the 20th century; and

(g) Tensions between liberty and equality, liberty and order, region and nation, individualism and the common welfare, and cultural diversity and civic unity.

(2) World history.

(a) The political, philosophical, and cultural legacies of ancient, American, Asian, African, and European civilizations;

(b) Origins, ideas, and institutions of Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, Confucianism and Taoism, and Shinto, Buddhist, and Islamic religious traditions;

(c) Medieval society and institutions, relations with Islam, feudalism, and the evolution of representative government;

(d) The social, political, and economic contributions of selected civilizations in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas;

(e) The culture and ideas of the Renaissance and the Reformation, European exploration, and the origins of capitalism and colonization;

(f) The cultural ideas of the Enlightenment and the intellectual revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries;

(g) The sources, results, and influence of the American and French revolutions;

(h) The social consequences of the Industrial Revolution and its impact on politics and culture;

(i) The global influence of European ideologies of the 19th and 20th centuries(liberalism, republicanism, social democracy, Marxism, nationalism, Communism, Fascism, and Nazism) ]; and

(j) The origins, effects, aftermath, and significance of the two world wars.

(3) Civics and economics.

(a) Essential characteristics of limited and unlimited governments;

(b) Importance of the rule of law for the protection of individual rights and the common good;

(c) Rights and responsibilities of American citizenship;

(d) Nature and purposes of constitutions and alternative ways of organizing constitutional governments;

(e) American political culture;

(f) Values and principles of the American constitutional republic;

(g) Structures, functions, and powers of local and state government;

(h) Importance of citizen participation in the political process in local and state government;

(i) Local government and civic instruction specific to Virginia;

(j) Structures, functions, and powers of the national government; and

(k) The structure and function of the United States market economy as compared with other economies.

b. Understanding of the nature of history and social sciences and how the study of these disciplines helps students go beyond critical thinking skills to help them appreciate:

(1) The significance of the past to their lives and to society;

(2) Diverse cultures and shared humanity;

(3) How things happen, how they change, and how human intervention matters;

(4) The interplay of change and continuity;

(5) Historical cause and effect;

(6) The importance of individuals who have made a difference in history and the significance of personal character to the future of society;

(7) The relationship among history, geography, civics, and economics; and

(8) The difference between fact and conjecture, evidence and assertion, and the importance of framing useful questions.

4. Mathematics.

a. Understanding of the knowledge and skills necessary to teach the Virginia Mathematics Standards of Learning and how curriculum may be organized to teach these standards to diverse learners;

b. Understanding of a core knowledge base of concepts and procedures within the discipline of mathematics, including the following strands: number and number sense; computation and estimation; geometry and measurement; statistics and probability; and patterns, functions, and algebra;

c. Understanding of the mathematics relevant to the content identified in the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching mathematics in the middle grades. Experiences with practical applications and the use of appropriate technology and manipulatives should be used within the following content:

(1) Number systems and their structure, basic operations, and properties;

(2) Elementary number theory, ratio, proportion, and percent;

(3) Algebra: fundamental idea of equality; operations with monomials and polynomials; algebraic fractions; linear and quadratic equations and inequalities and linear systems of equations and inequalities; radicals and exponents; arithmetic and geometric sequences and series; algebraic and trigonometric functions; and transformations among graphical, tabular, and symbolic forms of functions;

(4) Geometry: geometric figures, their properties, relationships,and ] the Pythagorean Theorem; deductive and inductive reasoning; perimeter, area, and surface area of two-dimensional and three-dimensional figures; coordinate and transformational geometry; and constructions;

(5) Probability and statistics: permutations and combinations; experimental and theoretical probability; data collection and graphical representations, including box-and-whisker plots; data analysis and interpretation for predictions; measures of center; spread of data, variability, range, standard deviation, and normal distributions.

d. Understanding of the sequential nature of mathematics, the vertical progression of mathematical standards,  ] and the mathematical structures inherent in the content strands;

e. Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - becoming mathematical problem solvers, reasoning mathematically, communicating mathematically, making mathematical connections, and representing, modeling and describing mathematical ideas, generalizations, and relationships using a variety of methods- ] at different levels of complexity;

f. Understanding of the contributions of various individuals and cultures toward the development of mathematics and the role of mathematics in culture and society;

g. Understanding of the major current curriculum studies and trends in mathematics;

h. Understanding of the appropriate use of calculators and technology and the ability to use graphing utilities in the teaching and learning of mathematics, including virtual manipulatives;

i. Understanding of and the ability to select, adapt, evaluate and use instructional materials and resources, including professional journals and technology;

j. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies for managing, assessing, and monitoring student learning, including diagnosing student errors; and

k. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies to teach mathematics to diverse adolescent learners.

5. Science.

a. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, andprocesses practices ] of thefour core science disciplines of ] Earth, life, and physical sciences science, biology, chemistry, and physics ] as defined in the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these provide a sound foundation for teaching science in the middle grades.

b. Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, including:

(1) Function of research design and experimentation;

(2) Roleand nature ] ofscience the theory ] in explaining and predicting events and phenomena; and

(3) [ Science skills of data analysis, measurement, observation, prediction, and experimentation. Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling, argumentation with evidence, and constructing explanations;

(4) Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

(5) Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity, including peer review; and

(6) Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge. ]

c. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, andprocesses practices ] for an active middle school science program, including the ability to:

(1) Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

 [ (2) Conduct research projects and experiments;

(3) (2) ] Implementclassroom, field, and laboratory ] safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

(3) Conduct research projects and experiments, including applications of the design process and technology;

(4) Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources; ]

(4) (5) ] Organize key science content, skills, and practices ] into meaningful units of instructionthat actively engage students in learning ];

(5) (6) ] Adapt instruction to diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

(6) (7) ] Evaluate instructional materials,instruction technologies ], andstudent achievement; and teaching practices;

(8) Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning; ]

(7) (9) ] Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performancein science; and

(10) Ensure student competence in middle school science ].

d. Understanding of the content, processes, and skills of thefour core areas of science, including ] Earth sciences, biology, chemistry, and physics supporting the teaching of middle school science as defined by the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and equivalent to academic course work in each of thesefour ] core science areas.

e. Understanding of the core scientific disciplinesof Earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics ] to ensure:

(1) The placement of science in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

(2) The ability to teach theskills, ] [ processes practices, ] andorganize crosscutting ] concepts common to the natural and physical sciences;and ]

(3)Student achievement in science. The application of key principles in science to solve practical problems; and

(4) A "systems" understanding of the natural world. ]

f. Understanding of the contributions and significance of science to include:

(1) Its socialand, ] cultural, and economic ] significance;

(2) The relationship of science tomathematics, the design process, and ] technology; and

(3) The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

Article 3
PreK-12 Endorsements, Special Education, Secondary Grades 6-12 Endorsements, and Adult Education

8VAC20-543-140. Professional studies requirements for preK-12 endorsements, special education, secondary grades 6-12 endorsements, and adult education.

Professional studies requirements for preK-12 endorsements, special education, secondary grades 6-12 endorsements, and adult education:

1. Human development and learning (birth through adolescence).

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the physical, social, emotional, speech and language, and intellectual development of children and the ability to use this understanding in guiding learning experiences and relating meaningfully to students.

b. The interaction of children with individual differences - economic, social, racial, ethnic, religious, physical, and mental cognitive ] - should be incorporated to include skills contributing to an understanding of developmental disabilities and developmental issues related, ] but not limited to, ] low socioeconomic status,; ] attention deficit disorders,; ] developmental disabilities,; ] gifted education including the use of multiple criteria to identify gifted students,; ] substance abuse,; trauma, including ] child abuse, andneglect, and other adverse childhood experiences; and ] family disruptions.

2. Curriculum and instruction.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology;varied and ] effectivemethods of ] communication with and among students; selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies; selection, development, and use of appropriate curricula, methodologies, and materials that support and enhance student learning and reflect the research on unique, age-appropriate, and culturally relevant curriculum and pedagogy.

b. Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instructionmust shall ] be included.

c. Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners, includinglimited English proficient students English learners ], gifted and talented students, and students with disabilities, and appropriate for the level of endorsement sought shall be included.

d. Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student academic progress and effective preparation for theVirginia ] Standards of Learning assessments.

e. Methods of improving communication between schools and families and ways of increasing familyinvolvement engagement ] in student learning at home and in school and the Virginia Standards of Learning shall be included.

f. Demonstrated proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction shall be included.

g.Persons seeking initial licensure as teachers and persons seeking licensure renewal as teachers for the first time shall complete study Study ] in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Servicesthat are relevant to the specific teacher licensure routes and training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators must be included ].

h. Curriculum and instruction for secondary grades 6-12 endorsements shall include middle and secondary education.

i ] Pre-student teaching experiences( or ] field experiences) ] should be evident within these skills. For preK-12, field experiences shall be at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels.

3. Assessment of and for learning.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding and application of creating, selecting, and implementing valid and reliable classroom-based assessments of student learning, including formative and summative assessments. Assessments designed and adapted to meet the needs of diverse learnersmust shall ] be addressed.

b. Analytical skills necessary to inform ongoing planning and instruction, as well as to understand and help students understand their own progress and growthmust shall ] be included.

c. Skills also include the ability to understand the relationships among assessment, instruction, and monitoring student progress to include student performance measures in grading practices, the ability to interpret valid assessments using a variety of formats in order to measure student attainment of essential skills in a standards-based environment, and the ability to analyze assessment data to make decisions about how to improve instruction and student performance.

d. Understanding of state assessment programs and accountability systems, including assessments used for student achievement goal setting as related to teacher evaluation and determining student academic progress, including knowledge of legal and ethical aspects of assessment shall be included ].

e.Skills include Knowledge of legal and ethical aspects of assessment and skills for ] developing familiarity with assessments used in preK-12 education(e.g. such as ], diagnostic, college admission exams, industry certifications, placement assessments).

4.The Foundations of education and the ] teaching profession.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding of the historical, philosophical, and sociological foundations underlying the role, development, and organization of public education in the United States.

b. Attentionmust shall ] be given to the legal status of teachers and students, including federal and state laws and regulations; school as an organization and culture; and contemporary issues and current trends in education, including the impact of technology on education. Local, state, and federal governance of schools, including the roles of teachers and schools in communities,must shall ] be included.

c. Professionalism and ethical standards, as well as personal integrity must be addressed.

d. Knowledge and understanding of Virginia's Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachersmust shall ] be included.

5. Classroom and behavior management.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of and application of research-based classroom and behavior management techniques, classroom community building, positive behavior supports, and individual interventions, including techniques that promote emotional well-being and teach and maintain behavioral conduct and skills consistent with norms, standards, and rules of the educational environment.

b. This area shall address diverse approaches based uponculturally responsive ] behavioral, cognitive, affective, social, and ecological theory and practice.

c. Approaches should support professionally appropriate practices that promote positive redirection of behavior, development of social skills, and self-discipline.

d. Knowledge and an understanding of various school crisis management and safety plans and the ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environment must be included. The link between classroom management and the students' ages must be understood and demonstrated in techniques used in the classroom.

6.Reading Language and literacy ].

a. Adult education, preK-12, and secondary grades 6-12- ] literacy in the content areas. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart an understanding of vocabulary development and comprehension skills in English, mathematics, science, history and social sciences, and other content areas. Strategies include teaching students how to ask effective questions, summarize and retell both verbally and in writing, and listen effectively. Teaching strategies include literal, interpretive, critical, and evaluative comprehension, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading for adolescent learners.

b. Special education - language acquisition and reading and writing. Skills listed for these endorsement areas represent the minimum competencies that a beginning teacher must be able to demonstrate. These skills are not intended to limit the scope of a beginning teacher's program. Additional knowledge and skills that add to a beginning teacher's competencies to deliver instruction and improve student achievement should be included as part of a quality learning experience.

(1) Language acquisition:. ] Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, ] as well as the complex nature of language acquisition as a precursor to literacy. Language acquisition shall follow the typical development of linguistic competence in the areas of phonetics, semantics, syntax, morphology, phonology, and pragmatics.

(2) Reading and writing:. ] Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, ] as well as the reciprocal nature of reading and writing. Reading shall include phonemicand other phonological ] awareness, concept of print, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension strategies. Writing shall include writing strategies and conventions as supporting the composing and written expression and usage and mechanics domains. Additional skills shall include proficiency in understanding the stages of spelling development, and ] the writing process, as well as ] and the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading.

7. Supervised clinical experiences. The supervised clinical experiences shall be continuous and systematic and comprised of early field experiences with a minimum of 10 weeks ofsuccessful ] full-time student teaching under the supervision of a cooperating teacher with demonstrated effectiveness in the classroom. The summative supervised student teachingexperience shall be in the endorsed area sought and under the supervision of a cooperating teacher with demonstrated effectiveness in the classroom. The summative supervised student teaching ] experience shall include at least 150 clock hours spent in direct teaching at the level of endorsementin a public or accredited nonpublic school ].

If a preK-12 endorsement is sought, teaching activities shall be at the elementary and middle or secondary levels. Individuals seeking the endorsement in library media shall complete the supervised school library media practicum in a school library media setting. Individuals seeking an endorsement in an area of special education shall complete the supervised student teaching experience requirement in the area of special education for which the endorsement is sought. One year of successful full-time teaching experience in the endorsement area in any public school or accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the supervised student teaching experience. A fully licensed, experienced teacher shall be available in the school building to assist a beginning teacher employed through the alternate route.

8VAC20-543-150. Adult education.

The program in adult education shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1.Foundations of adult education;

2. ] Understanding of the nature or psychology of the adult learner or adult development;

2. 3. ] Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes needed for the selection, evaluation, and instructional applications of the methods and materials foradult basic skills adults to become college and career ready ] including:

a. Curriculum development in adult basic education orgeneral educational development (GED) high school equivalency ] instruction;

b.Beginning reading for adults Literacy skills for adults ];

c.Beginning mathematics for adults; Numeracy skills for adults; and ]

d.Reading comprehension for adult education; Workforce skills for adults. ]

e. Foundations of adult education; and

f. Other adult basic skills instruction.

3. 4. ] Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

4. 5. ] Understanding of and proficiency inpedagogy andragogy ] to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes; and

5. 6. ] One semester of supervised successful full-time, or an equivalent number of hours of part-time, experience teaching adults.

8VAC20-543-160. Adult English as a second language (add-on endorsement).

The program in adult English as a second language shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge in the growth and development of the adult learner;

2. Knowledgeof teaching methods and materials in adult English as a second language in methods and materials in the teaching of English to adult speakers of other languages ];

3.Knowledge in adult language acquisition Skills in the teaching of reading and writing to include (i) the five areas of reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension; (ii) similarities and differences between reading in a first language and reading in a second language; and (iii) a balanced literacy approach; ]

4. Knowledgeof assessment methods in adult English as a second language instruction in adult second language acquisition ];

5. Knowledge of assessment methods in instruction of English to adult speakers of other languages; ]

5. 6. ] Skills in teaching the adult learner;

6. 7. ] Understanding of the effects of sociocultural variables in the instructional setting;

7. 8. ] Skills in teaching a variety of adult learning styles;

8. 9. ] Proficiency in cross-cultural communication;

9. 10. ] Proficiency in speaking, listening, and reading;

10. 11. ] Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing; and

11. 12. ] Understanding of and proficiency inpedagogy andragogy ] to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-170. Career and technical education – agricultural education.

The program in agricultural education shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the importance and relationship of and contribution to the agricultural industry to the community, state, nation, and global economy including:

a. Knowledge of the fundamental historical foundation of the state and national agricultural industry;

b. Knowledge of contemporary components of the United States food and fiber system; and

c. Knowledge of the career opportunities in agriculture and related fields.

2. Applying the knowledge, skills, and processes involved in plant and soil sciences, including:

a. Production, use, and marketing of row crops, specialty crops, forage crops, fruits, small grains, vegetables, and cereal crops; and

b. Soil and water management.

3. Applying the knowledge, skills, and processes involved in the production, management, and marketing of animals, including:

a. Production of cattle, swine, poultry, dairy cows, sheep, aquaculture species, goats, and horses; and

b. Care and management of horses and small companion animals.

4. Applying knowledge, skills, and processes involved in agricultural mechanics and technology, including:

a. Set up safe operation, repair, and maintenance of equipment, tools, and measuring devices used in agriculture;

b. Knowledge of energy transfer systems used in agriculture;

c. Knowledge of properties of metals used in tools and equipment; and

d. Knowledge of alternative energy sources, fuels, and lubricants from agricultural and natural resources.

5. Understanding of agricultural economics, including the various markets, international trade, government policies, and the operation and management of various agricultural businesses.

6. Applying the knowledge, skills, and processes involved in natural resources, including:

a. Care, management, and conservation of soil, air, water, energy, and wildlife; and

b. Production and management of the forest.

7. Understanding the relationship of agriculture to community resource and partnership development, including:

a. Local agricultural program advisory committees;

b. Adult education programs;

c. Agricultural enterprises;

d. Student work-based learning opportunities;

e. Public and private programs and resources; and

f. Civic organizations.

8. Implementing classroom management techniques and pedagogical knowledge necessary to:

a. Understand the biological, physical, chemical, and applied sciences to practical solutions of agricultural problems;

b. Teach agricultural competencies needed by secondary students to be successful in continuing their education and entering a related career pathway;

c. Develop effective leadership skills through the Future Farmers of America (FFA) student organization as an integral part of instruction; and

d. Apply knowledge and skills for the administration of the agricultural program, including managing budgets, maintaining student performance records and equipment inventories.

9. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

10. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

11. Understanding of and proficiency in the use of instructional technologies.

12. Demonstrating and integrating workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities.

13. Ability to plan, deliver, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

8VAC20-543-180. Career and technical education – business and information technology.

The program in business and information technology shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge, skills, and principles of manual and automated accounting, including:

a. Accounting concepts, terminology, and applications;

b. Accounting systems;

c. The basic accounting cycle of source documents, verifications, analyzing, recording, posting, trial balances, and preparing financial statements; and

d. Use of accounting computer software to automate accounting tasks.

2. Knowledge and skills in economics, including:

a. Basic economic concepts and structures;

b. The role of producers and consumers in a market economy;

c. The price system;

d. The many factors that may affect income;

e.A The ] nation's economic goals, including full employment, stable prices, and economic growth;

f. The nation's finance system;

g. How monetary and fiscal policy influence employment, output, and prices;

h. The role of government in a market economy;

i. The global economy; and

j. Distinguishing between trade deficit and trade surplus.

3. Knowledge of the foundations of business selected from the following areas:

a. Business law.

(1) Ability to recognize the legal requirements affecting business organization; and

(2) Ability to apply legal principles to business situations.

b. Business principles.

(1) Ability to identify, explain, and apply contemporary business principles;

(2) Ability to identify and explain the advantages and disadvantages of various business organizational structures; and

(3) Knowledge of the foundations of international business, the global business environment, international business communications, and global business ethics.

c. Management. Understanding and analyzing of basic management functions, tools, theories, and leadership styles to explore and solve problems in business organizations, economics, international business, and human relations issues.

d. Marketing and entrepreneurship.

(1) Understanding of basic marketing concepts in sales techniques, advertising, display, buying, wholesale and retail, distribution, service occupations, market analysis, warehousing, and inventory control; and

(2) Understanding of the unique characteristics of an entrepreneur and the knowledge and skills necessary for an entrepreneurial venture.

e. Finance.

(1) Knowledge about and skills in the areas of managing personal finance and budgeting, saving and investing, buying goods and services, banking and financial institutions, and earning and reporting income needed for sound financial decision making; and

(2) Understanding of the basic concepts of economics, insurance, credit, consumer skills, and other related topics.

4. Knowledge and skills in all of the following communications and information technologies:

a. Communications.

(1) Ability to communicate in a clear, courteous, concise, and correct manner for personal and professional purposes through the foundations of listening, writing, reading, speaking, nonverbal cues, and following written and oral directions;

(2) Ability to use information systems and technology to expedite and enhance the effectiveness of communications and telecommunications; and

(3) Ability to gather, evaluate, use, and cite information from information technology sources.

b. Impact of technology on society and the individual( or ] digital citizenship) ]. Knowledge to assess the impact of information technology on society.

c. Computer architecture. Ability to describe current and emerging computer architecture; configure, install, and upgrade hardware; and diagnose and repair hardware problems.

d. Operating systems, environments, and utilities. Ability to identify, evaluate, select, install, use, upgrade, customize, and diagnose and solve problems with various types of operating systems, environments, and utilities.

e. Application software(e.g. ],such as ] word processing; database; spreadsheet; graphics; web design; desktop, presentation, multimedia, and imaging; and emerging technologies) ].

(1) Ability to identify, evaluate, select, install, use, upgrade, and customize application software; and

(2) Ability to diagnose and solve problems resulting from an application software's installation and use.

f. Input technologies. Ability to use input devices and technologies(e.g. ],such as ] touch keyboarding, speech recognition, handwriting recognition, hand-held devices, touch screen or mouse, scanning, and other emerging input technologies) ] to enter, manipulate, and format text and data.

g. Database management systems. Ability to use, plan, develop, and maintain database management systems. Ability to diagnose and solve problems using database management systems.

h. Programming and application development. Ability to help students design, develop, test, and implement multi-platform(e.g. ],such as ] mobile, different operating systems) ] programs that solve business problems.

i. Networking and communications infrastructures.

(1) Facilitate students' development in the skills to design, deploy, and administer networks and communications systems;

(2) Facilitate students' ability to use, evaluate, and deploy communications and networking applications; and

(3) Facilitate students' ability to analyze networks for security vulnerabilities and develop and deploy appropriate security plans and applications.

j. Information management.

(1) Ability to plan the selection and acquisition of information technologies (hardware and software);

(2) Ability to instruct students in the development of technical and interpersonal skills and knowledge to support the user community; and

(3) Ability to describe, analyze, develop, and follow policies for managing privacy and ethical issues in organizations and in a technology-based society.

k. Web development and multimedia;

(1) Ability to instruct students in the design and development of web applications based on industry standards and principles of good design;

(2) Ability to instruct students in the design and development of multimedia applications; and

(3) Ability to design and develop multimedia and web-based applications for multiple operating systems and environments( , such as ] mobile, desktop, cloud) ].

l. Project management.

(1) Understand the components of project management and its importance to business and information technology.; and ]

(2) Use project management tools to coordinate information technology, business, or related projects and manage teamwork.

5. Knowledge and skills necessary to teach leadership skills, organize and manage an effective co-curricular student organization, and implement the organization's activities as an integral part of instruction.

6. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8. Knowledge and skills necessary to apply basic mathematical operations to solve business problems.

9. Demonstration and integration of workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities.

10. Ability to plan, deliver, evaluate, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

8VAC20-543-190. Career and technical education – family and consumer sciences.

The program in family and consumer sciences shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge of the human growth and developmental processes throughout the lifespan, including infancy, childhood, preadolescence, adolescence, adulthood and aging, and in creating and maintaining an environment in which family members develop and interact as individuals and as members of a group;

2. Knowledge of the decision-making processes related to housing, furnishings, and equipment for individuals and families with attention given to special needs and the diversity of individuals;

3. The ability to plan, purchase, and prepare food choices that promote nutrition and wellness and safety and sanitation;

4. Knowledge of the management of resources to achieve individual and family goals at different stages of the life span and the family life cycle;

5. Knowledge of the sociological, psychological, and physiological aspects of apparel and textiles for individuals and families;

6. Knowledge of the management of families, community, work, and their interrelationships;

7. Knowledge of occupational skill development and career planning;

8. Knowledge of the use of critical science and creative skills to address problems in diverse family, community, and work environments;

9. Knowledge and skills necessary to teach leadership, communication, interpersonal problem-solving, and ethical decision-making skills;

10. The ability to plan, develop, teach, supervise, and evaluate programs in occupational programs at the secondary, postsecondary, and adult levels;

11. The ability to organize and implement Family, Career, and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA) programs as an integral part of classroom instruction;

12. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

13. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes;

14. Demonstrate and integrate workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities; and

15. Ability to plan, deliver, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

8VAC20-543-200. Career and technical education – health and medical sciences.

The program in health and medical sciences shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge of teaching methods.

a. Instructional planning - ability to determine the needs and interests of students;

b. Organizing instruction - ability to prepare teacher-made instructional materials for clinical laboratory experience;

c. Instructional execution - ability to use techniques for simulating patient care and demonstrating manipulative skills;

d. Application of technology in the classroom; and

e. Instructional evaluation - ability to determine grades for students in classroom and clinical settings.

2. Knowledge of program management.

a. Planning - ability to organize an occupational advisory committee;

b. Curriculum development - ability to keep informed of current curriculum content and patient care practices;

c. Planning and organizing teaching and occupational laboratory for laboratory simulations and demonstrations;

d. Understanding of the process for issuing credentials for health workers;

e. Understanding of the health care industry; and

f. Evaluation - ability to conduct a student follow-up study.

3. Knowledge and skills necessary to teach leadership skills, organize and manage an effective co-curricular student organization, and implement the organization's activities as an integral part of instruction.

4. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

5. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

6. Demonstrate and integrate workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities.

7. Ability to plan, deliver, evaluate, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

8VAC20-543-210. Career and technical education – marketing education.

The program in marketing shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge of marketing processes and the environment; management and supervision; economics; merchandising and operations; advertising and promotion; sales and selling; communication theory and techniques; consumer behavior; international( or ] global) ] marketing; finance; accounting or marketing mathematics; and technology applications through a variety of educational and work experiences;

2. Knowledge of skills and principles common across the marketing pathways: channel management; marketing-information management; market planning; pricing; product and service management promotion; and selling;

3. Ability to plan, develop, and administer a comprehensive marketing program for high school students and adults;

4. Ability to organize and use a variety of instructional methods and techniques for teaching youths and adults;

5. Ability to conduct learning programs that include a variety of career objectives and recognize and respond to individual differences in students;

6. Ability to assist learners of different abilities in developing skills needed to qualify for further education and employment;

7. Knowledge of occupational skill development and career planning for opportunities in marketing, merchandising, hospitality, and management;

8. Knowledge and skills necessary to teach leadership skills, organize and manage an effective co-curricular student organization( , such as ] DECA) ] and implement the organization's activities as an integral part of instruction;

9. Application of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

10. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes;

11. Application of and proficiency in instructional technology and current technological applications as these relate to marketing functions;

12. Demonstration and integration of workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities;

13. Ability to plan, deliver, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction, such as: ] internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship; and

14. Ability to apply mathematical operations to solve marketing problems.

8VAC20-543-220. Career and technical education – technology education.

The program in technology education shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding the nature of technology, including knowledge of thefollowing ]:

a. Characteristics and scope of technology;

b. Core concepts of physical, biological, and informational technologies; and

c. Relationships among technologies, including the natural intersects between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and other fields.

2. Understanding the relationships between technology and society, including thefollowing ]:

a. Sociocultural, political, and economic influences of technology;

b. Local and global effects of technological products and systems on the environment;

c. Role that society plays in the use and development of technology; and

d. Influence of technology on human history.

3. Comprehension and utilization of engineering design, including thefollowing ]:

a. Attributes of technological design;

b. Role of constraints, optimization, and predictive analysis in engineering design;

c. Requirement of problem-solving, critical thinking, and technical writing skills; and

d. Intentional integration of mathematics and science concepts and practices.

4. Ability to succeed in a technological world, including a capacity to:

a. Employ the design process in the engineering of technological products and systems;

b. Determine and control the behavior of technological products and systems;

c. Use and maintain technological products and systems; and

d. Assess the impacts and consequences of technological products and systems.

5. Ability to select and use the major physical, biological, and informational technologies of the designed world, including thefollowing ]:

a. Principles and processes characteristic of contemporary and emerging transportation, manufacturing, and construction technologies, inclusive of research, engineering design and testing, planning, organization, resources, and modes of distribution;

b. Range of enabling technologies that utilize fundamental biological principles and cellular processes characteristic of traditional and modern biotechnical technologies, including research, design-based engineering and testing of agricultural products, biotechnical systems, and associated medical technologies;

c. Purpose, processes, and resources involved with creating, encoding, transmitting, receiving, decoding, storage, retrieval, and understanding of information data using communication systems in a global information society; and

d. Concept, laws, forms, and characteristics of energy as a fundamental requirement of the technological world, inclusive of the resultant power and work requisites, both renewable and nonrenewable, of the tools, machines, products, and systems within.

6. Knowledge, skills, and processes required for teaching in a STEM laboratory environment, including:

a. Laboratory safety rules, regulations, processes, and procedures;

b. Ability to organize content and practices into effective instructional units;

c. Ability to deliver instruction to diverse learners;

d. Ability to evaluate student achievement, curriculum materials, instructional strategies, and teaching practices;

e. Ability to incorporate new and emerging instructional technologies to enhance student performance across the varied domains of knowledge - cognitive, affective, and psychomotor; and

f. Ability to convey the concepts and procedures for developing a learner's technological literacy specifically and integrative STEM literacy in general.

7. Demonstration of the knowledge, abilities, and capacity necessary to teach leadership skills, organize and manage an effective co-curricular student organization, and implement the organization's activities as an integral part of instruction.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in formal technical writing.

9. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

10. Demonstrate and integrate workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities.

11. Ability to plan, deliver, evaluate, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

8VAC20-543-230. Career and technical education – trade and industrial education.

The program in trade and industrial education shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of industrial education and its role in the development of technically competent, socially responsible, and culturally sensitive individuals with potential for leadership in skilled technical work and professional studies;

2. Understanding of and the ability to relate experiences designed to develop skills in the interpretation and implementation of industrial education philosophy in accordance with changing demand;

3. The knowledge and experience of systematically planning, executing, and evaluating individual and group instruction;

4. Knowledge of the competencies necessary for effective organization and management of laboratory instruction;

5. Knowledge of the competencies necessary for making physical, social, and emotional adjustments in multicultural student-teacher relationships;

6. Knowledge of the competencies necessary for developing and utilizing systematic methods and instruments for appraising and recording student progress in the career and technical educational classroom;

7. Knowledge of the ability to provide technical work experience through cooperative education or provide a method of evaluating previous occupational experience commensurate with the minimum required standard;

8. Knowledge of the competencies and industry credentials necessary to assist students in job placement and in otherwise bridging the gap between education and work;

9. Understanding of the awareness of the human relations factor in industry, with emphasis on the area of cooperation among labor, management, and the schools;

10. Knowledge of the teacher's role in the school and community;

11. Understanding of the content, skills, and techniques necessary to teach a particular trade area;

12. Knowledge of the competencies necessary to organize and manage an effective student organization;

13. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

14. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes;

15. Demonstration and integration of work place readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities; and

16. Understanding of the planning, delivery, and management of work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

8VAC20-543-240. Career and technical education – transition and special needs (add-on endorsement).

The transition and special needs (add-on endorsement) shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge of special needs and transition programs and services, characteristics of students who are disadvantaged, disabled,and ] gifted, and individuals with barriers to educational achievement and employment, including individuals withlimited English proficiency who are English learners ].

2. Knowledge of program development, implementation, and evaluation.

3. Basic understanding of cultural issues pertaining to employment and postsecondary education and training.

4. Understanding of the federal and state laws and regulations pertaining to special education, rehabilitation, and the American with Disabilities Act (42 USC §  ] 12101 et seq.).

5. Understanding and demonstration of the integration of instructional methods, resources, and transition programs for targeted populations in career and technical education, including:

a. Use of learning and teaching styles to plan and deliver differentiated instruction and differentiated assessment;

b. Knowledge of age appropriate assessments;

c. Use of assessment results to plan individual instruction strategies and assist with long-range and short-term planning;

d. Understanding of required skills that demonstrate college and career readiness;

e. Ability to plan and manage a competency-based education system;

f. Ability to adapt and modify curriculum materials and utilize Universal Design for Learning Principles to meet special student needs;

g. Use of a variety of classroom and behavior management techniques to develop an enhanced learning environment, behavior change techniques, and individual and group instruction;

h. Use of different processes to improve collaboration and develop partnerships with colleagues, parents, and the community to include service agencies and businesses; and

i. Ability to plan learning experiences that prepare individuals for transition to more advanced education and career development options.

6. Ability to develop, plan, deliver, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction such as community-based instruction, internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

7. Understanding and application of strategies for enabling students to learn all aspects of particular industries - planning, management, finances, technical and production skills, labor and community issues, health and safety, environmental issues, and the technology associated with the specific industry.

8. Ability to articulate career and life planning procedures, transitioning processes and procedures, and career-search techniques.

9. Application of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

10. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

11. Ability to use a variety of technologies to deliver instruction and media to students, parents, teachers, and community partners.

12. Demonstration and integration of workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities.

13. Demonstrate person-centered planning skills.

8VAC20-543-250. Computer science.

The program in computer science shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of mathematical principles that are the basis of many computer applications;

2. Knowledge of the functions, capabilities, and limitations of computers and computer systems;

3. Knowledge of the ethical, moral, and legal issues associated with applications in programming and computer science;

4. Knowledge of programming in at least two widely used programming languages, including definition, structure, and comparison;

5. Knowledge of programming languages including definition, design, comparison, and evaluation;

6. 5. ] Knowledge of computers and computer systems and their applications;

7. 6. ] Knowledge of data structures and algorithms;

8. 7. ] Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing; and

9. 8. ] Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-260. Dance arts preK-12.

The program in dance arts shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the dance arts discipline as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning and how they provide a foundation needed to teach dance arts.

2. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching dance arts to meet the developmental levels and academic needs of students in preK-12, including the following:

a. Knowledge of and experience in planning, developing, administering, and evaluating a program of dance arts education;

b. Knowledge and understanding for teaching dance arts, including performance, creation, and production; dance history and cultural context; analysis, evaluation, and critique; and aesthetics;

c. Ballet, folk, jazz, and modern dance with an area of concentration in one of these areas;

d. Scientific foundations, including human anatomy, kinesiology, and injury prevention and care for dance arts;

e. The relationship of dance arts and culture and the influence of dance on past and present cultures;

f. Knowledge and understanding of technological and artistic copyright laws;

g. Knowledge and understanding of classroom management and safety, including performance and studioand use of toxic art materials in various aspects of dance arts production, performance, and the classroom ];

h. Knowledge of a variety of instructional and assessment strategies to foster, support, and enhance student dance arts learning;

i. Knowledge and understanding of technology, with applications for instruction, resources, artistic expression, administration, assessment, and communication;

j. Knowledge and understanding of appropriate and sensitive attention to diversity and cultural understanding;

k. Knowledge of related areas of the fine arts, such as music, theatre arts, and the visual arts; and

l. Observation and student teaching experiences at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels.

3. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-270. Driver education (add-on endorsement).

The program in driver education shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Basic understanding of the administration of a driver education program as required by § 22.1-205 of the Code of Virginia and the Administrative Guide for Driver Education in Virginia 2010 (http://www.doe.virginia.gov/instruction/driver_education/curriculum_admin_guide/index.shtml) including:

a.Coordination Coordinating ] and scheduling of classroom and in-car instruction;

b.The Understanding the ] Board ofEducation Education's ] and the Department of Motor Vehicle's regulations governing driver education programs;

c.Student safety and other legal liability issues Managing student safety using route and lesson planning, appropriate training techniques, driving environments, speed, driving experiences, and constant monitoring ];

d.The Administering the ] juvenile licensing process;

e. Highway traffic safety and the driver licensing laws in the Code of Virginia;

f. Vehicle procurement, ] maintenance and safety equipment requirements;

g. The Department of Education's and the Department of Motor Vehicle's juvenile licensing forms;

h. Monitoring and oversight procedures that ensure the approved program meets state curriculum objectives, goals, and learning outcomes; the classroom and in-car hour requirements; and teachers have valid Virginia driver's licenses, acceptable driving records, and meet teacher licensureand/or and ] in-car instructor training requirements;

i. Promoting parent involvement;

j. Providing opportunities for ongoing professional development; and

k. Integrating classroom and in-car instruction when possible to maximize transfer of skills.

2. Understanding of knowledge, skills, and processes of classroom driver education instruction including:

a. Traffic laws, signs, signals, pavement markings, and right-of-way rules;

b. Licensing procedures and other legal responsibilities associated with the driving privilege and vehicle ownership;

c.The Ability to explain the ] effect of speed and steering on vehicle balance and control;

d.Communicating and interacting with Knowledge of performance characteristics of ] other highway usersand ability to apply problem-solving skills to minimize risks with ] (pedestrians, animals, motorcycles, bicycles, trucks, buses, trains, trailers, motor homes, ATVs, and other recreational users)in a positive manner ];

e.Managing of Facilitating students' ability to manage ] time, space, and visibility,and ] using perceptual skillsin the, and a ] risk management process;

f.Alcohol Ability to identify and analyze the physiological, psychological, cognitive, and economic consequences associated with alcohol ] and other drug use;

g.Passive Understanding proper use of vehicle occupant ] protective devices andactive restraint systems analyzing how they can reduce injury severity and increase collision survival ];

h.Vehicle controls, vehicle maintenance, vehicle functions, and vehicle malfunctions Recognizing how regular preventive maintenance reduces vehicle malfunctions and the warning signs that indicate the need for maintenance, repair, or replacement ];

i.Consequences Recognizing the consequences ] of aggressive driving,road rage, ] fatigue, distracted driving, and other physical, social, and psychological influences that affectthe ] driverbehavior and performance ];

j.Natural laws and environmental factors that influence the decision-making process Understanding of ] the effects of momentum, gravity, and inertia on vehicle control and balance, and the relationship between kinetic energy and force of impact ];

k.Adverse driving conditions and handling emergencies Ability to evaluate emergency-response strategies to avoid or reduce the severity of a collision in high-risk driving situations, and how technological advancements in intelligent handling and stability control systems affect driving practices ];

l.Planning a safe trip Knowledge about map-reading and trip planning technologies and evaluating personal transportation needs and their impact on the environment ];

m.Differentiating Ability to differentiate ] instruction based on a continuous learning cycle;

n.Using Knowledge of ] assessments that foster student learning to inform decisions about instruction; and

o. Using new and emerging instructional technology and media effectively to enhance learning.

3. Understanding of knowledge, skills, and processes of the laboratory phase of instruction including:

a.Simulation Utilizing simulation ] and other instructional technologies;

b.Multiple car Managing a multiple-car ] range;

c.Route planning and preparing for Designing ] sequential instructional performances that lead to effective habit formation;

d. Providing clear, concise instructions when describing the critical elements of a driving skill;

e. Correctly using occupant restraints and protective devices;

f.The Understanding the ] role of the driver and the observer;

g. Using commentary driving to determine visual search skills needed to identify and make risk-reducing decisions for safe speed and position;

h. Using reference points to gauge vehicle position and execute maneuvers with precision;

i. Selecting vehicle position to communicate or establish line of sight to targets;

j. Balancing vehicle movement through precise and timely steering, braking, and accelerating to manage vehicle weight transfer;

k. Applying visual search skills to manage risks in low, moderate, and high-risk driving environments;

l. Adjusting speed and space to communicate and reduce risks to avoid conflicts;

m. Preventing, detecting, and managing vehicle traction loss in simulated and adverse driving conditions;

n. Using vehicle braking, traction, and stability technologies;

o. Recognizing environmental factors that influence vehicle control;

p. Applying space management strategies to the front and sides and monitoring space to the rear;

q. Understanding the consequences of speed selection;

r. Dividing mental attention between intended path of travel and other tasks;

s. Demonstrating basic and evasive maneuvers and off-road recovery;

t. Recognizing understeer and oversteer, and the effects of traction, gravity, inertia and momentum on vehicle handling and control;

u. Controlling vehicle from instructor's seat;

v. Interacting with other roadway users in a positive manner;

w. Using manual transmission;

x. Developing precision in the use of skills, processes, and habits for approach to intersection, curves, turns, parking, turnabouts, backing, lane change, passing and being passed, getting on and off highways, and responding to emergencies;

y. Administering the driver's license road skills test and issuing the six-month temporary provisional license; and

z. Completing a debriefing with a parent or guardian that includes a reminder that the parent must ultimately determine readiness for a driver's license.

4. Guiding parents to provide meaningful guided practice including:

a. Understanding the juvenile licensing laws and the parents' role in the juvenile licensing process;

b. Determining the readiness of the child to begin learning how to drive in a car;

c. Planning and supervising the learner's permit experience;

d. Keeping a record of the meaningful supervised driving hours; and

e. Adopting a written agreement with the child that reflects expectations, defines rules and consequences, and allows the parents to progressively grant broader driving privileges.

5. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

6. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-280. Engineering.

The program in engineering shall ensure that the candidatedemonstrates has demonstrated ] the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the engineering discipline as defined in Virginia's high school engineering courses and how these provide a sound foundation for teaching engineering.

2. Understanding the nature of engineering design and analysis, including thefollowing ]:

a. Function of the engineering design process;

b. Methods used by engineers to generate, develop, and test ideas to meet design requirements;and ]

c. Role of failure in the engineering design process.

3. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching engineering, including the ability to:

a. Formulate instruction reflecting the goals of the engineering courses that are taught in Virginia high schools;

b. Design, prototype, test, analyze, and operate solutions to engineering challenges;

c. Implement laboratory and field safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

d. Organize key engineering content and skills into meaningful units of instruction;

e. Adapt instruction to diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

f. Evaluate student achievement, instructional materials, and teaching materials; and

g. Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance.

4. Understanding of content, processes, and skills of engineering, equivalent to an undergraduate degree in engineering, with course work in principles of engineering, engineering design, statics and dynamics, circuits, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, materials, ordinary differential equations, and linear algebra.

5. Understanding of basic chemistry, biology, Earth and space sciences, physics, and mathematics, including statistics and calculus, to ensure:

a. The placement of engineering in an appropriate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and interdisciplinary context;

b. The ability to teach the processes and organizing concepts of the natural and physical sciences to analyze successful and failed engineering designs; and

c. Student achievement in engineering.

6. Understanding of the contributions and significance of engineering, including:

a. Its social and cultural significance;

b. The relationship of engineering and its sub-fields(e.g. ],such as ] electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, bio-engineering,etc.) ] to the sciences, mathematics and technology; and

c. The historical development of engineering concepts and reasoning.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing, oral, and multi-media presentations.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-290. English.

The program in English shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of English as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning;

2. Skills necessary to teach the writing process and the different modes of writing( such as ] narrative, descriptive, expository, persuasive, and analytical) ] and to employ available technology;

3. Knowledge of grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes;

5. Understanding of the nature and development of language including vocabulary appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose;

6. Knowledge of reading strategies and techniques used to enhance reading comprehension skills in both fiction and nonfiction texts;

7. Knowledge of communication skills including speaking and listening skills and media literacy;

8. Knowledge of varied fiction and nonfiction from young adult, British, American, world, and ethnic and minority texts appropriate for English instruction;

9. The ability to provide experiences in communication arts, such as journalism, dramatics, debate, forensics, radio, television, films, and other media production;

10. Skills necessary to teach the analysis and production of media literacy;

11. Skills necessary to teach research including ethical accessing, evaluating, organizing, crediting, and synthesizing information; and

12. Knowledge of theVirginia ] Computer Technology Standards of Learning and their integration into English Language Arts.

8VAC20-543-300. English as a second language preK-12.

The program in English as a second language shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Skills in methods of teaching English as a second language to includethe understanding of the instruction based on the ] World-Class Instructionaland ] Design Assessment (WIDA) English Language Development (ELD) Standards;

2. Skills instudent assessment for English as a second language to include the Assessing Comprehension and Communication in English State-to-State for English Language Learners (Access for ELLs®) test designing and administering formative or classroom-based assessments and interpreting results of both formative and summative assessments, including the WIDA Access test. Using the results of a variety of formative assessments, including performance-based assessments of oral language and writing, to direct instruction. Ensuring that formative assessments reflect high validity and reliability for the purposes for which they are used and are appropriate for the targeted students. Teaching test-taking skills in preparation for standardized tests ];

3. Skills in the teaching of readingand writing ] to include(i) the five areas of reading instruction ]: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and text comprehension; (ii) similarities and differences between reading in a first language and reading in a second language; and (iii) a balanced literacy approach; pre-reading, during-reading, and post-reading strategies; vocabulary development; and guided reading. Ability to structure interactive tasks that engage students in using oral language to develop reading skills. Ability to determine students' reading levels and design instruction for multi-level classrooms by incorporating appropriate scaffolding or language supports ];

4.Skills in teaching grammar and syntax in the context of writing. Ability to model and teach editing skills and organization of writing using predominant text structures in the content areas;

5. ] Knowledge of the effects of sociocultural variables in the instructional setting;

5. 6. ] Proficiency in spoken and written English;

6. Understanding of second language acquisition 7. Skills in providing language and cognitive support or scaffolding bases on the various stages of the second language acquisition process ];

7. 8. ] Knowledge of another language and its structure;

8. 9. ] Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;and ]

9. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes; and ]

10. Knowledge ofboth general linguistics and ] English linguistics.

8VAC20-543-310. Foreign language preK-12.

A. The specific language of the endorsement shall be noted on the license.

B. Foreign language preK-12 - languages other than Latinand American Sign Language ]. The program in the foreign language shall ensure that the candidate has:

1. Demonstrated the following competencies:

a. Understanding of authentic speech at a normal tempo;

b. Ability to speak with a command of vocabulary, pronunciation, and syntax adequate for expressing thoughts to a native speaker not used to dealing with foreigners;

c. Ability to read and comprehend authentic texts of average difficulty and of mature content;

d. Ability to write a variety of texts including description and narration with clarity and correctness in vocabulary and syntax;

e. Knowledge of geography, history, social structure, and artistic and literary contributions of the target societies;

f. Ability to interpret contemporary lifestyles, customs, and cultural patterns of the target societies;

g. Understanding of the application of basic concepts of phonology, syntax, and morphology to the teaching of the foreign language;

h. Knowledge of the national standards for foreign language learning, current proficiency-based and performance-based objectives of the teaching of foreign languages at the elementary and secondary levels, elementary and secondary methods and techniques for attaining these objectives, the use of technology and media in teaching languages, current curricular developments, the relationship of language study to other areas of the curriculum, and the professional literature of foreign language teaching;

i. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

j. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes;

k. Knowledge of the assessment of foreign language skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing, and the differing types of assessments and their uses, including portfolio-based assessments, integrated performance assessments, and oral proficiency interviews; and

l. Knowledge of the characteristics of effective foreign language teaching, including the standards and key elements related to foreign language teaching as outlined in the Virginia Standards for the Professional Practice of Teachers.

2. Participated in opportunities for significant foreign language study or living experiences in this country or abroad, or both.

C. Foreign language preK-12 - Latin. The program in Latin shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Ability to read and comprehend Latin in the original;

2. Ability to pronounce Latin with consistent classical, ] or ecclesiastical, ] pronunciation;

3. Knowledge of the vocabulary,phonetics phonology ], morphology, and syntax of Latin and the etymological impact of Latin;

4. Ability to discuss the culture and civilization of Greco-Roman society, including history, daily life, art, architecture, and geography;

5. Ability to explain the relationship of Greco-Roman culture and civilization to subsequent cultures and civilizations;

6. Knowledge of major literary masterpieces and their relationship to the historical and social context of the society;

7. Competency in current methodologies for teaching Latin at the elementary and secondary levels; lesson planning; scope and sequencing of material; instructional strategies and assessment under the guidance of an experienced Latin teacher;

8. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

9. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes; and

10. Knowledge of the characteristics of effective foreign language teaching, including the standards and key elements related to foreign language teaching as outlined in the Virginia Standards for the Professional Practice of Teachers.

D. Foreign language preK-12 - American Sign Language. The program in American Sign Language shall ensure that the candidate has:

1. Demonstrated the following competencies:

a. Understanding of native users of American Sign Language at a normal tempo;

b. Ability to sign with a command of vocabulary, nominal behaviors, and syntax adequate for expressing thoughts to an American Sign Language user not accustomed to dealing with individuals who do not use American Sign Language;

c. Knowledge of history, social structure, and artistic and literary contributions of the deaf culture;

d. Ability to interpret contemporary lifestyles, customs, and cultural patterns of the deaf culture;

e. Understanding of the application of basic concepts of phonology(e.g. ],including ] hand shapes, location, palm orientation, and sign movements) ], syntax, and morphology to the teaching of the American Sign Language;

f. Knowledge of the national standards for foreign language learning, current proficiency-based and performance-based objectives of the teaching of foreign languages at the elementary and secondary levels, elementary and secondary methods and techniques for attaining these objectives, the assessment of foreign language skills, the use of technology and media in teaching languages, current curricular developments, the relationship of language study to other areas of the curriculum, and the professional literature of foreign language teaching;

g. Understanding of and proficiency in English grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

h. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes; and

i. Knowledge of the characteristics of effective foreign language teaching, including the standards and key elements related to foreign language teaching as outlined in the Virginia Standards for the Professional Practice of Teachers.

2. Participated in opportunities for significant study of the linguistics of American Sign Language and immersion experiences in the deaf culture.

8VAC20-543-320. Gifted education (add-on endorsement).

The program in gifted education shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of principles of the integration of gifted education and general education, including:

a. Strategies to facilitate the interaction of gifted students with students of similar and differing intellectual and academic abilities;

b. Development of activities to encourage parental and community involvement in the education of the gifted;

c. Strategies to encourage collaboration among professional colleagues, especially in the areas of curriculum and professional development; and

d. Strategies to collaborate and consult with general education teachers and other resource specialists on behalf of gifted students.

2. Understanding of the characteristics of gifted students, including:

a. Varied expressions of advanced aptitudes, skills, creativity, and conceptual understandings;

b. Varied expressions of the affective(, such as ] social-emotional) ] needs of gifted students; and

c. Gifted behaviors in special populations(i.e. ],including ] those who are culturally and linguistically diverse, economically disadvantaged, highly gifted, or have special needs or disabilities, including twice-exceptional students) ].

3. Understanding of specific techniques to identify gifted students using diagnostic and prescriptive approaches to assessment, including:

a. The selection, use, and interpretation of multiple standardized, norm-referenced aptitude and achievement assessment instruments;

b. The selection, use, and evaluation of multiple identification criteria and strategies;

c. The use of both formal and informal nonbiased measures to provide relevant information regarding the aptitude and ability or achievement of potentially gifted students;

d. The use of authentic assessment tools such as portfolios to determine performance, motivation, interest, and other characteristics of potentially gifted students;

e. The use and interpretation of reliable rating scales, checklists, and questionnaires by parents, teachers, and others;

f. The evaluation of data collected from student records such as grades, honors, and awards;

g. The use of case study reports providing informationconcerning regarding ] exceptional conditions; and

h. The roles and responsibilities of the identification and placement committee.

4. Understanding and application of a variety of curricular and instructional models, methodologies, and strategies that ensure:

a. The use of the Virginia Standards of Learning as a foundation to develop a high level of proficiency, academic rigor, and complexity for gifted learners in all curricular academic areas;

b. The acquisition of knowledge and development of products that demonstrate creative and critical thinking as applied to student learning both in and out of the classroom, including inquiry-based instruction, questioning strategies, and problem-solving skills;

c. The development of learning environments that guide students to become self-directed, reflective, independent learners;

d. The acquisition of tools to enable students to contribute to a multicultural, diverse society, including preparation for college and careers; and

e. The development of learning environments that recognize and support the affective needs of the gifted students.

5. Understanding and application of theories and principles of appropriately differentiating curriculum specifically designed to accommodate the accelerated learning aptitudes of gifted students, including:

a. Accelerated and enrichment opportunities that recognize gifted students' needs for advanced content and pacing of instruction, original research or production, problem-finding and problem-solving, higher level thinking that leads to the generation of products, and a focus on issues, themes, and ideas integrated within and across disciplines;

b. Opportunities for students to explore, develop, and research their areas of interest, talent, or strength using varied modes of expression;

c. Emphasis on advanced and complex content that is paced and sequenced to respond to gifted students' persistent intellectual, artistic, or technical curiosity; exceptional problem-solving abilities; rapid acquisition and mastery of information; conceptual thinking processes; and imaginative expression across a broad range of disciplines;

d. Evaluation of student academic growth and learner outcomes through appropriate multiple criteria, including a variety of pre-assessments and post-assessments; and

e. Use of current and advanced technologies to enhance student performance and academic growth.

6.Understanding the fundamental principles of differentiated curricula for effective program planning and evaluation, including:

a. Program design and development for gifted learners;

b. Research and topics for effective administrative arrangements, supervision, and program implementation;

c. Activities to encourage parental and community involvement in gifted education; and

d. Strategies for building an effective advisory committee.

7. ] Understanding of contemporary issues and research in gifted education, including:

a. The systematic gathering, analyzing, and reporting of formative and summative data from local, state, and national perspectives; and

b. Current local, state, and national policies, trends, and issues.

7. 8. ] Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in all forms of communication.

8. 9. ] Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

9. 10. ] The program shall include a practicum that shall include a minimum of 45 instructional hours of successful teaching experiences with gifted studentsin a public or accredited nonpublic school ].

8VAC20-543-330. Health and physical education preK-12.

The program in health and physical education preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of health and physical education as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learningincluding the following: ].

a. Competence in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities;

b. Knowledge of structures and functions of the body and how they relate to and are affected by human movement to learning and developing motors skills and specialized movement forms;

c. Demonstrate the aptitude, attitude, and skills to lead responsible, fulfilling, and respectful lives; and

d. Understand the importance of energy balance and nutritional needs of the body to maintain optimal health and prevent chronic disease. ]

2. Understanding basic human anatomy, physiology,and ] kinesiology, and exercise physiology ] needed to apply discipline-specific biomechanical concepts critical to the development of physically educated individuals.

3. Understanding of the basic scientific principles of human movement as they apply to:

a. Health-related fitness(, such as ] flexibility, muscular strength and endurance, cardio respiratory endurance, and body composition) ];

b. Skill-related fitness(, such as ] coordination, agility, power, balance, speed, and reaction time) ]; and

c. Analyzing and correcting critical elements of motor skills and performance concepts related to skillful movement and fitness.

4. Basic understanding of the administration and planning for a health and physical education program, including:

a. Differentiated instruction based on a continuous learning cycle;

b. Student safety, classroom management, injury prevention, and liability issues;

c. Standards-based curriculum and assessments that foster student learning and inform decisions about instruction;

d. The role of coordinated school and community health.

e. Utilizing school health advisory boards, local health departments, and other representative stakeholders for support for best practice; and

f. Increasing physical activity behaviors before, during, and after school.

5.Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of health education as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning, including:

a. Demonstrate the knowledge and skills to make healthy decisions that reduce health risks and enhance the health of self and others;

b. Demonstrate the ability to access, evaluate, and use health information, products, and services that influence health and wellness in a positive manner; and

c. Demonstrate the use of appropriate health practices and behaviors to promote a safe and healthy community when alone, with family, at school, and in other group settings.

6. ] Understanding of the essential health knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching developmentally and culturally appropriate health education content standards, including:

a. Health promotion and chronic disease prevention;

b. Mental, social, and emotional health;

c. Nutrition, body image, eating disorders, energy balance, and weight management;

d. Tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use prevention;

e. Safety and emergency care(, including ] first aid, CPR, AED, universal precautions) ];

f. Injury and violence prevention;

g. Consumer health and information access;

h. Communicable and noncommunicablediseases disease ] prevention and treatment;

i. Environmental health;

j. Personal, family, and community health;

k. Bullying prevention, resistance skills, and conflict mediation; and

l. Theories and models of behavior change and goal-setting.

6. 7. ] Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching physical education, including:

a. Articulated, sequential preK-12 instruction in a variety of movement forms that include:

(1) Functional fitness;

(2) Developmentally appropriate movement skills; and

(3) Movement principles and concepts.

b. Activities that meet the needs of the diverse learner;

c.Design Ability to design ] learning activities to help students understand, develop, value and achieve personal fitness;

d. Knowledge of human growth, development, and motor learning;

e. The relationship between a physically active lifestyle and health;

f. Knowledge of the cognitive, social, and emotional development through physical activity;

g.Incorporate Ability to incorporate ] strategies that promote effective physical activity learning environments;

h. Use of authentic, traditional, psychomotor, and fitness assessment methods;

i. The cultural significance of dance, leisure, competition, and sportsmanship; and

j.Demonstrate Demonstration of ] personal competence in motor skill performance for a variety of movement patterns, modeling healthy behaviors, and maintaining health-enhancing level of fitness.

7. 8. ] Understanding of and ability to design developmentally appropriate curriculum, instruction, and performance-based assessment that is aligned with the Virginia Standards of Learning for Health and Physical Educationincluding the following ]:

a. Develop a developmentally appropriate scope and sequence plan of essential health and physical education concepts, information, and skills based on the Virginia Standards of Learning;

b. Use the scope and sequence plan to develop performance indicators that describe the essential concepts and skills;

c. Use new and emerging instructional technology and media effectively to enhance learning;

d. Use research-based educational strategies to meet diverse learning styles and needs;

e. Adapt and create strategies best suited for delivering instruction in diverse settings;

f. Employ individual and cooperative group learning strategies;

g. Connect instruction to prior student learning, and to other curricular areas; and

h. Use evaluation to plan a continuous cycle of learning strategies that reinforce mastery of performance indicators.

8. 9. ] Obtaining, analyzing and applying health-related and fitness-related data to meet the cultural, social, growth, and development needs of the students and community:

a. Select valid and current sources of information and data;

b. Use computerized sources of information and appropriate data-gathering instruments; and

c. Analyze and interpret data and determine priority areas of focused instruction.

9. 10. ] Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

10. 11. ] Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-340. History and social sciences.

The program in history and social sciences shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of history and the social science disciplines as defined by the Virginia History and Social Sciences Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching history and the social sciences, including in:

a. United States history.

(1) The evolution of the American constitutional republic and its ideas, institutions, and practices from the philosophical origins in the Enlightenment through the debates of the colonial period to the present; the American Revolution, including ideas and principles preserved in significant Virginia and United States historical documents as required by § 22.1-201 of the Code of Virginia (the Declaration of American Independence; the general principles of the Constitution of the United States; the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom; the charters of The Virginia Company of April 10, 1606, May 23, 1609, and March 12, 1612; and the Virginia Declaration of Rights); Articles of Confederation; and historical challenges to the American political system;

(2) The influence of religious traditions on American heritage and contemporary American society;

(3) The influence of immigration on American political, social, cultural, and economic life;

(4) The origins, effects, aftermath, and significance of the two world wars, the Korean and Vietnam conflicts, and the post-Cold War era;

(5) The social, political, and economic transformations in American life during the 20th century;

(6) The tensions between liberty and equality, liberty and order, region and nation, individualism and the common welfare, and cultural diversity and national unity; and

(7) The difference between a democracy and a republic and other types of economic and political systems.

b. World history.

(1) The political, philosophical, and cultural legacies of ancient American, Asian, African, and European civilizations;

(2) The origins, ideas, and institutions of Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, Confucianism and Taoism, and Shinto, Buddhist, and Islamic religious traditions;

(3) Medieval society, institutions, and civilizations; feudalism; and the evolution of representative government;

(4) The social, political, cultural, and economic innovations of selected civilizations in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas;

(5) The ideas of the Renaissance and the Reformation, European exploration, and the origins of capitalism and colonization;

(6) The cultural ideas of the Enlightenment and the intellectual and political revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries;

(7) The sources, results, and influences of the American, French, and Latin American revolutions;

(8) The social and economic consequences of the Industrial Revolution and its impact on politics, culture, and the lives of everyday people;

(9) The influence of global ideologies of the 19th and 20th centuries(liberalism, republicanism, social democracy, Marxism, nationalism, Communism, Fascism, Nazism, and post-colonialism) ];

(10) The origins, effects, aftermath, and significance of the two world wars, the Korean and Vietnam conflicts, and the post-Cold War era; and

(11) The development of globalization and the growing interdependence and inter-relationship among countries and cultures in the world.

c. Civics, government, and economics.

(1) The essential characteristics of governments;

(2) The importance of the rule of law for the protection of individual rights and the common good;

(3) The rights and responsibilities of American citizenship;

(4) The nature and purposes of constitutions and alternative ways of organizing constitutional governments;

(5) American political culture;

(6) Principles of the American constitutional republic;

(7) The idea of federalism and states' rights;

(8) The structures, functions, and powers of local and state government;

(9) Importance of citizen participation in the political process in local and state government;

(10) Local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia;

(11) The structures, functions, and powers of the national government;

(12) The role of the United States government in foreign policy and national security;

(13) The structureof the and role of the local, state, and ] federal judiciary;

(14) The structure and function of the United States market economy as compared with other economies;

(15) Knowledge of the impact of the government role in the economy and individual economic and political freedoms;

(16) Knowledge of economic systems in the areas of productivity and key economic indicators;

(17) The analysis of global economic trends; and

(18) Knowledge of international organizations, both political and economic, such as the United Nations, International Court in the Hague, and the International Monetary Fund.

d. Geography.

(1) Relationship between human activity and the physical environment, the ways in which geography governs human activity, and the effects of human activity on geographic features;

(2) Use of maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information;

(3) Physical and human characteristics of places;

(4) Physical processes that shape the surface of the earth;

(5) Characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations;

(6) Patterns and networks of economic interdependence;

(7) Processes, patterns, and functions of human settlement;

(8) How the forces of conflict and cooperation influence the division and control of the earth's surface;

(9) Changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources;

(10) Applying geography to interpret the past and the present and to plan for the future; and

(11) Impact of geospatial technologies on the study of geography, physical and human.

2. Understanding of history and social sciences to appreciate the significance of:

a. Diverse cultures and shared humanity;

b. How things happen, how they change, and how human intervention matters;

c. The interplay of change and continuity;

d. How people in other times and places have struggled with fundamental questions of truth, justice, and personal responsibility;

e. The importance of individuals and groups who have made a difference in history and the significance of personal character to the future of society;

f. The relationship among history, geography, civics, and economics;

g. The difference between fact and conjecture, evidence and assertion, and the importance of framing useful questions;

h. How ideas have real consequences; and

i. The importance of primary documents and the potential problems with second-hand accounts.

3. Understanding of the use of the content and processes of history and social sciences instruction, including:

a. Fluency in historical thinking and geographic analysis skills;

b. Skill in debate, discussion, and persuasive writing;

c. The ability to organize key social science content into meaningful units of instruction based on historical thinking skills;

d. The ability to provide instruction using a variety of instructional techniques;

e. The ability to evaluate primary and secondary instructional resources, instruction, and student achievement;

f. The ability to incorporate appropriate technologies into social science instruction; and

g. The development of digital literacy skills while recognizing the influence of the media.

4. Understanding of the content, processes, and skills of one of the social sciences disciplines at a level equivalent to an undergraduate major, along with proficient understanding ofthe three ] supporting disciplines to ensure:

a. The ability to teach the processes and organizing concepts of social science;

b. An understanding of the significance of the social sciences; and

c. Student achievement in the social sciences.

5. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing and communications.

6. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

7. Skills necessary to teach research including use of primary and secondary sources, ethical accessing, evaluating, organizing, crediting, and synthesizing information.

8VAC20-543-350. Journalism (add-on endorsement).

The program in journalism (add-on endorsement) shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding the history and functions of journalism in American culture including the value of freedom of speech and of the press and the complexity of legal and ethical issues;

2. Understanding press law and ethics as it applies to scholastic media, including First Amendment-related rights and responsibilities;

3. Understanding of and experience in theory and practice of both print and nonprint media including design and layout production and the use of technology;

4. Possession of skills in teaching journalistic writing, interviewing, and editing for a variety of purposes, audiences, and formats;

5. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing and communications;

6. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes; and

7. Skills to lead student media and production, including an understanding of fiscal responsibility, conflict resolution, and time management.

8VAC20-543-360. Keyboarding (add-on endorsement).

The program in keyboarding (add-on endorsement) shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Possession of skills in fingering and keyboard manipulation techniques to model and provide touch keyboarding instruction;

2. Ability to provide instruction that allows students to develop touch fingering techniques in a kinesthetic response to the keyboard required for rapid, accurate entry of data and information;

3. Ability to provide instruction for current procedures in formatting documents;

4. Ability to provide instruction that allows students to develop proper keyboarding techniques based on ergonomics research to minimize future repetitive strain injuries;

5. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing and communications; and

6. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-370. Library media preK-12.

The program in library media preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Proficiency in teaching for learning, including knowledge of learners and learning; effective and knowledgeable teaching; collaborative instructional partners; integration of 21st century skills, learning standards, and technologies; assessment of and for student learning; and the design and implementation of instruction that engages students' interests and develops their ability to inquire, think critically, and gain and share knowledge.

2. Proficiency in literacy and reading, including familiarity with children's, young adult, and professional literature in multiple formats; use of a variety of strategies to promote reading for enjoyment and information; collection development to support diverse learning needs; and collaboration to reinforce reading instructional strategies.

3. Proficiency in information and knowledge, including efficient and ethical information-seeking behavior, ethical and equitable access to information, design and delivery of authentic learning through current and emerging technology, and the use of evidence-based action research to create and share knowledge.

4. Proficiency in advocacy and leadership, including networking with the library community, commitment to professional development, leadership in articulating the role of the school library program in the educational community and in student learning, and advocacy for school library programs, resources, and services.

5. Proficiency in program management and administration, including planning, developing, implementing, and evaluating library programs, collections, and facilities; personnel; funding; organization of materials; professional ethics; and strategic planning and program assessment.

6. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing in multiple formats.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-380. Mathematics.

The program in mathematics shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the Virginia Mathematics Standards of Learning and how curriculum may be organized to teach these standards to diverse learners;

2. Understanding of a core knowledge base of concepts and procedures within the discipline of mathematics, including the following strands: number systems and number theory, geometry and measurement, analytic geometry, statistics and probability, functions and algebra, multivariate calculus, discrete mathematics, and linear and abstract algebra;

3. Understanding of the sequential and interrelated nature of mathematics, the vertical progression of mathematical standards, and the mathematical structures inherent in the content strands;

4. Understanding of the connections among mathematical concepts and procedures and their practical applications;

5. Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - becoming mathematical problem-solvers, reasoning mathematically, communicating mathematically, making mathematical connections, and using mathematical models and representations - at different levels of complexity;

6. Understandingof the history of mathematics, including ] the contributions of different individuals and cultures toward the development of mathematics and the role of mathematics in culture and society;

7. Understanding of major current curriculum studies and trends in mathematics;

8. Understanding how to utilize appropriate technologies for teaching and learning mathematics, including graphing utilities, dynamic software, spreadsheets, and virtual manipulatives;

9. Understanding of and the ability to select, adapt, differentiate, evaluate, and use instructional materials and resources, including professional journals and technology;

10. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies for managing, assessing, and monitoring student learning, including diagnosing student errors;

11. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies to teach mathematics to diverse learners;

12.Knowledge of programming in at least two widely used programming languages, including definition, structure, and comparison;

13. ] Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing; and

13. 14. ] Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-390. Mathematics –Algebra algebra ] I (add-on endorsement).

The program in Algebra I shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the mathematics relevant to the content identified in the Mathematics Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching middle level mathematics through Algebra I, including:

a. The structure of real numbers and subsets, basic operations, and properties;

b. Elementary number theory, ratio, proportion, and percent;

c. Algebra, trigonometry, and analytic geometry: operations with monomials and polynomials; rational expressions; linear, quadratic, and higher degree equations and inequalities; linear systems of equations and inequalities; nonlinear systems of equations; radicals and exponents; complex numbers; arithmetic and geometric sequences and series; algebraic, trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, absolute value, and step functions; domain and range of functions; composite and inverse functions; one-to-one mapping; transformations between graphical, tabular, and symbolic forms of functions; direct and inverse variation; line and curve of best fit; conics; and recognition and application of trigonometric identities;

d. Calculus: applications of limits, differentiation, and integration;

e. Linear algebra: matrices, vectors, and linear transformations;

f. Geometry: geometric figures, their properties, relationships, and application of the Pythagorean Theorem; using deductive axiomatic methods of proof and inductive reasoning; perimeter, area, and surface area of two-dimensional and three-dimensional figures; coordinate and transformational geometry; constructions and applications of algebra in geometry;

g. Probability and statistics: experimental and theoretical probability; prediction; graphical representations, including box-and-whisker plots; and measures of center, range, standard deviation, z-scores, and simple and normal distributions; and

h. Discrete mathematics: symbolic logic, sets, permutations and combinations, functions that are defined recursively, and linear programming.

2. Understanding of varied pedagogical approaches to teaching algebraic concepts and their connected procedures.

3. Understanding of the connections among algebraic concepts, procedures, models, and practical applications.

4. Understanding of the sequential and interrelated nature of mathematics and the mathematical structures inherent in algebra.

5. Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - becoming mathematical problem-solvers, reasoning mathematically, communicating mathematically, making mathematical connections, and using mathematical models and representations - at different levels of complexity.

6. Understanding how to utilize appropriate technologies for teaching and learning algebra, including graphing utilities, dynamic software, spreadsheets, and virtual manipulatives.

7. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies for managing, assessing, and monitoring student learning, including diagnosing student errors.

8. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies to teach algebra to diverse learners.

9. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

10. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-400. Music education – instrumental preK-12.

The program in music education - instrumental preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the music discipline as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning and how they provide a necessary foundation integral to teaching instrumental music.

2. Understanding of the common elements of music - rhythm, melody, harmony, timbre, texture, dynamics, and form - and their relationship with each other and student academic needs and employing this understanding in the analysis of music.

3. Effective musicianship through the development of:

a. Basic skills in conducting, score reading, teaching musical courses, and rehearsal techniques for choral and instrumental music;

b. Skills in composing, arranging, and adapting music to meet the classroom needs and ability levels of school performing groups;

c. Skills in providing and directing creative experiences and improvising when necessary;

d. Proficiency, sufficient for classroom instruction, on keyboard or other accompanying instrument; and

e. The ability to perform in ensembles.

4. Knowledge and understanding of teaching music, including music theory; performance; music history and cultural context; analysis, evaluation, and critique; and aesthetics.

5. Knowledge of music history and literature with emphasis on the relationship of music to culture and the ability to place compositions in historical and stylistic perspective.

6. Knowledge of a comprehensive program of music education based upon sound philosophy, content, and methodology for teaching in elementary, middle, and secondary schools.

7. Specialization on a musical instrument and functional teaching knowledge on each of the string, brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments.

8. Competency in teaching rehearsing and conducting combined instrumental and vocal groups. In addition, the program shall provide instruction in business procedures, organization, and management of large and small instrumental ensembles.

9. Knowledge of vocal techniques in teaching, rehearsing, and conducting combined instrumental and vocal groups.

10. Knowledge and understanding of technological and artistic copyright laws.

11. Knowledge and understanding of classroom management and safety, including performance and studio.

12. Knowledge of a variety of instructional and assessment strategies to foster, support, and enhance student music learning.

13. Knowledge and understanding of technology, with applications for instruction, resources, artistic expression, administration, business procedures, assessment, and communication.

14. Knowledge and understanding of appropriate and sensitive attention to diversity and cultural understanding.

15. Knowledge of related areas of the fine arts, such as dance arts, theatre arts, and the visual arts.

16. Observation and professional laboratory experiences with pupils in elementary, middle, and secondary schools, including instruction of instrumental groups.

17. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

18. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-410. Music education – vocal/choral preK-12.

A. The program in music education - vocal/choral preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the music discipline as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning and how they provide a necessary foundation integral to teaching instrumental music.

2. Understanding of the common elements of music - rhythm, melody, harmony, timbre, texture, dynamics, and form - and their relationship with each other and student academic needs and to employ this understanding in the analysis of music.

3. Effective musicianship through the development of:

a. Basic skills in conducting, score reading, teaching musical courses, and rehearsal techniques for choral and instrumental music;

b. Skills in composing, arranging, and adapting music to meet the classroom needs and ability levels of school performing groups;

c. Skills in providing and directing creative experiences and improvising when necessary;

d. Proficiency, sufficient for classroom instruction, on keyboard or other accompanying instrument; and

e. The ability to perform in ensembles.

4. Knowledge and understanding of teaching music, including music theory; performance; music history and cultural context; analysis, evaluation, and critique; and aesthetics.

5. Knowledge of music history and literature with emphasis on the relationship of music to culture and the ability to place compositions in historical and stylistic perspective.

6. Knowledge of a comprehensive program of music education based upon sound philosophy, content, and methodology for teaching in elementary, middle, and secondary schools.

7. Specialization in the methods, materials, and media appropriate to the teaching of vocal/choral and general music at elementary, middle, and secondary levels.

8. Competency in teaching, rehearsing, and conducting choral ensembles and combined vocal and instrumental school groups. In addition, the program shall provide instruction in business procedures, organization, and management of large and small choral ensembles.

9. Knowledge of instrumental techniques in teaching, rehearsing, and conducting combined vocal and instrumental school groups.

10. Knowledge and understanding of technological and artistic copyright laws.

11. Knowledge and understanding of classroom management and safety, including performance and studio.

12. Knowledge of a variety of instructional and assessment strategies to foster, support, and enhance student music learning.

13. Knowledge and understanding of technology, with applications for instruction, resources, artistic expression, administration, business procedures, assessment, and communication.

14. Knowledge and understanding of appropriate and sensitive attention to diversity and cultural understanding.

15. Knowledge of related areas of the fine arts, such as dance arts, theatre arts, and the visual arts.

16. Observation and professional laboratory experiences with pupils at elementary, middle, and secondary levels, including instruction of choral groups.

17. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

18. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-420. Science – biology.

The program in biology shall ensure that the candidatedemonstrates has demonstrated ] the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, andprocesses practices ] of the four core science disciplines, including Earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics ] as defined in the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these provide a sound foundation for teaching biology.

2. Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, including thefollowing ]:

a. Function of research design and experimentation;

b. Role and nature of the theory in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

c. Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling, augmentation with evidence, and constructing explanations;

d. Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

e. Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity including peer review; and

f. Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

3. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching laboratory science, including the ability to:

a. Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

b. Implementclassroom, field, and ] laboratory safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

c. Conduct research projects and experiments including applications of the design process and technology;

d. Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

e. Organize key biological content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

f. Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

g. Evaluate instructional materialstechnologies, ] and teaching practices;

h. Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

i. Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance; and

j. Ensure student competence in biology.

4. Understanding of the content,processes, and ] skills, and practices ] of biology, equivalent to an undergraduate degree in biology, with course work in genetics, biochemistry/molecular biology, cell biology, botany, zoology, anatomy/physiology, ecology, and evolutionary biology.

5. Understanding of basic physics, chemistry( ] including organic chemistry) ], the Earth sciences, and mathematics( ] including statistics) ] to ensure:

a. The placement of biology in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

b. The ability to teach theprocesses skills, practices, ] and crosscutting concepts common to thenatural Earth, biological, ] and physical sciences;

c. The application of key principles in biology to solve practical problems; and

d. A "systems" understanding of the natural world.

6. Understanding of the contributions and significance of biology, including:

a. Its social, cultural, and economic significance;

b. The relationship of biology and other sciences to mathematics, the design process, and technology; and

c. The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-430. Science – chemistry.

The program in chemistry shall ensure that the candidatedemonstrates has demonstrated ] the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, andprocesses practices ] of the four core science disciplines of Earth and space sciences, biology, chemistry, and physics ] as defined in the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how they provide a sound foundation for teaching chemistry.

2. Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry including the:

a. Function of research design and experimentation;

b. Role and nature of the theory in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

c. Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling,augmentation argumentation ] with evidence, and constructing explanations;

d. Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

e. Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity including peer review; and

f. Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

3. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, andprocesses practices ] for teaching laboratory science, including the ability to:

a. Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

b. Implementclassroom, field, and ] laboratory safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

c. Conduct research projects and experiments including applications of the design process and technology;

d. Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

e. Organize key chemistry content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

f. Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

g. Evaluate instructional materials, technologies, ] and teaching practices;

h. Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

i. Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance; and

j. Ensure student competence in chemistry.

4. Understanding of content,processes, and ] skills, and practices ] of chemistry, equivalent to an undergraduate degree in chemistry, with course work in biochemistry, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, and analytical chemistry.

5. Understanding of basic physics, Earth science, biology, and mathematics to ensure:

a. The placement of chemistry in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

b. The ability to teach theprocesses skills, practices, ] and crosscutting concepts common to thenatural Earth, biological, ] and physical sciences;

c. The application of key principles in chemistry to solve practical problems; and

d. A "systems" understanding of the natural world.

6. Understanding of the contributions and significance of chemistry, including:

a. Its social, cultural, and economic significance;

b. The relationship of chemistry and other sciences to mathematics, the design process and technology; and

c. The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-440. Science – Earth science.

The program in Earth science shall ensure that the candidatedemonstrates has demonstrated ] the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, andprocesses practices ] of the four core science disciplinesof Earth and space sciences, biology, chemistry, and physics ] as defined in the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these provide a sound foundation for teaching Earth science.

2. Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, including the:

a. Function of research design and experimentation;

b. Role and nature of the theory in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

c. Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling,augmentation argumentation ] with evidence, and constructing explanations;

d. Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

e. Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity including peer review; and

f. Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

3. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and practices for teaching laboratory science, including the ability to:

a. Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

b. Implementclassroom, field, and ] laboratory safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

c. Conduct research projects and experiments including applications of the design process and technology;

d. Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

e. Organize key Earth science content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

f. Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

g. Evaluate instructional materialstechnologies, ] and teaching practices;

h. Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

i. Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance; and

j. Ensure student competence in Earth science.

4. Understanding of the content,processes, and ] skills, and practices ] of Earth science, equivalent to an undergraduate degree in geology, or a related area, with course work in structural geology, paleontology, petrology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy/space science.

5. Understanding of basic physics, chemistry( ] including organic chemistry) ], biology, and mathematics to ensure:

a. The placement of Earth science in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

b. The ability to teach theprocesses skills, practices, ] and crosscutting concepts common to thenatural Earth, biological, ] and physical sciences;

c. The application of key principles in Earth science to solve practical problems; and

d. A "systems" understanding of the natural world.

6. Understanding of the contributions and significance of Earth science, including:

a. Its social, cultural, and economic significance;

b. The relationship of Earth science and other sciences to mathematics, the design process, and technology; and

c. The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8VAC20-543-450. Science – physics.

The program in physics shall ensure that the candidatedemonstrates has demonstrated ] the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, andprocesses practices ] of the four core science disciplinesof Earth sciences, biology, chemistry, and physics ] as defined in the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these provide a sound foundation for teaching physics.

2. Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, including thefollowing: ]

a. Function of research design and experimentation;

b. Role and nature of the theory in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

c. Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling,augmentation argumentation ] with evidence, and constructing explanations;

d. Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

e. Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity including peer review; and

f. Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

3. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching laboratory science, including the ability to:

a. Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

b. Implementclassroom, field, and ] laboratory safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

c. Conduct research projects and experiments including applications of the design process and technology;

d. Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

e. Organize key physics content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

f. Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

g. Evaluate instructional materialstechnologies, ] and teaching practices;

h. Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

i. Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance; and

j. Ensure student competence in physics.

4. Understanding of content, processes, and skills of physics, equivalent to an undergraduate degree in physics, with course work in mechanics, electricity and magnetism, optics, and modern physics.

5. Understanding of basic Earth science, chemistry (including organic chemistry), biology, and mathematics to ensure:

a. The placement of physics in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

b. The ability to teach theprocesses skills, practices, ] and crosscutting concepts common to thenatural Earth, biological, ] and physical sciences;and

c. The application of key principles in physics to solve practical problems; and